ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 99
SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs.
Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb
Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the
merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his
(a) Rebbi ...
1. ... Eliezer learns from the Pasuk in "Arba'im Shanah Akut be'Dor" - that
the era of Mashi'ach will last for forty years (seeing as the Pasuk uses the
word "Akut" in the future).
(b) We already cited Rav Hillel, in whose opinion Yisrael experienced
Mashi'ach in the time of Chizkiyah Hamelech, and will not experience it
again. Rav Yosef refutes Rav Hillel's statement from a Pasuk in Zecharyah
"Gili Me'od bas Tzi'on ... Hinei Malkech Yavo Lach, Tzadik ve'Nosha Hu Ani
ve'Rochev al ha'Chamor ... " a problem for Rebbi Hillel - since Zecharyah
(who refers here to the era of Mashi'ach) prophesied in the time of the
second Beis-Hamikdash, whilst Chizkiyah lived in the time of the first.
2. ... Elazar ben Azaryah learns from the Pasuk "ve'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu
ve'Nishkachas Tzur Shiv'im Shanah ki'Yemei Melech Echad" (since "Melech
Echad" implies 'Melech Meyuchad', a special king [Mashi'ach]) - that the era
of Mashi'ach will last for seventy years.
3. ... Yehudah ha'Nasi learns from the Pasuk "Yira'ucha im Shemesh ve'Lifnei
Yare'ach Dor Dorim" - that it will last for three generations (since
''Shemesh'' refers to Mashi'ach, and "Yare'ach", to Malchus Beis David).
(c) This Kashya does not clash with the prophesies of Zecharyah ben
Yehoyada, who prophesied in the time of the first Beis-Hamikdash - because
the Seifer Zecharyah was written by Zecharyah ben Berechyah (who is not
synonymous with Zecharyah ben Yehoyada).
(a) Bearing in mind the Pasuk "Samchenu ki'Yemos Inisanu" ...
1. ... Rebbi Eliezer (in another Beraisa) learns from the Pasuk "va'Ye'ancha
va'Yar'ivecha" - that just as the period of "va'Ye'ancha" (namely, that of
the Manna) lasted forty years, so too, will that of Mashi'ach (which will be
one of true Simchah).
(b) Rebbi learns from the Pasuk "Ki Yom Nakam be'Libi u'Shenas Ge'ulai
Ba'ah" - that the era of Mashi'ach will last - three hundred and sixty-five
2. ... Rebbi Dosa learns from the Pasuk "va'Avadum ve'Inu Osam Arba Me'os
Shanah" - that just as Galus Mitzrayim lasted four hundred years, so too,
will the era of Mashi'ach.
(c) ... a year for each day, as the Lashon of the Pasuk indicates.
(d) Another text reads three hundred and sixty-five (not years, but)
thousand years - because, as the Pasuk writes in Tehilim "Ki Elef Shanim
be'Einecha ke'Yom" (from which we learn that a thousand years in the eyes of
Hashem is like a day of ours.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains 'le'Libi Gilisi, le'Evarai Lo Gilisi'. Resh
Lakish says - 'le'Libi Gilisi, le'Mal'achei ha'Shareis Lo Gilisi'.
(b) The era of Mashi'ach will last ...
1. ... seven thousand years (Hashem's equivalent of the seven days of Sheva
B'rachos), according to the Beraisa cited by Rebbi Avimi B'rei de'Rebbi
Avahu, based on the Pasuk "u'Mesos Chasan al Kalah, Yasis Alayich
(c) Based on the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Ayin Lo Ra'asah Elokim Zulasecha Ya'aseh
li'Mechakeh Lo", Rebbi Chiya bar Aba Amar Rebbi Yochanan states that all the
rewards contained in the prophesies pertain ...
2. ... as many years as the world will have already existed from the
Creation until his arrival, according to Shmuel, based on the Pasuk
"ki'Yemei ha'Shamayim al ha'Aretz".
3. ... as many years as the world will have already existed until his
arrival, from the time of the Great Flood, according to Rav Nachman bar
Yitzchak, based on the Pasuk "Ki Mei No'ach Zos Li Asher Nishba'ti".
1. ... to the era of Mashi'ach. As for Olam ha'Ba, nobody has ever seen it
and nobody can possibly describe it.
