ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 102
SANHEDRIN 101-103 (18 Teves) - dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to
honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi
(Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an
Iluy for his Neshamah
(a) The Navi Hoshe'a writes "ve'Shachatah Seitim He'emiku va'Ani Musar
le'Kulam". "ve'Shachatah Seitim" means - the Avodah-Zarah after which one
turns to Shecht in its honor.
(b) Interpreting the word "He'emiku", when Rebbi Yochanan says 'Heim
He'emiku mi'Sheli', he means - that Yeravam was more stringent than Hashem
Himself in threatening death by the sword to anyone who would go up to
Yerushalayim, when Hashem only rewarded those who do go with an Asei.
(c) And when Hashem said "va'Ani Musar le'Kulam", He meant - that He was not
as concerned about His Kavod as Yeravam was about his, since He only
threatened those who fail to go to Yerushalayim with Yisurin for
contravening an Asei (and Not Misah). Alternatively, the Pasuk means - that
their having turned away from Hashem caused them to sin even more intensely,
until they even slaughtered those who forsook the calves and went to
(d) When Achyah ha'Shiloni met Yeravam as he left Yerushalayim (after
rebuking Shlomoh) - he tore the latter's new cloak into twelve strips, a
sign that the twelve tribes of Yisrael were about to be split into two
kingdoms, which explains why the Beraisa quoting Rebbi Yossi, refers to that
incident as a time for punishment.
(a) Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "be'Eis Pekudasam Yovedu" (in connection with the destruction of
idols) - that there is a fixed time for punishment.
(b) When Rebbi Yossi makes a similar comment with regard to the Pasuk ...
2. ... Yeshayah "be'Eis Ratzon Anisicha" - that there is a fixed time for
1. ... in Ki Sisa "u've'Yom Pokdi u'Fakadti Aleihem Chatasam", he means -
that Tish'ah be'Av (see Agados Maharsha) was fixed as a time of punishment.
That is why so many calamities (including the destruction of both Batei
Mikdash) took place then.
(c) And about the Pasuk "Vayeilech Rechavam Shechemah", Rebbi Yossi said -
that Sh'chem was a place that was reserved for punishment. That is where -
Dinah was abducted, that is where Yosef was sold and that is where the
Kingdom of Yisrael was divided into two.
2. ... Vayehi ba'Eis ha'Hi Vayered Yehudah me'es Echav", he means - that
that time too, was fixed as a punishment (for Tamar and her two sons to be
burned, though that is not what ultimately happened).
(d) Rebbi Chanina bar Papa explains the Pasuk in Melachim "Vayetzei Yeravam
mi'Yerushalayim" to mean - that when he left Yerushalayim, he left behind
its legacy, too.
(a) According to Rav Nachman, the Navi refers to the new cloak that Yeravam
was wearing, to teach us that, like a new cloak, the Torah of Yeravam was
flawless. According to others - they discussed Divrei Torah the likes of
which had never been heard before.
(b) According to Rev Yehudah Amar Rav, the phrase "ve'Heim Levadam ba'Sadeh"
teaches us that all the Chachamim before Achiyah ha'Shiloni and Yeravam were
compared to the grass of the field (see Agados Maharsha). Others interpret
it to mean - that the reasons for all the Mitzvos were revealed to them like
the grass of the field.
(a) According to Rebbi Chanina bar Papa, when they crowned Yeravam, a
Heavenly Voice proclaimed - that since they had betrayed the dynasty of
David Hamelech, who killed Goli'as and gave them Gas as an inheritance ...
(b) ... Hashem would betray them and deliver them into the hands of their
(c) Rebbi Chanina bar Papi states that if someone eats without reciting a
B'rachah - it is as if he stole from his father (Hashem) and mother (K'neses
(d) When the Pasuk in Mishlei (written in connection with this Halachah)
concludes "Chaver Hu le'Ish Mashchis", it refers to - Yeravam ben N'vat (who
destroyed the direct link with Hashem that goes through Yerushalayim, and to
which the concept of B'rachos is similar).
(a) Based on the Pasuk "va'Yidach Yeravam es Yisrael me'Acharei Hashem
ve'Hechti'am Chata'ah Gedolah", Rebbi Chanin gives a Mashal to two sticks
(see also Agados Maharsha), where someone wielding one stick, hits a stick
held by someone else with force, causing it to fly a great distance through
the air and land far away against the will of the owner. So too, Yeravam
forced his subjects to remain far away from Hashem against their will.
