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Sanhedrin 100

SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah



(a) Rav Papa adds a third interpretation of 'Apikores'. When he says 'K'gon de'Amar Hanahu Rabbanan' (or Hani Rabbanan), he meant that such a Lashon denigrates the Chachamim. What one ought to say is - 'Raboseinu she'ba'Makom Peloni' (or 'Hanahu Rabanan').

(b) When he once forgot and said 'K'gon Hani Rabbanan' - he fasted.

(a) Levi bar Shmuel and Rav Huna bar Chiya were once making covers for the Sifrei T'nach, in the presence of Rav Yehudah, when someone brought them a Megilas Esther for that very purpose.

(b) When they said 'Ha Megilas Esther Lo Ba'i Mitpachas (see Agados Maharsha), 'Rav Yehudah retorted - that this too, was akin to Apikosus ...

(c) ... because, although their words were meant as a question, and not as a statement, in deference to Rav Yehudah, they should have asked him whether a Megilah requires a cloth or not (without intimating the answer).

(d) Rav Nachman's interpretation of 'Apikores' conforms with a statement of Rebbi Yochanan, who commented on the Pasuk "Va'yomer Gechazi Adoni ha'Melech, Zos ha'Ishah ve'Zeh B'nah Asher Elisha" - that it was because Gechazi called his Rebbi by his name that he was punished.

(a) Based on a Pasuk in Yechezkel, Rebbi Yirmiyah stated in front of Rebbi Zeira that a river would flow from the Kodesh Kodshim - on the banks of which all form of delicacies would grow.

(b) The Pasuk writes that the fruit-trees (as well as the fruit and the leaves) will never whither. The Navi says further that ...

1. ... the fruit will ripen once a month, and that it will for consumption, whereas ...
2. ... the leaves - will be for healing.
(c) When that old man said 'Ye'yasher' adding 'And that's what Rebbi Yochanan said too' Rebbi Yirmiyah commented - that this also resembled Apikorsus (because Rebbi Yirmiyah's statement did not need to be corroborated).

(d) Rebbi Zeira replied however - that to bring a proof for one's Rebbe does not constitute Apikorsus. (If anything does, it is disbelieving him, as we shall now see).

(a) What Rebbi Yirmiyah might have heard (to be Apikorsus) was a case such as the following one. Based on the Pasuk ", u'She'arayich Avnei Ekdach", Rebbi Yochanan stated that Hashem is going to bring precious stones (carbuncle) measuring thirty Amos by thirty Amos - out of which He is going to carve an entrance ten Amos by twenty Amos high, and place them in the gates of Yerushalayim.

(b) That Talmid scoffed at his words - because to find a carbuncle the size of a little bird is inconceivable, let alone stones of such dimensions.

(c) He changed his mind however - when traveling at sea one day, he saw angels cutting precious stones of exactly that size and they told him that in time to come, Hashem would carve the gates of Yerushalayim in them.

(d) When, based on what he had seen, the Talmid subsequently endorsed his statement, Rebbi Yochanan reacted - by referring to him as one who mocks the words of the Chachamim. Placing his eye on him', he then turned him into a pile of bones.

(a) Rebbi Meir interprets the Pasuk "va'Olech Eschem Komemiyus" - to mean twice the height of Adam ha'Rishon (whom Hashem diminished to a height of one hundred Amos.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah says that the people will be only as tall as the length of the Heichal (of the first Beis-Hamikdash [based on the Pasuk in Tehilim "Asher Baneinu ki'Neti'im ... Mechutavos Tavnis Heichal"]), which was one hundred Amos tall.

(c) Alternatively, Rebbi Yehudah was referring - to the height of the second Beis-Hamikdash, which was a hundred Amos tall.

(d) We reconcile this with Rebbi Yochanan, who gives the height of the gates as only twenty Amos - by establishing the cuttings in the stones to be (not for the purpose of the entrance, as we originally thought, but) for the purpose of windows, to let in the light and the air.

(a) We learned earlier that the leaves will be used for healing purposes. According to Chizkiyah, this means to cure the dumb. bar Kapara interprets it with regard to - curing the barren.

(b) Rav Yitzchak bar Avudimi and Rav Chisda also argue over the healing powers of the leaves; one of them says 'Le'hatir Peh shel Ma'alah', the other, 'Le'hatir Peh shel Matah'. ...

1. ... 'Le'hatir Peh shel Ma'alah means - to cure the dumb (like Chizkiyah).
2. ... 'Le'hatir Peh shel Matah' - to cure the barren (like bar Kapara).
(c) Rebbi Yochanan learns 'li'Terufah Mamash', which Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni interprets as - to beautify the faces of the Talmidei-Chachamim (to conform with what we are about to learn).

(d) A Talmid-Chacham who ...

