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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 99

SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah



(a) Rebbi ...
1. ... Eliezer learns from the Pasuk in "Arba'im Shanah Akut be'Dor" - that the era of Mashi'ach will last for forty years (seeing as the Pasuk uses the word "Akut" in the future).
2. ... Elazar ben Azaryah learns from the Pasuk "ve'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu ve'Nishkachas Tzur Shiv'im Shanah ki'Yemei Melech Echad" (since "Melech Echad" implies 'Melech Meyuchad', a special king [Mashi'ach]) - that the era of Mashi'ach will last for seventy years.
3. ... Yehudah ha'Nasi learns from the Pasuk "Yira'ucha im Shemesh ve'Lifnei Yare'ach Dor Dorim" - that it will last for three generations (since ''Shemesh'' refers to Mashi'ach, and "Yare'ach", to Malchus Beis David).
(b) We already cited Rav Hillel, in whose opinion Yisrael experienced Mashi'ach in the time of Chizkiyah Hamelech, and will not experience it again. Rav Yosef refutes Rav Hillel's statement from a Pasuk in Zecharyah "Gili Me'od bas Tzi'on ... Hinei Malkech Yavo Lach, Tzadik ve'Nosha Hu Ani ve'Rochev al ha'Chamor ... " a problem for Rebbi Hillel - since Zecharyah (who refers here to the era of Mashi'ach) prophesied in the time of the second Beis-Hamikdash, whilst Chizkiyah lived in the time of the first.

(c) This Kashya does not clash with the prophesies of Zecharyah ben Yehoyada, who prophesied in the time of the first Beis-Hamikdash - because the Seifer Zecharyah was written by Zecharyah ben Berechyah (who is not synonymous with Zecharyah ben Yehoyada).

(a) Bearing in mind the Pasuk "Samchenu ki'Yemos Inisanu" ...
1. ... Rebbi Eliezer (in another Beraisa) learns from the Pasuk "va'Ye'ancha va'Yar'ivecha" - that just as the period of "va'Ye'ancha" (namely, that of the Manna) lasted forty years, so too, will that of Mashi'ach (which will be one of true Simchah).
2. ... Rebbi Dosa learns from the Pasuk "va'Avadum ve'Inu Osam Arba Me'os Shanah" - that just as Galus Mitzrayim lasted four hundred years, so too, will the era of Mashi'ach.
(b) Rebbi learns from the Pasuk "Ki Yom Nakam be'Libi u'Shenas Ge'ulai Ba'ah" - that the era of Mashi'ach will last - three hundred and sixty-five years ...

(c) ... a year for each day, as the Lashon of the Pasuk indicates.

(d) Another text reads three hundred and sixty-five (not years, but) thousand years - because, as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "Ki Elef Shanim be'Einecha ke'Yom" (from which we learn that a thousand years in the eyes of Hashem is like a day of ours.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains 'le'Libi Gilisi, le'Evarai Lo Gilisi'. Resh Lakish says - 'le'Libi Gilisi, le'Mal'achei ha'Shareis Lo Gilisi'.

(b) The era of Mashi'ach will last ...

1. ... seven thousand years (Hashem's equivalent of the seven days of Sheva B'rachos), according to the Beraisa cited by Rebbi Avimi B'rei de'Rebbi Avahu, based on the Pasuk "u'Mesos Chasan al Kalah, Yasis Alayich Elokayich".
2. ... as many years as the world will have already existed from the Creation until his arrival, according to Shmuel, based on the Pasuk "ki'Yemei ha'Shamayim al ha'Aretz".
3. ... as many years as the world will have already existed until his arrival, from the time of the Great Flood, according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, based on the Pasuk "Ki Mei No'ach Zos Li Asher Nishba'ti".
(c) Based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ayin Lo Ra'asah Elokim Zulasecha Ya'aseh li'Mechakeh Lo", Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan states that all the rewards contained in the prophesies pertain ...
1. ... to the era of Mashi'ach. As for Olam ha'Ba, nobody has ever seen it and nobody can possibly describe it.
2. ... to Ba'alei-Teshuvah, but not to Tzadikim, whose reward (even in the era of Mashi'ach) is beyond description.
(d) Besides Ba'alei-Teshuvah, the Pasuk also refers to - someone who marries his daughter to a Talmid-Chacham, who does business with a Talmid-Chacham and to someone who benefits a Talmid-Chacham.
(a) Shmuel disagrees with the first statement. According to him - the era of Mashi'ach will differ from the preceding one only inasmuch as Yisrael will no longer be subservient to the nations (but not in any other way).

