(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Sanhedrin 94



(a) Even though Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi did not see the vision, they were afraid - because their Mazel (in heaven [see Agados Maharsha]) saw it.

(b) If, as Ravina learns from there, a person is sometimes afraid of something that he cannot see, but his Mazel can, the two options he has to protect himself are - either to jump four Amos from his place, or to recite the Sh'ma.

(c) He has the alternative option of reciting the incantation 'Iza de'Bei Tavcha Sh'meina Mina'i' -(implying that whoever is threatening him should go and get the goats and leave him alone), if he is in a place which is unclean (and cannot therefore recite the Sh'ma).

(a) What is strange about the word "*le'Marbeh* ha'Misrah u'le'Shalom Ein Keitz" - is that the 'Mem' (which ought to to be Pesuchah), is S'tumah.

(b) If Chizkiyah ha'Melech had become Mashi'ach - Sancheriv would have been 'Gog u'Magog' (which is a concept, not two names).

(c) This did not happen - because if David, who sang so many Shiros to Hashem, did not become Mashi'ach, then why should Chizkiyah, who failed to sing Shiroh at all, in spite of the miracles that he experienced ...

(d) ... incorporating a. his recovery from his illness and b. the total annihilation overnight of Sancheriv's army, which was besieging Yerushalayim.

(e) bar Kapara Darshened the 'Mem S'tumah' in Tzipori to teach us - that Hashem's intentions were closed (alternatively, that it represents Hashem's original intention of closing Yisrael's troubles, and making Chizkiyahu Mashi'ach or Chizkiyahu's error, in keeping his mouth shut and not singing Shirah).

(a) The earth (see Agados Maharsha) sang Shirah instead, adding the request - that Hashem should now proceed with his original plan, and appoint Chizkiyahu as Mashi'ach.

(b) The Sar ha'Olam (Matatron) - backed the earth's request.

(c) Hashem however, did not accept their request for reasons that He kept secret ('Razi Li, Razi Li'). In reply to the Navi's question, how long it would now take for Mashi'ach to come, a bas-Kol announced "Bogdim Bagdu u'Bagad, Bogdim Bagdu" (Yeshayah), which Rava (or Rebbi Yitzchak) explains to mean - that Yisrael will have to be ravaged many times before he comes.

(a) Masa Dumah Eilai Korei mi'Seir; Shomer Mah mi'Laylah, Shomer Mah mi'Layil".
1. "Dumah" is - the angel in charge of the spitits.
2. ... "Shomer" refers to - Hashem.
3. ... "Laylah", to - Galus.
(b) The spirits asked Dumah - what Hashem said about the coming of Mashi'ach (i.e. when he will come).

(c) He answered that the Ge'ulah will come, but only after a protracted Galus. Alternatively, he might have meant - that he will only come after the Beis-Hamikdash has been built and destroyed once again, or that it is not only the Tzadikim who will be rewarded with the coming of Mashi'ach, but the Resha'im who will be punished for their sins.

(d) We will merit the Ge'ulah - through Tefilah and Teshuvah.

(a) Rebbi Papayas in a Beraisa described Chizkiyah's failure to sing Shirah before the earth came and did it, as shameful. He made a similar comment based on the Pasuk in Yisro "va'Yomer Yisro, Baruch Hashem Asher Hitzil Eschem ... " - where, following the miracles in Egypt, Moshe and six hundred thousand B'nei Yisrael failed to say 'Baruch Hashem' until Yisro came and said it.

(b) Rav interprets "va'Yichad Yisro" to mean that he passed a sharp sword (Cherev Chadah) over his flesh (when he circumcised). Shmuel interprets it to mean - that Yisro's skin creased from the pain that he felt when he heard about the downfall of Egypt at the Yam-Suf.

(c) Rav Papa learns from there - that one should be careful not to denigrate a Nochri in the presence of a Ger up to ten generations (even though Yisro was only the first generation [see Gilyon ha'Shas]).

(d) Not all the soldiers of Sancheriv were fat (Agados Maharsha). Consequently, we explain the Pasuk "Lachein, Yeshalach ha'Adon Hashem Tzevakos *be'Mishmanav* Razon" - to mean that Chizkiyahu, with his eight names, was the right man to cause the downfall of Sancheriv, who also had eight names.

