ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 94
(a) Even though Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi did not see the vision, they
were afraid - because their Mazel (in heaven [see Agados Maharsha]) saw it.
(b) If, as Ravina learns from there, a person is sometimes afraid of
something that he cannot see, but his Mazel can, the two options he has to
protect himself are - either to jump four Amos from his place, or to recite
(c) He has the alternative option of reciting the incantation 'Iza de'Bei
Tavcha Sh'meina Mina'i' -(implying that whoever is threatening him should go
and get the goats and leave him alone), if he is in a place which is unclean
(and cannot therefore recite the Sh'ma).
(a) What is strange about the word "*le'Marbeh* ha'Misrah u'le'Shalom Ein
Keitz" - is that the 'Mem' (which ought to to be Pesuchah), is S'tumah.
(b) If Chizkiyah ha'Melech had become Mashi'ach - Sancheriv would have been
'Gog u'Magog' (which is a concept, not two names).
(c) This did not happen - because if David, who sang so many Shiros to
Hashem, did not become Mashi'ach, then why should Chizkiyah, who failed to
sing Shiroh at all, in spite of the miracles that he experienced ...
(d) ... incorporating a. his recovery from his illness and b. the total
annihilation overnight of Sancheriv's army, which was besieging
(e) bar Kapara Darshened the 'Mem S'tumah' in Tzipori to teach us - that
Hashem's intentions were closed (alternatively, that it represents Hashem's
original intention of closing Yisrael's troubles, and making Chizkiyahu
Mashi'ach or Chizkiyahu's error, in keeping his mouth shut and not singing
(a) The earth (see Agados Maharsha) sang Shirah instead, adding the
request - that Hashem should now proceed with his original plan, and appoint
Chizkiyahu as Mashi'ach.
(b) The Sar ha'Olam (Matatron) - backed the earth's request.
(c) Hashem however, did not accept their request for reasons that He kept
secret ('Razi Li, Razi Li'). In reply to the Navi's question, how long it
would now take for Mashi'ach to come, a bas-Kol announced "Bogdim Bagdu
u'Bagad, Bogdim Bagdu" (Yeshayah), which Rava (or Rebbi Yitzchak) explains
to mean - that Yisrael will have to be ravaged many times before he comes.
(a) Masa Dumah Eilai Korei mi'Seir; Shomer Mah mi'Laylah, Shomer Mah
1. "Dumah" is - the angel in charge of the spitits.
(b) The spirits asked Dumah - what Hashem said about the coming of Mashi'ach
(i.e. when he will come).
2. ... "Shomer" refers to - Hashem.
3. ... "Laylah", to - Galus.
(c) He answered that the Ge'ulah will come, but only after a protracted
Galus. Alternatively, he might have meant - that he will only come after the
Beis-Hamikdash has been built and destroyed once again, or that it is not
only the Tzadikim who will be rewarded with the coming of Mashi'ach, but the
Resha'im who will be punished for their sins.
(d) We will merit the Ge'ulah - through Tefilah and Teshuvah.
(a) Rebbi Papayas in a Beraisa described Chizkiyah's failure to sing Shirah
before the earth came and did it, as shameful. He made a similar comment
based on the Pasuk in Yisro "va'Yomer Yisro, Baruch Hashem Asher Hitzil
Eschem ... " - where, following the miracles in Egypt, Moshe and six hundred
thousand B'nei Yisrael failed to say 'Baruch Hashem' until Yisro came and
(b) Rav interprets "va'Yichad Yisro" to mean that he passed a sharp sword
(Cherev Chadah) over his flesh (when he circumcised). Shmuel interprets it
to mean - that Yisro's skin creased from the pain that he felt when he heard
about the downfall of Egypt at the Yam-Suf.
(c) Rav Papa learns from there - that one should be careful not to denigrate
a Nochri in the presence of a Ger up to ten generations (even though Yisro
was only the first generation [see Gilyon ha'Shas]).
(d) Not all the soldiers of Sancheriv were fat (Agados Maharsha).
Consequently, we explain the Pasuk "Lachein, Yeshalach ha'Adon Hashem
Tzevakos *be'Mishmanav* Razon" - to mean that Chizkiyahu, with his eight
names, was the right man to cause the downfall of Sancheriv, who also had
(a) In the list of names of ...
1. ... Chizkiyahu, 'Chizkiyahu' omitted - because it is either a corruption
of the words 'she'Chizko Kah' (by curing him of his illness) or an
indication 'she'Chizek es Yisrael la'Avihem she'ba'Shamayim'.
