ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 108
SANHEDRIN 106-110 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
(a) Our Mishnah Darshens the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Lo Yadon Ruchi ba'Adam Le'olam" - 'Lo Din ve'Lo Ru'ach' (in
connection with the Dor ha'Mabul) - that they will neither rise to be judged
nor to receive reward together with the Tzadikim in Olam ha'Ba).
(b) In the opinion of the Tana Kama, the people of S'dom will differ from
those of the generation of the Mabul - inasmuch as they will arise in order
to be judged, whereas the latter will not (see Rashash).
2. ... (in connection with the Dor Haflagah) "Vayafetz Hashem Osam" -
'ba'Olam ha'Zeh', "u'mi'Sham Hefitzam Hashem" - 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.
3. ... "ve'Anshei S'dom Ra'im ve'Chata'im la'Hashem Me'od" - "Ra'im",
'ba'Olam ha'Zeh'; "va'Chata'im", 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.
(a) In the Pasuk "al-Kein Lo Yakumu Resha'im ba'Mishpat, va'Chata'im ba'Adas
1. ... "Resha'im" refers to - the Dor ha'Mabul.
(b) Rebbi Nechemyah extrapolates from this Pasuk - that neither of the two
will even arise to be judged.
2. ... "Chata'im" to - the men of S'dom.
(c) The Chachamim retort - that the words "ba'Adas Tzadikim" written by the
men of S'dom, suggests that they will not arise to join the Tzadikim, but
they will arise to be judged.
(d) Rebbi Akiva Darshens the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Bamidbar ha'Zeh Yitamu, ve'Sham Yamusu" (in connection with the Dor
ha'Midbar) - "Yitamu", 'ba'Olam ha'Zeh"; "ve'Sham Yamusu", 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.
(e) Rebbi Eliezer, on the other hand, learns from the Pasuk ...
2. ... "Vatechas Aleihem ha'Aretz, va'Yovdu mi'Toch ha'Kahal" (in connection
with the congregation of Korach) - "Vatechas Aleihem ha'Aretz", 'ba'Olam
ha'Zeh'; "va'Yovdu mi'Toch ha'Kahal", 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.
1. ... "Isfu Li Chasidai Korsei B'risi Alei Zevach" - that the Dor ha'Midbar
are considered a pious generation, who are bound to receive a portion in
2. ... "Hashem Meimis u'Mechayeh, Morid She'ol va'Ya'al" - that even the
congregation of Korach will arise at Techi'as ha'Meisim.
(a) Rebbi Yehudah ben Beseira in a Beraisa interprets the Pasuk "Lo Yadon
Ruchi ba'Adam la'Olam" like we learned in our Mishnah. Rebbi Akiva
interprets the Pasuk - "Vayimach es Kol ha'Yekum", 'ba'Olam ha'Zeh';
"Vayimachu min ha'Aretz", 'la'Olam ha'Ba' (but they will arise to be judged,
according to him).
(b) We might also interpret "Lo Yadon Ruchi ... " to mean - that their
Neshamos will not return to their bodies (from the word 'Nadenah', meaning a
scabbard [and presumably, that is how Rebbi Akiva interprets it]).
(c) And Rebbi Menachem b'Rebbi Yossi says - that even when Hashem returns
the Neshamos to their bodies at the time of Techi'as ha'Meisim, the Neshamos
of the Dor ha'Mabul, which will have turned into fire, will burn their
(a) The Beraisa attributes the Dor ha'Mabul's arrogance to - the fact that
they had it too good. Hashem granted them their every need, and there was
nothing to disturb their peace of mind.
(b) This caused them to say to Hashem - that they had no need of Him or His
(c) Even His rain was superfluous, they claimed, because they had plenty of
rivers and fountains.
(d) Hashem's response was - that seeing as they used the source of His
blessings (the rain) to anger Him, He would use it to punish them.