(b) And Rebbi Avahu disagrees with Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's second statement. In his opinion - Tzadikim do not reach the level of Ba'alei-Teshuvah. Note, that the Ba'alei-Teshuvah referred to here obviously speaks about Ba'alei-Teshuvah who attain the level of the Tzadikim and who are on a par with them in Tzidkus.

(c) He derives this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Shalom Shalom la'Rachok ve'la'Karov ... " - where the Pasuk gives precedence to those who came from far (Ba'alei-Teshuvah) to the Tzadikim (who were always close).

(d) Rebbi Yochanan interprets "la'Rachok ve'la'Karov" to mean - those were always far from sin (Tzadikim) and those were close to it (Ba'alei-Teshuvah).

(a) According to Rebbi Yehoshua be Levi, "Ayin Lo Ra'asah Elokim Zulasecha" pertains to the wine that was put away at the time of the Creation. Resh Lakish interprets it as - Eden.

(b) We ...

1. ... reconcile this with the fact that Adam ha'Rishon lived in Gan Eden (up to the time that he was banished) - by differentiating between Eden itself and Gan Eden (which is where Adam lived).
2. ... know that 'Gan' and 'Eden' are not one and the same - because the Pasuk writes in Bereishis "ve'Nahar Yotzei me'Eden Le'hashkos es ha'Gan".
(a) The Beraisa offers three interpretations of the Pasuk "Ki D'var Hashem Bazah". Besides someone who says that the Torah is not of Divine origin and an Apikores - the Tana also incorporates someone who interprets Torah in his own way, without adhering to the traditional interpretation.

(b) "ve'es Mitzvaso Heifer" refers to - someone annuls the B'ris Milah.

(c) The Tana explains "Hikares Tikares" - "Hikares" 'ba'Olam ha'Zeh', 'Tikares" 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.

(a) Rebbi Eliezer Hamuda'i says with regard to most of the above (he does specifically incorporate 'an Apikores' in his list) - that even though he has accumulated Torah and good deeds, he loses his portion in Olam ha'Ba.

(b) He places 'Ha'Mechalel es ha'Kodshim' and 'ha'Mevazeh es ha'Mo'ados' (which he adds to the list) in he category of - "D'var Hashem Bazah".

(c) 'ha'Mevazeh es ha'Mo'ados' entails - relegating Chol ha'Mo'ed (by wearing weekday clothes, and eating regular food) to an ordinary weekday.

(d) Rebbi Eliezer Hamuda'i also incorporates - someone who embarrasses his fellow-Jew.

(a) The claim that just one Pasuk was written by Moshe (and not by Hashem) - also falls under the category of "Ki D'var Hashem Bazah".

(b) Besides someone who claims that the entire Torah is Moshe's fabrication, someone who claims - that just one Dikduk (a missing word or an extra one), one 'Kal va'Chomer' (see Margelis ha'Yam) or one 'Gezeirah-Shavah' was not handed down traditionally, falls under this category too.

(c) According to Rebbi Meir, anyone who learns Torah but does not teach it, is termed ''D'var Hashem Bazah". When Rebbi Nasan says 'Kol Mi she'Eino Mashgi'ach al ha'Mishnah', he refers to - someone who does not consider the Mishnayos vital to the understanding of the Pasuk.

(d) Rebbi Yishmael interprets the Pasuk to pertain to someone serves Avodah-Zarah, Rebbi Naha'ra'i - to someone who is able to study Torah, but doesn't.

(a) The source of Rebbi Yishmael's interpretation of "Ki D'var Hashem Bazah" (someone who serves Avodah-Zarah) is - the words "D'var Hashem", implying the words that Hashem spoke personally to Yisrael ("Anochi" and "Lo Yihyeh Lecha"), as opposed to the other eight of the Aseres ha'Dibros, which Yisrael received through Moshe.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ...