(a) In the list of names of ...
1. ... Chizkiyahu, 'Chizkiyahu' omitted - because it is either a corruption of the words 'she'Chizko Kah' (by curing him of his illness) or an indication 'she'Chizek es Yisrael la'Avihem she'ba'Shamayim'.
2. ... Sancheriv, 'Sancheriv' is omitted - because it too, is a corruption of the words 'she'Sichaso Riv' (his speech is to pick a quarrel [with Hashem]), or 'she'Sach ve'Nichar Devarim K'lapei Ma'alah' (he spoke and growled words at Hashem).
(b) Three of Sancheriv's names were Asanpar, Rabah and Yakira (all with connotions of greatness). To deserve such honorable names - he did not speak ill of Eretz Yisrael, but spoke only of exiling the ten tribes to a land like their own (and not superior to their own).

(c) Rav and Shmuel actually argue over whether Sancheriv's statement was wise or foolish. One of them considers it ...

1. ... wise - because had he described it as superior, they would not have believed him (since there is no more beautiful country than Eretz Yisrael).
2. ... foolish - because if the land that he was exiling them to was no better than their own - then what was the point of saying what he said.
(d) Mar Zutra and Rebbi Chanina argue over where he exiled the ten tribes to. One of them says he exiled them to Harei S'lug, the other one says - to Africa.
(a) Yisrael did not behave like Sancheriv. When the exiles arrived in a place called Sus, they compared it to their own land. When they arrived in a place called ...
1. ... Almin - they compared it to Yerushalayim (which is called 'Beis Almin').
2. ... T'rein Sos, they described it as - twice as beautiful as Eretz Yisrael.
(b) Describing the death of Sancheriv, the Pasuk writes "ve'Sachas Kevodo, Yeikad Yekod ki'Yekod Eish". When Rebbi Yochanan explains "ve'Sachas Kevodo", 've'Lo Kevodo Mamash', he means - that they were burned below their clothes (which Rebbi Yochanan refers to as 'Mechabdusai' (that what dignifies me), meaning that their bodies were burned but not their clothes.

(c) Rebbi Elazar, who refers to "Kevodo" as 'the body' (and not the clothes) - explains the Pasuk to mean that their souls were burned, but not their bodies (like the Sereifah of Nadav and Avihu). See also the Sugya in Shabbos 113b and Rashi there).

(d) Hashem punished Par'oh Himself ("va'Yena'er Hashem es Mitzrayim"), but Sancheriv, only through a Sheli'ach ("va'Yeitzei Malach Hashem va'Yach be'Machaneh Ashur") - because Paroh himself sinned (as the Pasuk writes "Mi Hashem Asher Eshma be'Kolo" [Sh'mos]), whereas Sancheriv sent his Sheli'ach to blaspheme Hashem (as the Pasuk writes in Melachim "be'Yad Malachecha Cherafta Hashem").




(a) 185,000 of Sancheriv's soldiers died overnight (though this statement will be qualified later).

(b) In Yeshayah, Sancheriv is quoted as referring to "Merom Kitzo", in Melachim, to "Melon Kitzo". Rebbi Chanina bar Papa reconciles this discrepancy - by establishing a double plot. Sancheriv was threatening - first to destroy the Beis-Hamikdash shel Matah ("Merom Kitzo"), and then the Beis-Hamikdash shel Ma'alah ("Melon Kitzo").

(c) When he claimed that Hashem had sent him to destroy Yerushalayim - he meant that Ravshakeih (his general) had overheard the prophecy of Yeshayah warning the people that Sancheriv would destroy them, as we shall now see.

(d) Rav Yosef cites Targum Yonasan to explain the Pasuk in Yeshayah. Targum interprets the 'Mei ha'Shilo'ach which they rejected - to mean 'Malchus Beis-David' (because of their modest ways [see Agados Maharsha]), and they hired R'tzin (King of Aram) and (Pekach) ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) to get rid of them.

(a) Based on a Pasuk in Mishlei, Rebbi Yochanan draws a distinction between Pekach ben Remelyahu - who would consume forty Sa'ah of fledgling birds for dessert each day, and Chizkiyahu - who would merely eat a small measure of vegetables.

(b) When the Navi writes "ve'Lachein Hinei Ma'aleh Aleihem es Mei ha'Nahar ha'Atzumim ve'ha'Rabim ... ", he is referring to - Sancheriv, who was destined to destroy them.

(c) Despite the fact that the Navi had indeed called Sancheriv to attack Yisrael, Sancheriv was nevertheless punished - because the call was only to destroy Yisrael, not Yehudah (see Agados Maharsha).

