ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 101
SANHEDRIN 101-103 (18 Teves) - dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to
honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi
(Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an
Iluy for his Neshamah
(a) The Beraisa states that someone who reads a Pasuk of Shir Hashirim as a
song (in any tune other than its special notes), or who reads a Pasuk during
festivities out of turn in order to jest with it - brings evil upon the
(b) When this happens, Torah puts on sack-cloth (so to speak), and complains
before Hashem - that His children have turned it into a harp on which
(c) When Hashem then asked the Torah what Yisrael should do whilst they are
eating, it answered that assuming they are ...
1. ... Ba'alei Mikra, they should - occupy themselves with Torah, Nevi'im or
(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in the name of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah
(quoting the Pasuk "Davar be'Ito Mah Tov") says - that someone who reads the
right Pasuk at the right time - brings good upon the world.
2. ... Ba'alei Mishnah - they should study Mishnah, Halachos and Agados.
3. ... Ba'alei Gemara - they should study Halachos that are relevant to that
time, such as Hilchos Pesach on Pesach ... .
(a) Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah includes 'Lochesh al ha'Makah' among the
things for which one loses one's portion in Olam ha'Ba. Rebbi Yochanan
qualifies this - by confining it to a case where one first spits, before
citing the Pasuk, and it is forbidden because one is not permitted to
mention Hashem's Name after having spat.
(b) The Chidush of 'Afilu ...
1. ... "Nega Tzara'as" ' (Rav) is - that even to cite a Pasuk such as "Nega
Tzara'as Ki Siheyeh ba'Adam ve'Huva el ha'Kohen" (which does not contain the
Name of Hashem) is included in the prohibition.
(c) The Beraisa permits the anointing of oil on one's stomach, and rubbing
it in, on Shabbos. This is not considered healing, which is forbidden on
Shabbos - because we are speaking about a healthy person, and anointing is
like drinking (which a healthy person is permitted to do).
2. ... "Vayikra el Mosheh" (Rebbi Chanina)" is - that even such a Pasuk,
which does even hint at a cure (and where one's intention is merely to
become cured through the merits of Torah) is forbidden too.
(d) The Tana - permits reciting an incantation to gather snakes and
scorpions to one place on Shabbos, to prevent them from causing damage. The
Chidush is - that it is not considered trapping.
(a) The Tana also permits passing a vessel over the eye on Shabbos (to cool
it down or to encircle it with a ring when it hurts). Raban Shimon ben
Gamliel qualifies this - by confining it to a vessel that is not Muktzah,
such as a key, a knife or a ring.
(b) He forbids however, consulting the demons to help him find his lost
article - because it contravenes the Pasuk in Yeshayah "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha
... " (an Isur de'Rabbanan, similar to 'Uvdin de'Chol').
(c) Rebbi Yossi, like whom Rav Huna rules, forbids it even on a weekday -
because it constitutes life-danger.
(d) To illustrate what Rebbi Yossi means, we cite an incident that took
place with Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef - who consulted a demon, who almost killed
him. Miraculously, he was saved when a cedar-tree opened up and allowed him
(a) The Tana permits anointing and rubbing in oil on Shabbos - provided one
changes from the regular routine.
(b) Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina requires that one first anoints and then
rubs it in (the reverse order of how one would do it during the week).
According to Rebbi Yochanan - it will suffice to do them both at the same
(c) The 'Sarei Shemen" and the 'Sarei Beitzim' are - demons whom one
consults by means of oil and egg-shells, respectively.
(d) Even though it is permitted to consult them, they stopped doing so -
because those demons would lie, proving themselves to be unreliable.
(a) One is permitted to rub in oil from the hand but not from a vessel -
because they would use the latter (but not the former) for their
incantations, making it dangerous to use on one's body.
(b) When Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak bar Marsa once took some oil from a jar
that they gave him in an inn and anointed his face with it - blisters grew
on his nose.
(c) In the market-place - a woman told him that his nose was 'bewitched' (by
the spirit of a demon called Cheimes). She recited the antidote to the
spell, and the blisters promptly disappeared.
(d) Rebbi Aba asked Rabah why, after stating "Kol ha'Machalah Asher Samti
be'Mitzrayim Lo Asim Alecha", the Pasuk in Beshalach needs to conclude "Ki
Ani Hashem Rof'echa". Quoting Rebbi Yochanan, he explained that what the
Pasuk obviously means is - that if K'lal Yisrael obey Hashem's commands,
they will not even become sick; whereas if they don't, they may well become
sick, but as the Pasuk concludes, Hashem will eventually heal them.
(a) When Rebbi Eliezer's Talmidim visited him, Rabah bar bar Chanah informs
us, he told them that there was burning anger in the world - meaning that
Hashem was angry with him, because he felt that his illness had taken a turn
for a worse.
1. The other Talmidim began to weep - because 'the Sefer-Torah' was in pain.
(c) When Rebbi Eliezer asked Rebbi Akiva what sin he had performed, that
required Kaparah, he replied -with the Pasuk in Koheles that Rebbi Eliezer
himself had stressed "Ki Ein Tzadik ba'Aretz Asher Ya'aseh Tov ve'Lo
Yecheta" (see Agados Maharsha).
2. Rebbi Akiva began to laugh - because until that time he was worried, that
as long as Rebbi Eliezer's wine, his flax, his oil and his honey were
prospering, and nothing went wrong, he was being paid for all his deeds in
this world (and would *not go to Olam ha'Ba*), but now that he was
suffering, he knew that *he would*.
(d) In another incident related by the Beraisa, the four Talmidim who went
to visit Rebbi Eliezer were - Rebbi Tarfon, Rebbi Yehoshua, Rebbi Elazar ben
Azaryah and Rebbi Akiva.