(b) de'Bei Rebbi Yanai explain the Pasuk "ve'Di Zahav" (in connection with
the Golden Calf that they worshipped in the Desert) to mean - that it is
only because Yisrael had too much gold that they served the Eigel
(insinuating that, like the calves of Yeravam, Yisrael were not entirely to
(c) And they give a Mashal to a lion - who only roars from a box of meat
(when he is satiated), and not from a box of straw.
(d) Until now, they had to suffer for the sin of one calf, from now on, it
was two and even three. Rebbi Oshaya explains - that until now, they had
suckled from one calf ... (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) Based on the Pasuk "u've'Yom Pokdi u'Fakadti Aleihem Chatasam", Rebbi
Yitzchak says - that there is no punishment that comes upon Yisrael that
does not include a small fraction (a twenty-fourth) of the sin of the Golden
(b) The Navi Yechezkel writes "Vayikra be'Ozni Kol Gadol Leimor Kirvu
Pekudos ha'Ir ve'Ish K'lei Mashchaso be'Yado" - twenty-four generations
after the Eigel. The word "Pekudos" notice, is the same word that the Torah
uses in the Pasuk that we just quoted (in connection with Eigel ha'Zahav)
"u've'Yom Pakdi u'Fakadti" - because it was a prophesy that was about to
come true in an extreme manner.
(c) In fact, there were twenty-*seven* generations from the time of the
Eigel. However, Rebbi Yitzchak omits Yehoyakim - because he and Yeho'achaz
were brothers who belonged to the same generation, whereas Yehoyachin (son
of Yehoyakim) had barely begun to rule when he was sent into exile, and
Tzidkiyah his uncle, was the third brother of Yehoyakim and Yeho'achaz.
(d) The Pasuk writes "Achar ha'Davar ha'Zeh, Lo Shav Yeravam mi'Darko
ha'Ra'ah". According to Rebbi Aba "Achar ha'Davar ha'Zeh" refers to the
episode - where Hashem offered Yeravam a free pardon if he would do
Teshuvah, and he would be granted the privilege of walking together with
Hashem and David Hamelech in Gan Eden.
(e) He refused the offer however - when Hashem informed him that David
Hamelech (and not he) would be at the head.
(a) Rebbi Avahu undertook to cease Darshening the Sugya of the three kings
who receive no portion in Olam ha'Ba - when after doing so, he fell ill.
(b) He explained the fact that he resumed his D'rashos after he recovered -
by taking his cue from the kings themselves, who did not retract (so why
(c) King Menasheh appeared to Rav Ashi in a dream. He was cross with him -
because he referred to the kings as 'our colleagues'.
(d) To prove his superiority in learning, he asked him - which part of the
bread one cuts after reciting 'ha'Motzi', a She'eilah which Rav Ashi was
unable to answer.
(a) Rav Ashi promised that, if he would teach him the Halachah - he would
Darshen it the following day in his name.
(b) Menasheh taught him - that one cuts the part of the bread that has a
crust (and not from the middle [though some explain from the place which is
baked the best]).
(c) When Rav Ashi asked Menasheh how, if he was so advanced in learning, he
could possibly have served Avodah-Zarah, he replied - that so powerful was
the Yetzer-ha'Ra to serve idols that, had he been there, he would have
lifted the hem of his cloak, in order to run faster to get to them.
(d) On the following day, he referred to the three kings as - 'our Rebbes'.
(a) We Darshen the name 'Achav' as - 'Ach (Rasha) la'Shamayim, ve'Av
(b) The significance of 'Av la'Avodah-Zarah' is - that it describes the
depth of Achav's love for Avodah-Zarah. We learn the depth of a father's
love for his son from the Pasuk - "ke'Rachem Av al Banim".
(c) Achav was a far bigger Rasha than Yeravam (whose biggest sins were
(d) Nevertheless. the Pasuk constantly refers to Yeravam as the epitome of
evil ("like the sins of Yeravam who sinned and who made Yisrael sin") -
because he was the one to set the ball rolling (by introducing idolatry into
(a) Rebbi Yochanan learn from the Pasuk "Gam Mizbechosam ke'Galim al Talmei
Sadai" - that there wasn't a heap in Eretz Yisrael on which Achav did not
set up an Avodah-Zarah.