(d) Besides Ba'alei-Teshuvah, the Pasuk also refers to - someone who marries
his daughter to a Talmid-Chacham, who does business with a Talmid-Chacham
and to someone who benefits a Talmid-Chacham.
2. ... to Ba'alei-Teshuvah, but not to Tzadikim, whose reward (even in the
era of Mashi'ach) is beyond description.
(a) Shmuel disagrees with the first statement. According to him - the era of
Mashi'ach will differ from the preceding one only inasmuch as Yisrael will
no longer be subservient to the nations (but not in any other way).
(b) And Rebbi Avahu disagrees with Rebbi Chiya bar Aba's second statement.
In his opinion - Tzadikim do not reach the level of Ba'alei-Teshuvah. Note,
that the Ba'alei-Teshuvah referred to here obviously speaks about
Ba'alei-Teshuvah who attain the level of the Tzadikim and who are on a par
with them in Tzidkus.
(c) He derives this from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Shalom Shalom la'Rachok
ve'la'Karov ... " - where the Pasuk gives precedence to those who came from
far (Ba'alei-Teshuvah) to the Tzadikim (who were always close).
(d) Rebbi Yochanan interprets "la'Rachok ve'la'Karov" to mean - those were
always far from sin (Tzadikim) and those were close to it
(a) According to Rebbi Yehoshua be Levi, "Ayin Lo Ra'asah Elokim Zulasecha"
pertains to the wine that was put away at the time of the Creation. Resh
Lakish interprets it as - Eden.
(b) We ...
1. ... reconcile this with the fact that Adam ha'Rishon lived in Gan Eden
(up to the time that he was banished) - by differentiating between Eden
itself and Gan Eden (which is where Adam lived).
2. ... know that 'Gan' and 'Eden' are not one and the same - because the
Pasuk writes in Bereishis "ve'Nahar Yotzei me'Eden Le'hashkos es ha'Gan".
(a) The Beraisa offers three interpretations of the Pasuk "Ki D'var Hashem
Bazah". Besides someone who says that the Torah is not of Divine origin and
an Apikores - the Tana also incorporates someone who interprets Torah in his
own way, without adhering to the traditional interpretation.
(b) "ve'es Mitzvaso Heifer" refers to - someone annuls the B'ris Milah.
(c) The Tana explains "Hikares Tikares" - "Hikares" 'ba'Olam ha'Zeh',
'Tikares" 'la'Olam ha'Ba'.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer Hamuda'i says with regard to most of the above (he does
specifically incorporate 'an Apikores' in his list) - that even though he
has accumulated Torah and good deeds, he loses his portion in Olam ha'Ba.
(b) He places 'Ha'Mechalel es ha'Kodshim' and 'ha'Mevazeh es ha'Mo'ados'
(which he adds to the list) in he category of - "D'var Hashem Bazah".
(c) 'ha'Mevazeh es ha'Mo'ados' entails - relegating Chol ha'Mo'ed (by
wearing weekday clothes, and eating regular food) to an ordinary weekday.
(d) Rebbi Eliezer Hamuda'i also incorporates - someone who embarrasses his
(a) The claim that just one Pasuk was written by Moshe (and not by Hashem) -
also falls under the category of "Ki D'var Hashem Bazah".
(b) Besides someone who claims that the entire Torah is Moshe's fabrication,
someone who claims - that just one Dikduk (a missing word or an extra one),
one 'Kal va'Chomer' (see Margelis ha'Yam) or one 'Gezeirah-Shavah' was not
handed down traditionally, falls under this category too.
(c) According to Rebbi Meir, anyone who learns Torah but does not teach it,
is termed ''D'var Hashem Bazah". When Rebbi Nasan says 'Kol Mi she'Eino
Mashgi'ach al ha'Mishnah', he refers to - someone who does not consider the
Mishnayos vital to the understanding of the Pasuk.
(d) Rebbi Yishmael interprets the Pasuk to pertain to someone serves
Avodah-Zarah, Rebbi Naha'ra'i - to someone who is able to study Torah, but
(a) The source of Rebbi Yishmael's interpretation of "Ki D'var Hashem Bazah"
(someone who serves Avodah-Zarah) is - the words "D'var Hashem", implying
the words that Hashem spoke personally to Yisrael ("Anochi" and "Lo Yihyeh
Lecha"), as opposed to the other eight of the Aseres ha'Dibros, which
Yisrael received through Moshe.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua ...
