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Sanhedrin 101

SANHEDRIN 101-103 (18 Teves) - dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner). May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah



(a) The Beraisa states that someone who reads a Pasuk of Shir Hashirim as a song (in any tune other than its special notes), or who reads a Pasuk during festivities out of turn in order to jest with it - brings evil upon the world.

(b) When this happens, Torah puts on sack-cloth (so to speak), and complains before Hashem - that His children have turned it into a harp on which jesters play.

(c) When Hashem then asked the Torah what Yisrael should do whilst they are eating, it answered that assuming they are ...

1. ... Ba'alei Mikra, they should - occupy themselves with Torah, Nevi'im or Kesuvim.
2. ... Ba'alei Mishnah - they should study Mishnah, Halachos and Agados.
3. ... Ba'alei Gemara - they should study Halachos that are relevant to that time, such as Hilchos Pesach on Pesach ... .
(d) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in the name of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Chananyah (quoting the Pasuk "Davar be'Ito Mah Tov") says - that someone who reads the right Pasuk at the right time - brings good upon the world.
(a) Rebbi Akiva in our Mishnah includes 'Lochesh al ha'Makah' among the things for which one loses one's portion in Olam ha'Ba. Rebbi Yochanan qualifies this - by confining it to a case where one first spits, before citing the Pasuk, and it is forbidden because one is not permitted to mention Hashem's Name after having spat.

(b) The Chidush of 'Afilu ...

1. ... "Nega Tzara'as" ' (Rav) is - that even to cite a Pasuk such as "Nega Tzara'as Ki Siheyeh ba'Adam ve'Huva el ha'Kohen" (which does not contain the Name of Hashem) is included in the prohibition.
2. ... "Vayikra el Mosheh" (Rebbi Chanina)" is - that even such a Pasuk, which does even hint at a cure (and where one's intention is merely to become cured through the merits of Torah) is forbidden too.
(c) The Beraisa permits the anointing of oil on one's stomach, and rubbing it in, on Shabbos. This is not considered healing, which is forbidden on Shabbos - because we are speaking about a healthy person, and anointing is like drinking (which a healthy person is permitted to do).

(d) The Tana - permits reciting an incantation to gather snakes and scorpions to one place on Shabbos, to prevent them from causing damage. The Chidush is - that it is not considered trapping.

(a) The Tana also permits passing a vessel over the eye on Shabbos (to cool it down or to encircle it with a ring when it hurts). Raban Shimon ben Gamliel qualifies this - by confining it to a vessel that is not Muktzah, such as a key, a knife or a ring.

(b) He forbids however, consulting the demons to help him find his lost article - because it contravenes the Pasuk in Yeshayah "mi'Metzo Cheftzecha ... " (an Isur de'Rabbanan, similar to 'Uvdin de'Chol').

(c) Rebbi Yossi, like whom Rav Huna rules, forbids it even on a weekday - because it constitutes life-danger.

(d) To illustrate what Rebbi Yossi means, we cite an incident that took place with Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef - who consulted a demon, who almost killed him. Miraculously, he was saved when a cedar-tree opened up and allowed him to enter.

(a) The Tana permits anointing and rubbing in oil on Shabbos - provided one changes from the regular routine.

(b) Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina requires that one first anoints and then rubs it in (the reverse order of how one would do it during the week). According to Rebbi Yochanan - it will suffice to do them both at the same time.

(c) The 'Sarei Shemen" and the 'Sarei Beitzim' are - demons whom one consults by means of oil and egg-shells, respectively.

(d) Even though it is permitted to consult them, they stopped doing so - because those demons would lie, proving themselves to be unreliable.

(a) One is permitted to rub in oil from the hand but not from a vessel - because they would use the latter (but not the former) for their incantations, making it dangerous to use on one's body.

(b) When Rav Shmuel bar Yitzchak bar Marsa once took some oil from a jar that they gave him in an inn and anointed his face with it - blisters grew on his nose.

(c) In the market-place - a woman told him that his nose was 'bewitched' (by the spirit of a demon called Cheimes). She recited the antidote to the spell, and the blisters promptly disappeared.

(d) Rebbi Aba asked Rabah why, after stating "Kol ha'Machalah Asher Samti be'Mitzrayim Lo Asim Alecha", the Pasuk in Beshalach needs to conclude "Ki Ani Hashem Rof'echa". Quoting Rebbi Yochanan, he explained that what the Pasuk obviously means is - that if K'lal Yisrael obey Hashem's commands, they will not even become sick; whereas if they don't, they may well become sick, but as the Pasuk concludes, Hashem will eventually heal them.

(a) When Rebbi Eliezer's Talmidim visited him, Rabah bar bar Chanah informs us, he told them that there was burning anger in the world - meaning that Hashem was angry with him, because he felt that his illness had taken a turn for a worse.


1. The other Talmidim began to weep - because 'the Sefer-Torah' was in pain.
2. Rebbi Akiva began to laugh - because until that time he was worried, that as long as Rebbi Eliezer's wine, his flax, his oil and his honey were prospering, and nothing went wrong, he was being paid for all his deeds in this world (and would *not go to Olam ha'Ba*), but now that he was suffering, he knew that *he would*.
(c) When Rebbi Eliezer asked Rebbi Akiva what sin he had performed, that required Kaparah, he replied -with the Pasuk in Koheles that Rebbi Eliezer himself had stressed "Ki Ein Tzadik ba'Aretz Asher Ya'aseh Tov ve'Lo Yecheta" (see Agados Maharsha).

(d) In another incident related by the Beraisa, the four Talmidim who went to visit Rebbi Eliezer were - Rebbi Tarfon, Rebbi Yehoshua, Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah and Rebbi Akiva.