(b) And we learn from the Pasuk "ve'Hichrati le'Achav Mashtin ba'Kir
*ve'Atzur ve'Azuv* be'Yisrael" - that he lost both his portion in this world
("ve'Atzur"), and in Olam ha'Ba ("ve'Azuv").
(c) Omri and Achav merited sitting on the throne of Yisrael (the latter for
twenty-two years) - because the former built a city in Yisrael, whilst the
latter honored the Torah (as we shall see shortly).
(d) The name of the city that Omri purchased from Shemer for two Kikar of
silver was - Shomron (which soon became the capitol of Yisrael).
(a) ben Hadad, King of Syria, demanded of Achav- that, besides his silver
and gold, his wives and his most able sons, he must surrender "Kol Machmad
Einecha", by which he meant all his Sifrei-Torah.
(b) Achav replied - that he was ready to concede everything that ben Hadad
had asked of him, with the sole exception of the Sifrei-Torah.
(c) "Kol Machmad Einecha" cannot have referred to Achav's idols, we explain,
because the Pasuk describes how all the elders and all the people encouraged
him to refuse. And we ask that perhaps ''the elders" referred to here, were
Resha'im, like we find - in Shmuel, in connection with Avshalom, where the
Pasuk writes "va'Yishar ha'Davar be'Einei Avshalom u've'Einei Kol Ziknei
Yisrael (all of whom, Rav Yosef explains, were Resha'im).
(d) We answer - by referring to the words "ve'Chol Yisrael", mentioned here,
among whom there must have been some Tzadikim, who would have been only too
pleased to let ben Hadad take the idols away.
(e) We know that in Yisrael at that time - there were at least seven
thousand Tzadikim, who did not kneel to Ba'al.
(a) Rav Nachman learns from the Pasuk (in connection with finding a spirit
to entice Achav to go to war in Ramos Gilad, where he would be killed)
"Vayomer Zeh be'Choh, ve'Zeh Omer be'Choh" - that Achav's deeds were equally
balanced (i.e. he was a Beinoni).
(b) Rav Yosef asks on Rav Nachman however - from the Pasuk which describes
Achav as the worst of all the kings, whose wife Izevel (who herself would
weigh golden Shekalim to Avodah-Zarah every day, enticed him to follow in
her ways. So how could he be a Beinoni?
(c) And we answer - that Achav balanced this out with his generous nature,
which included benefiting Talmidei-Chachamim with his property.
(d) We already discussed the spirit of Navos ha'Yizre'eli in 'Eilu Hein
ha'Nechenakin'. He succeeded in luring Achav to the battlefield - by
entering the mouths of the false prophets and prophesying that he would
emerge victorious. Specifically the spirit of Navos volunteered - because
Achav had murdered Navos.
(e) Rav Papa cites the adage based on Navos' act and punishment (that he was
ordered to leave Hashem's presence for lying) 'de'Para Kineih Machriv
Beiseih' - meaning that vengeance is self-destructive.
(a) The Pasuk in Melachim records that Achav sinned more than all the
previous kings. According to Rebbi Yochanan, he even wrote on the gates of
Shomron - 'Achav denied the G-d of Yisrael. Therefore he has no portion in
the G-d of Yisrael', a proof that he sinned (not out of pleasure, but)
purely to anger Hashem ('Le'hachis').
(b) King Achazyahu too, ranks among the worst kings. He would - cut out the
Names of Hashem from the Sifrei-Torah and replace them with names of other
(c) 'Menasheh' is the acronym of 'she'Nashah Kah', which means - 'who forgot
(d) The Tana Kama of our Mishnah learns from the Pasuk (in connection with
Menasheh) "Va'ya'as Asheirah Ka'asher Asah Achav" - that just as Achav lost
his portion in Olam ha'Ba, so too, did Menasheh.
(a) According to Rebbi Yochanan, the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah (who holds
that Menasheh has a portion in Olam ha'Ba) learn their respective opinions
from the same Pasuk "u'Nesatim le'Za'avah le'Chol Mamlechos ha'Aretz
bi'Gelal Menasheh ben Chizkiyahu", which is coming to connect the terrible
punishments that await the kings at the time of the Churban, with Menasheh.
(b) According to ...
1. ... Rebbi Yehudah, "Hashem will severely punish the kings who followed
Menasheh - "because of Menasheh", who did Teshuvah and they did not learn
2. ... the Tana Kama, He will punish them - "because of Menasheh", who did
not do Teshuvah, and whose example they emulated.