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi, it was the fact that - the Dor ha'Mabul had
followed their eyes to indulge in their licentious pleasures, that caused
Hashem to punish them with water (which is similar to the surface of the eye
[see also Agados Maharsha]).
(b) According to Rebbi Yochanan, the Pasuk uses the expression "Kol Ma'aynos
Tehom *Rabah*" - because that is how their level of sinning is described
"Vayar Hashem Ki *Rabah* Ra'as ha'Adam".
(c) Three of the hot springs that Hashem used to punish the Dor ha'Mabul
remain, 'Belu'ah of Geder' and the large springs of Biram and - 'The Hot
Springs of Teverya'.
(d) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk "Ki Hishchis Kol Basar es Darko al
ha'Aretz" - to mean that the people would interbreed animals with beasts and
vice-versa, all species with people and people with all species.
(e) Rebbi Aba bar Kahana says - that all species of animals later stopped
this practice, except for the Sushalmi bird, which continued to interbreed
with all different species.
(a) The Dor ha'Mabul perpetrated every conceivable sin. Nevertheless, Rebbi
Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "Vayomer Hashem le'No'ach Ketz Kol Basar Ba
Lefanai Ki Mal'ah ha'Aretz Chamas mi'Panai" - that the last straw in the
eyes of Hashem was 'Chamas', which is synonymous with theft.
(b) 'Chamas' itself stood erect and announced before Hashem - that there is
nothing to be gained from them as individuals, as a community or from their
(c) Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael learns from the Pasuk "Nichamti Ki Asisim
ve'No'ach Matza Chein be'Einei Hashem" - that in reality, No'ach was
included in the decree, only he found favor in the eyes of Hashem.
(a) When the Pasuk writes "Vayinachem Hashem *Ki Asah es ha'Adam
ba'Aretz"* - it is referring to Hashem's having prepared a burial place for
man in the earth.
(b) When Rav Dimi arrived in Bavel, based on the Pasuk in Vayechi,
"va'Yanchem Osam Vayedaber al Libam" , he explained the Pasuk to mean - that
Hashem was comforted that he had done so (because mankind did not deserve to
live any longer.
(c) And others interpret it, based on the Pasuk "Vayinachem Hashem al
ha'Ra'ah Asher Diber La'asos le'Amo" to mean - that Hashem was sorry that He
had already prepared them graves, because perhaps if He were to give them
longer, they would relent from their evil ways.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan interprets "No'ach Ish Tzadik be'Dorosav" to mean that he
was only considered a Tzadik in his generation, but not in any other.
Whereas Resh Lakish holds - that if he stood out as a Tzadik in such an evil
generation, then how much more would he have stood out in a better
1. Rebbi Chanina draws an analogy between Rebbi Yochanan's interpretation
and a barrel of wine - which smells nice when it is lying in a cellar among
barrels of vinegar, but not when it is moved anywhere else.
(c) It is at first difficult to understand why Hashem destroyed the entire
world, even the innocent animals, because of man's sins. To explain it,
Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah therefore gives a Mashal to a wedding feast -
which, in the event that the Chasan dies, the father simply gives away,
because he has no more use for it. So too, did Hashem create the world,
including the animals, only for the sake of man. Consequently, once man
goes, He has no more use from the animals?
2. Rebbi Oshaya draws an analogy between Resh Lakish's interpretation and a
bottle of P'laiton (a type of strong perfume) - which emits a fragrant smell
even when it stands in a filthy place, and certainly when is stands among
(d) We infer from the Pasuk "mi'Kol Asher be'Charavah Meisu" - that the fish
did not die.
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi from Caesaria, No'ach ha'Tzadik warned the
people - that if they did not do Teshuvah, Hashem would bring on them a
flood and their corpses would float on the water, and what's more, they
would be an eternal symbol of curse from which the whole world would learn.