1. ... 'blackens his face' for Torah (see Agados Maharsha) in this world will merit that his face will shine in the World to Come (to Rebbi Yehudah b'Rebbi Simon).
2. ... starves himself in order to study Torah in this world - will be satisfied in the World to Come (Rebbi Tanchum bar Chanila'i).
(a) When Rav Dimi came from Eretz Yisrael and said that Hashem will give each and every Tzadik 'M'lo Omso', he meant that Hashem will give each of them His own handful of goodness.

(b) Based on the Pasuk "Mi Madad be'Sha'alo Mayim, ve'Shamayim ba'Zeres Tikein", Abaye objected to this on the grounds that - if Hashem's thumb and span incorporate the entire expanse of water and the sky, respectively, how can a person possibly receive Hashem's Handful?

(c) According to Rav Dimi, to learn the answer to his question - Abaye should have attended the Agadah Shiur.

(d) They quote at the Shiur in the name of the B'nei Eretz Yisrael quoting Rava bar Mari, based on the Pasuk "Le'hanchil Ohavai *Yesh*, ve'Otzroseihem Amalei" (though this is actually the last Mishnah in Uktzin) - that Hashem is going to give each and every Tzadik three hundred and ten worlds (the numerical value of "Yesh").

(e) This resolves Abaye's problem - because it provides a vast storehouse for the Talmid-Chacham to place Hashem's Handful.

(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "be'Sa'asah be'Shalchah Terivenah" - the principle of Midah Keneged Midah'.

(b) On the understanding that Hashem therefore pays a person for the handful that he gave a poor man in this world with His own Handful in the World to Come, Rebbi objects to this explanation - on the basis of the Pasuk "Mi Madad be'Sha'alo Mayim, ve'Shamayim ba'Zeres Tikein" (like Abaye asked Rav Dimi earlier).

(c) Rebbi Yehudah answered Rebbi's Kashya based on the principle 'Midah Tovah Merubah mi'Midas Pur'anus'. He derives this from the Pasuk "va'Yetzav Shechakim mi'Ma'al ve'Dalsei Shamayim Pasach, va'Yamter Aleihem Man Le'echol". With regard to the Mabul, the Pasuk in No'ach uses the Lashon "Arubos" (skylight, of which there would be four in a door), which was much smaller than a door.

(d) To finally resolves Rebbi's problem, he cites the Pasuk (in connection with the corpses of the Resha'im) "ve'Isham Lo Sichbeh". Seeing as when a person places his finger in the fire, it gets burned immediately, how can the Resha'im continue to burn indefinitely? The answer is - that Hashem will give the Resha'im the strength to continue to burn (even when they would normally have become a burned-out cinder). And if this is true of punishments, it is certainly true of rewards (as we just explained).




(a) We learned in our Mishnah that someone who reads Sefarim ha'Chitzonim loses his portion in Olam ha'Ba. According to the Beraisa, this refers to books written by Tzedokim - because they deny the living G-d.

(b) Rav Yosef forbids reading the Book of ben Sira - because it contains facts that are of no significance (and therefore constitute Bitul Torah.

(c) ben Sira - advises one against skinning a fish even from its ear (or starting from the ear), because that way, the skin goes to waste. One should rather fry the skin together with the fish, and then eat it with a loaf or two of bread.

(d) We refute the suggestion that this explains the prohibition of reading Seifer ben Sira, if one takes that statement ...

1. ... at the simple level - because the Torah too, prohibits wasting (in Shoftim, when it forbids cutting down fruit-trees).
2. ... at a deeper level - because it refers to the prohibition of unnatural sexual relations, teaching us that a person should not change from the conventional pattern of behavior.
(a) ben Sira writes ''Bas le'Avihah Matmonis Shav". Her father cannot sleep for worry when she is ...
1. ... a Ketanah - in case she is seduced.
2. ... a Na'arah - in case she commits adultery.
3. ... a Bogeres - in case she fails to get married.
4. ... already married - in case she has no children.
5. ... older - in case she gets involved in witchcraft.
(b) He said - that one should not allow worry to penetrate one's heart, because it kills the strongest of men.

(c) We refute the suggestion that reading Seifer ben Sira is due to ...

1. ... the statement about bas - because Chazal too, declared fortunate the man who has boys, but 'Oy' to the one who has daughters.
2. ... about worry - because Shlomoh Hamelech too,, wrote in Mishlei "Da'agah be'Lev Ish Yasichenah".
(d) Rebbi Ami and Rebbi Asi argue over the Pasuk in Mishlei. One of them says 'Yasichenah mi'Libo' (to remove it from one's heart, The other one says 'Yasichenah la'Acherim' - (that one should speak it out to somebody).
(a) ben Sira also writes about being careful whom one takes into one's house. When he says ...
1. ... "Mana Rabim mi'Toch Beischa", he means - that one should avoid inviting people with whom does not have any dealings into one's home (to safeguard one's property).
2. ... "ve'Lo ha'Kol Tavi el Beischa", he is referring even to those with whom one does have dealings (with whom one should rather discuss those dealings outside the house, if possible).
(b) This too, cannot be the cause for the ban on ben Sira's writings, because of a statement made by Rebbi, who said (based on the Pasuk in Mishlei "Ish Re'im le'Hisro'a") - that someone who has many friends (with whom he becomes too pally) will eventually find that they will do him harm (and he will fall out with them).