(d) Rebbi Elazar bar Berechyah interpret the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Ki Lo Mu'af la'Asher Mutzak Lah" to mean - that the people of the one who is tired out from learning (Chizkiyah), will not be delivered into the hands of the one who oppresses them (Sancheriv).
2. ... "ka'Eis ha'Rishon Heikal Artzah Zevulun ve'Artzah Naftali" to mean - that not like the first ones (the ten tribes) who lightened the yoke of Torah, ...
3. ... "ve'ha'Acharon Hichbid" - are the last ones (the people of Chizkiyahu), who have taken upon themselves the yoke of Torah-study.
4. ... "Derech ha'Yam Eiver ha'Yarden" - therefore they have merited miracles like those of the Yam-Suf and the Yarden.
(a) Hashem therefore demanded that Sancheriv - do Teshuvah, and leave Yerushalayim alone.

(b) If he refused - he will be rolled around the nations in shame, or he will be like dung.

(c) The problem with the Pasuk "Acharei ha'Devarim ve'Emes ha'Eilah Ba Sancheriv Melech Ashur va'Yichan al Yehudah ... " is - that the Torah ("ve'Emes") that the people learned can hardly be a reason for Sancheriv's appearance.

(d) Ravina therefore explain - that Sancheriv's arrival followed Hashem's decision to spare Chizkiyahu the fears involved in having to go out and bring in Sancheriv's army and destroy it, and to bring it in Himself and kill them ...

(e) ... and what's more, He swore that that is what He would do - and that explains the word "ve'Emes" (symbolizing Hashem's seal, which is 'Emes').

(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Al Harai Avusenu" - to mean that the corpses strewn around the mountains would make excellent fodder for Yisrael's horses and animals, and Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha that ...
2. ... the Pasuk "ve'Chuval Ol Mipnei Shemen" (meaning that the yoke of Sancheriv will be broken because of the oil of Chizkiyahu) - refers to the oil of the lamps that Chizkiyah would light in the Shuls and the Batei-Medrash, to enable the people to learn Torah.
(b) Chizkiyah stuck a sword in the Beis-Hamedrash - and proclaimed that whoever fails to study Torah will be pierced with it.

(c) The inspectors discovered from Geives to Antipras - that there was not a man or woman, a boy or a girl, who was not fully conversant with the Dinim of Tum'ah and Taharah.

(d) The significance of the Pasuk (describing the generation of Chizkiyah) "ve'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh ... Elef Gefen be'Elef Kesef, le'Shamir u'le'Shayis Yihyeh" is - that although they did not own much property, and food prices were high, they were so involved with their Torah-study, that they left the crops to the birds (so to speak), and didn't bother to pick them.

(a) When Yeshayah invited the B'nei Yehudah to take the loot of Sancheriv, they asked him whether it needed to be distributed or whether each person could help himself (see Agados Maharsha). To which he replied - like the locusts, where each one helps itself.

(b) Initially, they declined the offer - because they said, the loot contained the property of the ten tribes, to which they had no right.

(c) When Yeshayah responded "ke'Meshek Geivim Shokek Bo", he meant - that just as the water brought via pipes to the Mikvah transforms a Tamei into a Tahor, so too, is loot that passes into the hands of Nochrim, transferred from the original owner to the new one.

(a) On the day that Sancheriv besieged Yerushalayim, he made ten journeys.

(b) The Pasuk then lists twelve stops. To resolve this discrepancy, we interpret the last three places in a different context. We explain ...

1. ... "Tzahali Kolech bas-Galim" to mean - that Yisrael, children of Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya'akov, who performed as many Mitzvos as the waves of the sea, should pray to Hashem.
2. ... "Hakshivah Layshah" - that it is not Sancheriv whom they need to fear, but Nevuchadnetzar, who is compared to a Layish (a lion).
3. ... "Aniyah Anasos" - as Yirmiyah, who came from Anasos, would prophesy.
(c) We need to say that Avru and Ma'abarah are two different places - because otherwise, there would only be nine places instead of ten.
(a) In spite of the fact that the Pasuk uses the Lashon "Layish", whereas Yirmiyah referred to Nevuchadnetzar as "Alah *Aryeh* mi'Subko" - the connection is firm, since both mean 'a lion'.

(b) Anasos was situated in the portion of Binyamin. Yirmiyah however - was from the tribe of Levi, since he was a Kohen.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,