1. ... ben Korchah describes someone who learns Torah without revising it as - sowing without reaping (meaning that he derives no results from his learning).
2. ... describes someone who learns Torah and forgets it - to a woman who has a baby and the baby dies.
(c) When Rebbi Akiva says 'Zemer be'Chol Yom, Zemer be'Chol Yom', he means - that like a song, that one sings even though one knows it well, so too, should one revise one's learning, even if one already understands it well.

(d) Rav Yitzchak bar Avudimi learns this from a Pasuk, which writes ...

1. ... "Nefesh Amal Amlah Lo" meaning - that if someone toils in Torah in this world, he will know it like a song in Olam ha'Ba. Alternatively, if one toils in one place, Torah works on his behalf, to help him understand it in another place.
2. ... "Ki Ikaf Alav Pihu" - because he 'bent his mouth' (applied himself diligently).



(a) After learning from Iyov, that man is born to work hard ("Ki Adam le'Adam Yivaled"), Rebbi Elazar learns from the above-mentioned Pasuk "Kol Amal Adam le'Fihu" - that this refers to the work that one performs with one's mouth.

(b) And he knows that it refers to learning Torah - from the Pasuk in Yehoshua - "Lo Yamush Sefer-ha'Torah ha'Zeh mi'Picha ... ".

(c) When Rava said 'Kulhu Gufi de'Rufteki Ninhu,Tuveih le'de'Zachi de'Havi de'Rufteki d'Oraysa', he meant - that all the bodies are created to work hard, but that those who work hard in Torah are particularly praiseworthy.

(d) 'de'Raftiki' (and not 'de'Ruftiki') might also mean - a large purse or pocket for one's money. Likewise, the human body is a large purse which is meant to contain things (preferably Torah).

(a) Resh Lakish interprets the Pasuk "ve'No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv" - to refer to someone who learns Torah only on occasions, which the Pasuk is comparing to a man who has no wife, who sleeps sometimes with this woman, sometimes with that one.

(b) This is contained in the Pasuk there "Ki Na'im Ki Sishmerem be'Vitn'cha, Yikonu Yachdav al Sefasecha" - which teaches us that one can only retain what one has learned, if one has everything at one's fingertips.

(c) "ve'ha'Nefesh Asher Ta'aseh be'Yad Ramah ... Ki D'var Hashem Bazah" refers to King Menasheh, who queried Moshe Rabeinu, when he asked why he found it necessary to write "va'Achos Lotan Timna ... ", and "va'Yeilech Reuven" in the Torah, since these Pesukim appear to have no significance.

(d) The Pasuk in Tehilim "Teishev be'Achicha Tedaber be'Ven Imcha Titn Dofi" refers to Menasheh. When Yeshayah referred to Menashe's sin ...

1. ... as "Chavlei ha'Shav" - he meant that he gained nothing from it (like a Mumar Le'hach'is, who sins to spite Hashem, and not because he gets anything out of the sin).
2. ... "ve'cha'Avos ha'Agalah" - he meant to hint at the ways of the Yetzer-ha'Ra, who is at first, compared to the strands of a cobweb, but later turns into the ropes of a wagon (meaning that he first traps us into sinning in a small way, before going on to trap us into sinning big.
(a) The significance of the Pasuk ...
1. ... "va'Achos Lotan Timna. ve'Timna Haysah Pilegesh" is - that Timna was so keen to marry into the family of Avraham and Yitzchak, because they were G-d-fearing, that she went to each of the Avos in turn, asking them to convert her and marry her, and it was only after they refused her that she went and became the concubine of Elifaz ben Eisav, because, she said, 'It is better to be a slave in this family, than free in any other one.
2. ... va'Yeilech Reuven ... " is - to teach us how careful Tzadikim are not to take what is stolen. That is why the Torah records that Reuven took only flowers (which people tended to declare Hefker), and not wheat, which was already ripe.
(b) We learn of Timna's status from the Pesukim "va'Achos Lotan Timna" and "Aluf Lotan" ("Aluf Timna" that follows is not the same Timna as the one under discussion) - from the fact that she was the sister of a prince (because "Aluf" is a Malchusa be'Lo Taga' [meaning a king without a crown]), so presumably her father was a king too.