(a) The first three Talmidim all gave Rebbi Eliezer precedence over the most
important things in the world, Rebbi Tarfon over rain, Rebbi Yehoshua over
the planet sun, and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah over a father and mother. Their
common message was - that all these things only benefit people in this
world, whereas Rebbi Eliezer benefited them in Olam ha'Ba too.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer seemed to have been more intrigued by the two words of
Rebbi Akiva, who said simply - 'Chavivin Yisurin' (Yisurin are precious).
(c) In fact, he derived this from King Menasheh, son of Chizkiyahu Hamelech.
Menasheh, a wicked king (as we learned in our Mishnah) - ascended the throne
at the age of twelve, and reigned for fifty-two years.
(a) Chizkiyah Hamelech - wrote 'Mishlei'.
(b) If Chizkiyah went to such lengths to teach everybody else Torah (see
Maharsha), his son was nevertheless a Rasha - not because he excluded him
from his efforts to spread Torah, but because Menasheh remained unaffected
by those efforts.
(c) Menasheh remained cold to both his father's teachings and Hashem's words
of encouragement - and it was the terrible Yisurin referred to by Rebbi
Akiva earlier that caused his to do Teshuvah.
(d) Menasheh suffered unbearable Yisurin - at the hand of the King of Bavel
(see Agados Maharsha DH 'Shavyeih be'Duda').
(a) The Beraisa states 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah', Menasheh - Kayin and
(b) 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah' means - that they did not Daven for their
assumed rights (as they should have), but presented Hashem with an
(c) When Kayin said "Gadol Avoni mi'Neso", he meant - that if Hashem would
be able to forgive six hundred thousand people the sin of the Eigel, He
should surely be able to forgive his sin!
(d) The argument the Tana ascribe to ...
1. ... Eisav is - that his father surely was not short of B'rachos, that,
having blessed Ya'akov his brother, he could Not find a B'rachah for him,
2. ... Menasheh" is - that having turned in vain to all the gods to
alleviate his suffering, if the G-d of his fathers to whom he was now
turning would not answer his prayers, then He would prove Himself no better
than all the other gods.
(a) Aba Shaul in our Mishnah includes someone who pronounces the Name of
Hashem in the list of those who their portion in Olam ha'Ba. The Tana is
referring to the forty-two letter Name (that the Kohanim would use in
blessing Yisrael in the Beis-Hamikdash) See also Bartenura.
(b) When the Beraisa says 'u'vi'Gevulin' - it means outside the
(c) And when the Tana adds 'u've'Lashon Agah', he means - that one mentions
the name in a broken Lashon ha'Kodesh (like those who cannot pronounce the
language properly). 'Agah' is either a derivative of 'La'ag (meaning
mocking, or in a stammering way), or of 'Ugah' in the sense of gathering,
meaning the way groups of people who gather together to speak secular talk.
(d) This punishment will not apply to someone who pronounces the Name of
1. ... distinctly, outside the Beis-Hamikdash - only be'Lashon Agah.
2. ... in broken Lashon ha'Kodesh inside the Beis-Hamkdash (where the
Kohanim at least pronounce the Name correctly in the appropriate time).
(a) The Beraisa ascribes three possible meanings to 'Yeravam'.
1. 'she'Riva Am' means - who lowered the people (from 'Rivetz', to crouch)'s
(b) The third acronym contained in 'Yeravam' is - she'Asah Merivah Bein
Yisrael le'Avihem she'ba'Shamayim'.
2. 'she'Asah Merivah ba'Am' means - who caused a dispute among the people
(whether to accept his novel propositions).
(c) The Tana explain 'ben Nevat' to mean - that he (Yeravam's father) looked
(from the Lashon 'Hibit'), though he did not see well.
(d) Nevat was alias Michah and Sheva ben Bichri. His real name was Sheva ben
Bichri, and he was called Michah - because he was squashed ('Nisma'ech')
among the bricks of the building, from which Moshe extracted him.
Alternatively, as a hint that whoever deals into the building trade becomes
poor (from the Lashon 'Mach', meaning 'poor').
(a) Both Sheva ben Bichri and Achitofel backed Avshalom in his uprising
against his father David. The Siman symbolizing Malchus, that ...
1. ... Nevat saw, which caused him to err - was a fire emerging from his
2. ... Achitofel saw, which caused to err was - Tzara'as on his Milah.
1. Nevat's mistake was - that it was his son Yeravam who would rule, and not
(c) Sheva ben Bichri (and presumably Achitofel) expected that somehow, in
the course of the rebellion, Avshalom would perhaps be killed, and that he
would become king.
2. ... Achitofel's mistake was - that it was his granddaughter bas-Sheva who
would rule (as wife of David Hamelech) and not himself. No doubt, had they
known this, based on the principle 'Ein Adam Chotei ve'Lo Lo' (a person does
not sin on behalf of somebody else), they would both not have joined the
(d) Based on the Pasuk "Heimah Mei Merivah ... ", the third party to
misinterpret what they saw, according to Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina
interpret that Pasuk, was - the astrologers of Paroh, who foresaw that
Yisrael would be destroyed by the star 'Ra'ah', but which later turned out
to pertain to the Mei Merivah, which caused Moshe's death.
(e) We learn from the Pasuk (in connection with Yeravam) "Vayehi be'Davar
ha'Zeh le'Chatas Beis Yeravam, *u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid* me'Al P'nei
ha'Adamah" - that Yeravam was punished in this world ("u'le'Hach'chid") as
well as osing his portion in Olam ha'Ba ("u'le'Hashmid").