1. ... ben Korchah describes someone who learns Torah without revising it
as - sowing without reaping (meaning that he derives no results from his
(c) When Rebbi Akiva says 'Zemer be'Chol Yom, Zemer be'Chol Yom', he means -
that like a song, that one sings even though one knows it well, so too,
should one revise one's learning, even if one already understands it well.
2. ... describes someone who learns Torah and forgets it - to a woman who
has a baby and the baby dies.
(d) Rav Yitzchak bar Avudimi learns this from a Pasuk, which writes ...
1. ... "Nefesh Amal Amlah Lo" meaning - that if someone toils in Torah in
this world, he will know it like a song in Olam ha'Ba. Alternatively, if one
toils in one place, Torah works on his behalf, to help him understand it in
2. ... "Ki Ikaf Alav Pihu" - because he 'bent his mouth' (applied himself
(a) After learning from Iyov, that man is born to work hard ("Ki Adam
le'Adam Yivaled"), Rebbi Elazar learns from the above-mentioned Pasuk "Kol
Amal Adam le'Fihu" - that this refers to the work that one performs with
(b) And he knows that it refers to learning Torah - from the Pasuk in
Yehoshua - "Lo Yamush Sefer-ha'Torah ha'Zeh mi'Picha ... ".
(c) When Rava said 'Kulhu Gufi de'Rufteki Ninhu,Tuveih le'de'Zachi de'Havi
de'Rufteki d'Oraysa', he meant - that all the bodies are created to work
hard, but that those who work hard in Torah are particularly praiseworthy.
(d) 'de'Raftiki' (and not 'de'Ruftiki') might also mean - a large purse or
pocket for one's money. Likewise, the human body is a large purse which is
meant to contain things (preferably Torah).
(a) Resh Lakish interprets the Pasuk "ve'No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv" - to refer
to someone who learns Torah only on occasions, which the Pasuk is comparing
to a man who has no wife, who sleeps sometimes with this woman, sometimes
with that one.
(b) This is contained in the Pasuk there "Ki Na'im Ki Sishmerem be'Vitn'cha,
Yikonu Yachdav al Sefasecha" - which teaches us that one can only retain
what one has learned, if one has everything at one's fingertips.
(c) "ve'ha'Nefesh Asher Ta'aseh be'Yad Ramah ... Ki D'var Hashem Bazah"
refers to King Menasheh, who queried Moshe Rabeinu, when he asked why he
found it necessary to write "va'Achos Lotan Timna ... ", and "va'Yeilech
Reuven" in the Torah, since these Pesukim appear to have no significance.
(d) The Pasuk in Tehilim "Teishev be'Achicha Tedaber be'Ven Imcha Titn Dofi"
refers to Menasheh. When Yeshayah referred to Menashe's sin ...
1. ... as "Chavlei ha'Shav" - he meant that he gained nothing from it (like
a Mumar Le'hach'is, who sins to spite Hashem, and not because he gets
anything out of the sin).
2. ... "ve'cha'Avos ha'Agalah" - he meant to hint at the ways of the
Yetzer-ha'Ra, who is at first, compared to the strands of a cobweb, but
later turns into the ropes of a wagon (meaning that he first traps us into
sinning in a small way, before going on to trap us into sinning big.
(a) The significance of the Pasuk ...
1. ... "va'Achos Lotan Timna. ve'Timna Haysah Pilegesh" is - that Timna was
so keen to marry into the family of Avraham and Yitzchak, because they were
G-d-fearing, that she went to each of the Avos in turn, asking them to
convert her and marry her, and it was only after they refused her that she
went and became the concubine of Elifaz ben Eisav, because, she said, 'It is
better to be a slave in this family, than free in any other one.
(b) We learn of Timna's status from the Pesukim "va'Achos Lotan Timna" and
"Aluf Lotan" ("Aluf Timna" that follows is not the same Timna as the one
under discussion) - from the fact that she was the sister of a prince
(because "Aluf" is a Malchusa be'Lo Taga' [meaning a king without a crown]),
so presumably her father was a king too.