(b) When they asked him that, seeing as the hundred and twenty years grace
was over, why Hashem did not get on with it, he answered them - that a great
Tzadik was about to die, and Hashem was waiting for the seven customary days
of mourning to conclude (in the hope that the eulogies would bring them to
do Teshuvah [Rashi on the Parshah]) before bringing the flood.
(c) They replied to this - that they would not then clear the paths of the
vineyards and stop planting vines (see Agados Maharsha).
(d) When, during the hundred and twenty years No'ach rebuked the people with
words that struck like flashes of lightning, they reacted - by mocking him,
as we shall now see.
(a) When No'ach informed the people of the impending flood, they mockingy
dismissed the danger, assuming it was a flood of ...
1. ... fire - by assuring No'ach that they possessed a certain fireproof
ointment which they would apply as an antidote against the flood of fire.
(b) When Noach replied, that Hashem would bring a flood 'mi'Bein Ikvei
Ragleichem', he meant either that Hashem could create a flood from their
'Shichvas-Zera', should He so wish, or that he could cause water to flow
from their legs (and there wasn't much they would be able to do about it).
2. ... water from the underground fountains - by informing him that they
would pave them with metal plates which would stop the water from flooding
3. ... water in the form of rain from the sky - by telling him that they
even had an antidote for that in the form of sponge (see Agados Maharsha)
with which to prevent the water from spreading.
(c) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Nachon le'Mo'adei Regel" (besides the
previous D'rashah) - that the water of the Mabul was thick like semen.
(d) Hashem punished them with boiling water - because they sinned with
boiling water (semen, seeing as adultery was their most common sin).
(a) Rav learns from the seven days grace that the Dor ha'Mabul received
following Mesushelach's death - that a Hesped for a Tzadik postpones
punishment that had otherwise fallen due.
(b) According to others "Vayehi le'Shiv'as ha'Yamim" implies that Hashem
changed the laws of nature - by making the sun rise in the west and set in
(c) Others again, explain the seven day extension period by simple logic -
in that Hashem, in His mercy, fixed a long period followed by a short one.
(d) Whereas, according to still other opinions, Hashem utilized those seven
days to give the Dor ha'Mabul a taste of Olam ha'Ba - in the vain hope that
they would realize what they would be missing by not going there and do
(a) There is no such thing as Ishus with regard to animals - because one
male mates with a number of females.
(b) The Torah nevertheless writes 'mi'Kol ha'Beheimah ha'Tehorah Tikach
Lecha Shiv'ah Shiv'ah Ish ve'Ishto' - to preclude any animals that had mixed
breeds with others.
(c) According to Rav Chisda, No'ach knew which animals had cleaved only to
their own species, because the Teivah let them in. According to Rebbi Avahu,
he knew - because they came on their own initiative (which can only have
been Divinely inspired).
(d) Rav Ada Amri de'Bei Rav Shilo and Amri Lah argue over whether "Atzei
Gofer" (with which No'ach built the Teivah) was Mavliga or Gulmish. Rebbi
Yochanan explains the Pasuk "*Tzohar* Ta'aseh la'Teivah" to mean - that
No'ach should put up precious stones and pearls around the Teivah, as a
source of light, to illuminate the Teivah like the sun at midday
1. The roof of the Teivah had to taper off at one Amah on top - for the
water to drain. Otherwise, it would have sunk from the accumulation of
(b) According to Resh Lakish, the raven presented No'ach argued justiably -
that he was hated ...
2. The Teivah itself had three floors - the bottom floor for the rubbish,
the middle floor for the animals and the top floor as residential quarters
for No'ach and his family.
1. ... by Hashem, because He permitted seven Tahor birds to be taken into
the Teivah, but only two of the Tamei ones (to which category he belonged).
(c) When he suggested that No'ach was perhaps interested in his mate, No'ach
retorted - that if he was forbidden to his own species (and wife) for the
duration of the flood, how much more so somebody else's.
2. ... by No'ach, too, because he picked him for the mission of testing
whether the water of the flood had dried up, even though there were only two
ravens altogether to choose from, rather than one of the seven Tahor birds.