(a) The first three Talmidim all gave Rebbi Eliezer precedence over the most important things in the world, Rebbi Tarfon over rain, Rebbi Yehoshua over the planet sun, and Rebbi Elazar ben Azaryah over a father and mother. Their common message was - that all these things only benefit people in this world, whereas Rebbi Eliezer benefited them in Olam ha'Ba too.

(b) Rebbi Eliezer seemed to have been more intrigued by the two words of Rebbi Akiva, who said simply - 'Chavivin Yisurin' (Yisurin are precious).

(c) In fact, he derived this from King Menasheh, son of Chizkiyahu Hamelech. Menasheh, a wicked king (as we learned in our Mishnah) - ascended the throne at the age of twelve, and reigned for fifty-two years.

(a) Chizkiyah Hamelech - wrote 'Mishlei'.

(b) If Chizkiyah went to such lengths to teach everybody else Torah (see Maharsha), his son was nevertheless a Rasha - not because he excluded him from his efforts to spread Torah, but because Menasheh remained unaffected by those efforts.

(c) Menasheh remained cold to both his father's teachings and Hashem's words of encouragement - and it was the terrible Yisurin referred to by Rebbi Akiva earlier that caused his to do Teshuvah.

(d) Menasheh suffered unbearable Yisurin - at the hand of the King of Bavel (see Agados Maharsha DH 'Shavyeih be'Duda').




(a) The Beraisa states 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah', Menasheh - Kayin and Eisav.

(b) 'Sheloshah Ba'u ba'Alilah' means - that they did not Daven for their assumed rights (as they should have), but presented Hashem with an irrefutable claim.

(c) When Kayin said "Gadol Avoni mi'Neso", he meant - that if Hashem would be able to forgive six hundred thousand people the sin of the Eigel, He should surely be able to forgive his sin!

(d) The argument the Tana ascribe to ...

1. ... Eisav is - that his father surely was not short of B'rachos, that, having blessed Ya'akov his brother, he could Not find a B'rachah for him, too!
2. ... Menasheh" is - that having turned in vain to all the gods to alleviate his suffering, if the G-d of his fathers to whom he was now turning would not answer his prayers, then He would prove Himself no better than all the other gods.
(a) Aba Shaul in our Mishnah includes someone who pronounces the Name of Hashem in the list of those who their portion in Olam ha'Ba. The Tana is referring to the forty-two letter Name (that the Kohanim would use in blessing Yisrael in the Beis-Hamikdash) See also Bartenura.

(b) When the Beraisa says 'u'vi'Gevulin' - it means outside the Beis-Hamikdash.

(c) And when the Tana adds 'u've'Lashon Agah', he means - that one mentions the name in a broken Lashon ha'Kodesh (like those who cannot pronounce the language properly). 'Agah' is either a derivative of 'La'ag (meaning mocking, or in a stammering way), or of 'Ugah' in the sense of gathering, meaning the way groups of people who gather together to speak secular talk.

(d) This punishment will not apply to someone who pronounces the Name of Hashem ...

1. ... distinctly, outside the Beis-Hamikdash - only be'Lashon Agah.
2. ... in broken Lashon ha'Kodesh inside the Beis-Hamkdash (where the Kohanim at least pronounce the Name correctly in the appropriate time).
(a) The Beraisa ascribes three possible meanings to 'Yeravam'.
1. 'she'Riva Am' means - who lowered the people (from 'Rivetz', to crouch)'s dignity.
2. 'she'Asah Merivah ba'Am' means - who caused a dispute among the people (whether to accept his novel propositions).
(b) The third acronym contained in 'Yeravam' is - she'Asah Merivah Bein Yisrael le'Avihem she'ba'Shamayim'.

(c) The Tana explain 'ben Nevat' to mean - that he (Yeravam's father) looked (from the Lashon 'Hibit'), though he did not see well.

(d) Nevat was alias Michah and Sheva ben Bichri. His real name was Sheva ben Bichri, and he was called Michah - because he was squashed ('Nisma'ech') among the bricks of the building, from which Moshe extracted him. Alternatively, as a hint that whoever deals into the building trade becomes poor (from the Lashon 'Mach', meaning 'poor').

(a) Both Sheva ben Bichri and Achitofel backed Avshalom in his uprising against his father David. The Siman symbolizing Malchus, that ...
1. ... Nevat saw, which caused him to err - was a fire emerging from his Milah.
2. ... Achitofel saw, which caused to err was - Tzara'as on his Milah.
1. Nevat's mistake was - that it was his son Yeravam who would rule, and not himself
2. ... Achitofel's mistake was - that it was his granddaughter bas-Sheva who would rule (as wife of David Hamelech) and not himself. No doubt, had they known this, based on the principle 'Ein Adam Chotei ve'Lo Lo' (a person does not sin on behalf of somebody else), they would both not have joined the rebellion.
(c) Sheva ben Bichri (and presumably Achitofel) expected that somehow, in the course of the rebellion, Avshalom would perhaps be killed, and that he would become king.

(d) Based on the Pasuk "Heimah Mei Merivah ... ", the third party to misinterpret what they saw, according to Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina interpret that Pasuk, was - the astrologers of Paroh, who foresaw that Yisrael would be destroyed by the star 'Ra'ah', but which later turned out to pertain to the Mei Merivah, which caused Moshe's death.

(e) We learn from the Pasuk (in connection with Yeravam) "Vayehi be'Davar ha'Zeh le'Chatas Beis Yeravam, *u'le'Hach'chid u'le'Hashmid* me'Al P'nei ha'Adamah" - that Yeravam was punished in this world ("u'le'Hach'chid") as well as osing his portion in Olam ha'Ba ("u'le'Hashmid").

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