2. ... va'Yeilech Reuven ... " is - to teach us how careful Tzadikim are not
to take what is stolen. That is why the Torah records that Reuven took only
flowers (which people tended to declare Hefker), and not wheat, which was
(c) Amalek was born specifically to her - to punish the Avos for not
accepting her into their family.
(d) According to Rav, the Duda'im that Reuven brought his mother were
'Yavruchi', according to Rebbi Yonasan, 'S'vimki'. Levi translates them as
'Sigli' - which means 'Jasmin' (see also Agados Maharsha).
(e) Amora'im argue over the achievement of someone who studies Torah
li'Sh'mah, based on Pesukim in Yeshayah. Based on the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ya'aseh Shalom Li Shalom Ya'aseh Li" Rebbi Alexandri explains - that
he makes peace between the celestial Hosts and those on earth.
2. " ... li'Neto'a Shamayim u'Le'yased Aretz" - Rav explains - that it is as
if he had built a celestial palace and one on earth.
3. ... "u've'Tzeil Yadi Kisisicha", Rebbi Yochanan says - that he protects
the whole world.
4. ... "ve'Leimor le'Tzi'on Ami Atah", Levi maintains - that he actually
brings the Redemption closer.
1. Resh Lakish learns from the Pasuk "ve'es ha'Nefesh Asher Asu be'Charan" -
that if someone who learns Torah with his fellow-Jew's son, it is as if he
had made him.
(b) Rebbi Avahu learns from the Pasuk (in connection with hitting the rock
for its water) "u'Mat'cha Asher Hikisa Bo es ha'Ye'or Tikach be'Yadecha" -
that the Torah reckons someone who coerces his fellow-Jew to perform a
Mitzvah, as if he had done the Mitzvah himself.
2. Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk "u'Shemartem es Divrei ha'B'ris
ha'Zos ... " - that it is as if he had made the Divrei Torah that he taught
3. Rava learns from the conclusion of that Pasuk " ... va'Asisem Osam"
(which he reads as 'Atem' [without a 'Vav'] - that it is as if he had made
(a) According to Rav and Rebbi Chanina, an Apikores (among those cited in
our Mishnah who do not receive a portion in Olam ha'Ba) is someone who
insults a Talmid-Chacham. Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi define
it as - someone who insults his friend in the presence of a Talmid-Chacham.
(b) We try to prove Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi right from
the case of Megaleh Panim ba'Torah, which they will interpret as someone who
insults a Talmid-Chacham (like Rav and Rebbi Chanina interpret 'Apikores').
But how will Rav and Rebbi Chanina interpret - Megaleh Panim ba'Torah.
(c) Rav and Rebbi Chanina will define 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' as - someone
who misinterprets Torah (like Menashe, whom we quoted earlier).
(a) In the second Lashon, the above pairs argue in the *Seifa* (over the
definition of 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah'). The problem according to Rav and
Rebbi Chanina (who define it as someone who insults a Talmid-Chacham) from
Apikores is - exactly the same as the problem we had with their
interpretation of Apikores from 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' (only in the
reverse); namely, how they will then define it.
(b) Rav Yosef initially interprets Apikores according to them - as someone
who claims that the Rabbanan do not benefit us in any way. They only learn
for themselves (providing us with no material benefits).
(c) Abaye rejects this interpretation however, because this would fall under
the category of 'Megaleh Panim ba'Torah' - as we learned in Yirmiyah "Were
it not for My covenant (of Torah), I would not have placed the statutes of
the Heaven ... ". From which we can learn that the whole of mankind
(including all their material benefits) continues to exist only on the merit
of Torah and those who study it.
(d) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak proves the usefulness of Talmidei-Chachamim -
from the Pasuk in Vayeira (in connection with the destruction of S'dom) "And
I will forgive the entire place for their sakes".
(a) So we conclude that an Apikores is someone who is learning with his
Rebbe, and when they come upon something that they have learned before, he
says 'That's what we said over there', instead of 'That's what the Rebbe
said'. Rava interprets it as someone who says 'What use are the Rabanan to
us? They have never permitted us to eat a raven, nor have they even
forbidden a pigeon (All they do is interpret the written Torah)'.
(b) When the Bei Binyamin brought Rava animals for inspection that turned
out to be ...
1. ... Kasher, he would comment - 'See, I permitted you a raven!'.
2. ... Tereifah, he would comment - 'See, I forbade you a pigeon'!