(c) Amalek was born specifically to her - to punish the Avos for not accepting her into their family.

(d) According to Rav, the Duda'im that Reuven brought his mother were 'Yavruchi', according to Rebbi Yonasan, 'S'vimki'. Levi translates them as 'Sigli' - which means 'Jasmin' (see also Agados Maharsha).

(e) Amora'im argue over the achievement of someone who studies Torah li'Sh'mah, based on Pesukim in Yeshayah. Based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ya'aseh Shalom Li Shalom Ya'aseh Li" Rebbi Alexandri explains - that he makes peace between the celestial Hosts and those on earth.
2. " ... li'Neto'a Shamayim u'Le'yased Aretz" - Rav explains - that it is as if he had built a celestial palace and one on earth.
3. ... "u've'Tzeil Yadi Kisisicha", Rebbi Yochanan says - that he protects the whole world.
4. ... "ve'Leimor le'Tzi'on Ami Atah", Levi maintains - that he actually brings the Redemption closer.
1. Resh Lakish learns from the Pasuk "ve'es ha'Nefesh Asher Asu be'Charan" - that if someone who learns Torah with his fellow-Jew's son, it is as if he had made him.
2. Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "u'Shemartem es Divrei ha'B'ris ha'Zos ... " - that it is as if he had made the Divrei Torah that he taught him.
3. Rava learns from the conclusion of that Pasuk " ... va'Asisem Osam" (which he reads as 'Atem' [without a 'Vav'] - that it is as if he had made himself.
(b) Rebbi Avahu learns from the Pasuk (in connection with hitting the rock for its water) "u'Mat'cha Asher Hikisa Bo es ha'Ye'or Tikach be'Yadecha" - that the Torah reckons someone who coerces his fellow-Jew to perform a Mitzvah, as if he had done the Mitzvah himself.
(a) According to Rav and Rebbi Chanina, an Apikores (among those cited in our Mishnah who do not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba) is someone who insults a Talmid-Chacham. Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi define it as - someone who insults his friend in the presence of a Talmid-Chacham.

(b) We try to prove Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi right from the case of Megaleh Panim ba'Torah, which they will interpret as someone who insults a Talmid-Chacham (like Rav and Rebbi Chanina interpret 'Apikores'). But how will Rav and Rebbi Chanina interpret - Megaleh Panim ba'Torah.

(c) Rav and Rebbi Chanina will define 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' as - someone who misinterprets Torah (like Menashe, whom we quoted earlier).

(a) In the second Lashon, the above pairs argue in the *Seifa* (over the definition of 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah'). The problem according to Rav and Rebbi Chanina (who define it as someone who insults a Talmid-Chacham) from Apikores is - exactly the same as the problem we had with their interpretation of Apikores from 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' (only in the reverse); namely, how they will then define it.

(b) Rav Yosef initially interprets Apikores according to them - as someone who claims that the Rabbanan do not benefit us in any way. They only learn for themselves (providing us with no material benefits).

(c) Abaye rejects this interpretation however, because this would fall under the category of 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' - as we learned in Yirmiyah "Were it not for My covenant (of Torah), I would not have placed the statutes of the Heaven ... ". From which we can learn that the whole of mankind (including all their material benefits) continues to exist only on the merit of Torah and those who study it.

(d) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak proves the usefulness of Talmidei-Chachamim - from the Pasuk in Vayeira (in connection with the destruction of S'dom) "And I will forgive the entire place for their sakes".

(a) So we conclude that an Apikores is someone who is learning with his Rebbe, and when they come upon something that they have learned before, he says 'That's what we said over there', instead of 'That's what the Rebbe said'. Rava interprets it as someone who says 'What use are the Rabanan to us? They have never permitted us to eat a raven, nor have they even forbidden a pigeon (All they do is interpret the written Torah)'.

(b) When the Bei Binyamin brought Rava animals for inspection that turned out to be ...

1. ... Kasher, he would comment - 'See, I permitted you a raven!'.
2. ... Tereifah, he would comment - 'See, I forbade you a pigeon'!
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