And what would have happened, he concluded, if he had succumbed to the heat
and the cold? Would he not have then caused one of its species to become
(d) Yochanan explains that the change of order between the Pasuk "u'Vasa el
ha'Teivah Atah u'Vanecha, ve'Isht'cha u'Neshei Vanecha Itach", and the Pasuk
"Tzei min ha'Teivah Atah ve Isht'cha, u'Vanecha u'Neshei Vanecha Itach" -
teaches us that from the moment they entered the Teivah until they left it
one year later, Tashmish was forbidden.
(a) The raven, the dog - and Cham performed Tashmish in the Teivah.
(b) Their respective punishments were - to spit in lieu of regular Tashmish,
to be bound on a leash, and to become black-skinned.
(c) Rebbi Yirmiyah extrapolates from the Pasuk "va'Yeshalach es ha'Yonah
me'Ito" that Tahor birds dwell with the Tzadikim - from the use of the word
"me'Ito" (which the Torah does not use in connection with the raaven). What
he means is - that Tahor birds recognize a Tzadik when they see one (see
also Agados Maharsha).
(d) Rebbi Elazar learn from the fact that the dove brought back specifically
an olive-leaf in its beak - that it was simply dropping a hint that it was
preferable to be fed bitter food directly from Hashem to being fed food
sweet as honey by human-beings (as it had been during the past year).
(e) He implies this from the word "Taraf" (which would otherwise be
translated as 'torn off' and) - which has connotations of Parnasah (as in
the Pasuk in Mishlei "Hatrifeni Lechem Chuki"), and "be'Fihah" means - that
it was asking for Parnasah from Hashem.
(a) When Rebbi Yochanan says (with regard to the "le'Mihpechoseihem Yatz'u
min ha'Teivah" 'le'Mishpechosam", 've'Lo Heim' he means - that in some
cases, it was only the families of the animals that entered the Teivah, that
left it, since, as Chazal have taught us, any animal that has no backbone
(such as the worm), cannot live for more than a year.
(b) Based on the assumption that "le'Mishpechoseihem" also pertains to the
fact that each species was fed individually in the Teivah, when Eliezer Eved
Avraham asked Shem (No'ach's son) how they managed, he replied - with great
difficulty, and he described how, depending on the animal's eating habits,
they would feed some animals by day, and others, by night.
(c) No'ach found out what the Zekisa ate, when one day - a worm fell from a
pomegranate that No'ach was peeling, and the Zekisa pounced on it and ate
(d) From then on, No'ach would prepare it a shrub that contained worms.
(a) The lion was fed - by its own fever (thereby circumventing the need to
kill and eat other animals, as it usually does.
(b) A fever dispels the need to eat between six and twelve days, according
(c) When Rav refers to 'Shita' and 'T'reisar', he might also mean - between
six or twelve months (though the first explanation is more feasible).
(d) When No'ach once found the Chol (a kind of bird) asleep in its cubicle,
and asked it whether it does not need to eat, it replied - that since No'ach
was so busy, he did not wish to disturb him.
(e) No'ach reacted to the Chol's reply by blessing it with longevity, and
indeed it lives forever.
(a) Rav Chanah bar Liva'i quotes a dialogue between Shem and Eliezer, where
Shem asked Eliezer - how he and Avraham had managed to defeat the four
(b) Based on the Pasuk "Mi He'ir mi'Mizrach ... Yiten Lefanav Goyim ...
Yiten ke'Afar Charbo ke'Kash Nidaf Kashto", Eliezer replied - that they
possessed this wondrous earth that they threw at the kings and it turned
into swords, and straw, which turned into arrows.
(c) Based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Mizmor le'David, Ne'um Hashem la'Adoni
Shev li'Yemini ad Ashis Oyvecha Hadom le'Raglecha", they obtained the
magical earth and straw - from none other than Hashem Himself.