(c) We conclude that the ban is due to the following baseless statements. He said - that someone whose beard is ...

1. ... thin and sparse - is exceptionally sharp.
2. ... thick - is a fool.
3. ... split into two sections (caused by his constantly stroking it (and pulling out the hairs in the middle) as he plots and plans) - is unbeatable in the art of cunning.
(d) Alternatively, ben Sira was referring, not to 'Ma'ab'rsa, but to ...
1. ... 'Hechresa', a sign in his beard that he ate.
1. ... a sign in his beard that he ate - and what he meant was that whoever has not eaten cannot compete with his strength.
2. ... 'G'varta', and not 'Ma'abr'sa' - which means a bald patch (rather a split in his beard).
12) ben Sira also said that someone who ...
1. ... blows the froth from the top of his cup - is obviously not thirsty.
2. ... looks for a condiment with which to eat his bread - is obviously not hungry, and one should take away the bread from him.
(a) Rav Yosef said - that since there was much to learn from ben Sira's book, the Chachamim used to Darshen those parts that were fitting in their D'rashos.

(b) ben Sira said that ...

1. ... a good wife - is a good gift, given to those who are G-d-fearing.
2. ... a bad wife - is like Tzara'as, that needs to be got rid of.
3. ... a beautiful wife - renders her husband a 'lucky man', doubling his life-span.
(c) Many people who have come into contact with a beautiful woman - have been destroyed and 'vast numbers have been killed'.

(d) The best thing to do vis-a-vis ...

1. ... a charming woman - is to keep away from her.
2. ... the husband of a charming woman - is to avoid going round to his house for a drink.
(a) ben Sira commented that peddlers (who used to sell women's trinkets) - would all too often receive a good beating (when the husband would arrive home and discover them doing more than just selling his wife, trinkets).

(b) He compares the incidence of a peddler's job leading to adultery to two things, one of them to a spark setting light a smoldering coal - the other, to a bird-sanctuary being full of birds.

(c) The Chachamim would also Darshen ben Sira's dictum not to allow just anyone into one's home (as we discussed earlier), and that of building a large circle of friends. He qualifies the latter however - by warning against conveying one's secrets to more than one in a thousand (adding that that one should not be his wife).

(d) ben Sira - advises against - worrying about tomorrow, since he might even die today, in which case there will be no tomorrow.

(a) The Pasuk in Mishlei writes "Kol Yemei Ani Ra'im". When ben Sira added 'Af Leilos bi'Shefal Gagim Gago, u'vi'Merom Harim Karmo', he meant that even at night-time, the poor man suffers, when the water from his low-placed roof collects all the water dropping from everyone else's roofs, and the earth that he carried to the top of his mountain vineyards (to as manure) is blown away.

(b) Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav explains the Pasuk in Mishlei "Kol Yemei Ani Ra'im" with reference to those who learn Gemara (which as we know, entails hard work), and "ve'Tov Leiv Mishteh Tamid", with reference to those who learn Mishnah (who have it relatively easy). Rava says 'Ipcha' (the reverse) - because at the end of the day, it is the Ba'alei Gemara (who bring the Sugya to its Halachic conclusion) who derive benefit from their learning, and not the Ba'alei Mishnah.

(c) Rav Mesharshaya Amar Rava therefore explains the Pasuk in Mishlei "Masi'a Avanim Avanim Ye'atzev Bam, u'Vokei'a Eitzim Yisachen Bam" as follows ...

1. ... "Masi'a Avanim" - refers to the Ba'alei Mishnah (who carry the load, but do not benefit from their work).
2. ... "Vokei'a Eitzim" on the other hand - refers to the Ba'alei ha'Gemara.
(a) According to Rebbi Chanina, the Pesukim refer to a person who has a bad wife, and one who has a good wife respectively. Whereas according to Rebbi Yanai, they pertain to - an Istenis (someone who is particularly finicky, and who is constantly disturbed by things that do not disturb others).

(b) Rebbi Yochanan interprets "Kol Yemei ... " with regard to someone who takes pity on everyone, and "ve'Tov Leiv Mishteh Tamid" - with regard to a cruel person, and who is not moved by the pain of others.

(c) The final explanation is that of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi. According to him "Kol Yemei Ani Ra'im" pertains to - someone who worries about everybody else's problems (or someone who has a quick temper), and "ve'Tov Leiv Mishteh Tamid", to the opposite.

(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi reconciles the Pasuk ''Kol-Yemei Ani Ra'im" with the fact that even an Ani eats nice food on Shabbos - by quoting Shmuel, who stated 'Shinuy Veses Techilas Choli', meaning that a change from one's normal diet (referring in this instance to someone who eats more than he is accustomed to eat), causes stomach trouble.

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