(b) Three of Sancheriv's names were Asanpar, Rabah and Yakira (all with
connotions of greatness). To deserve such honorable names - he did not speak
ill of Eretz Yisrael, but spoke only of exiling the ten tribes to a land
like their own (and not superior to their own).
2. ... Sancheriv, 'Sancheriv' is omitted - because it too, is a corruption
of the words 'she'Sichaso Riv' (his speech is to pick a quarrel [with
Hashem]), or 'she'Sach ve'Nichar Devarim K'lapei Ma'alah' (he spoke and
growled words at Hashem).
(c) Rav and Shmuel actually argue over whether Sancheriv's statement was
wise or foolish. One of them considers it ...
1. ... wise - because had he described it as superior, they would not have
believed him (since there is no more beautiful country than Eretz Yisrael).
(d) Mar Zutra and Rebbi Chanina argue over where he exiled the ten tribes
to. One of them says he exiled them to Harei S'lug, the other one says - to
2. ... foolish - because if the land that he was exiling them to was no
better than their own - then what was the point of saying what he said.
(a) Yisrael did not behave like Sancheriv. When the exiles arrived in a
place called Sus, they compared it to their own land. When they arrived in a
place called ...
1. ... Almin - they compared it to Yerushalayim (which is called 'Beis
(b) Describing the death of Sancheriv, the Pasuk writes "ve'Sachas Kevodo,
Yeikad Yekod ki'Yekod Eish". When Rebbi Yochanan explains "ve'Sachas
Kevodo", 've'Lo Kevodo Mamash', he means - that they were burned below their
clothes (which Rebbi Yochanan refers to as 'Mechabdusai' (that what
dignifies me), meaning that their bodies were burned but not their clothes.
2. ... T'rein Sos, they described it as - twice as beautiful as Eretz
(c) Rebbi Elazar, who refers to "Kevodo" as 'the body' (and not the
clothes) - explains the Pasuk to mean that their souls were burned, but not
their bodies (like the Sereifah of Nadav and Avihu). See also the Sugya in
Shabbos 113b and Rashi there).
(d) Hashem punished Par'oh Himself ("va'Yena'er Hashem es Mitzrayim"), but
Sancheriv, only through a Sheli'ach ("va'Yeitzei Malach Hashem va'Yach
be'Machaneh Ashur") - because Paroh himself sinned (as the Pasuk writes "Mi
Hashem Asher Eshma be'Kolo" [Sh'mos]), whereas Sancheriv sent his Sheli'ach
to blaspheme Hashem (as the Pasuk writes in Melachim "be'Yad Malachecha
(a) 185,000 of Sancheriv's soldiers died overnight (though this statement
will be qualified later).
(b) In Yeshayah, Sancheriv is quoted as referring to "Merom Kitzo", in
Melachim, to "Melon Kitzo". Rebbi Chanina bar Papa reconciles this
discrepancy - by establishing a double plot. Sancheriv was threatening -
first to destroy the Beis-Hamikdash shel Matah ("Merom Kitzo"), and then the
Beis-Hamikdash shel Ma'alah ("Melon Kitzo").
(c) When he claimed that Hashem had sent him to destroy Yerushalayim - he
meant that Ravshakeih (his general) had overheard the prophecy of Yeshayah
warning the people that Sancheriv would destroy them, as we shall now see.
(d) Rav Yosef cites Targum Yonasan to explain the Pasuk in Yeshayah. Targum
interprets the 'Mei ha'Shilo'ach which they rejected - to mean 'Malchus
Beis-David' (because of their modest ways [see Agados Maharsha]), and they
hired R'tzin (King of Aram) and (Pekach) ben Remalyahu (King of Yisrael) to
get rid of them.
(a) Based on a Pasuk in Mishlei, Rebbi Yochanan draws a distinction between
Pekach ben Remelyahu - who would consume forty Sa'ah of fledgling birds for
dessert each day, and Chizkiyahu - who would merely eat a small measure of
(b) When the Navi writes "ve'Lachein Hinei Ma'aleh Aleihem es Mei ha'Nahar
ha'Atzumim ve'ha'Rabim ... ", he is referring to - Sancheriv, who was
destined to destroy them.
(c) Despite the fact that the Navi had indeed called Sancheriv to attack
Yisrael, Sancheriv was nevertheless punished - because the call was only to
destroy Yisrael, not Yehudah (see Agados Maharsha).
(d) Rebbi Elazar bar Berechyah interpret the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Ki Lo Mu'af la'Asher Mutzak Lah" to mean - that the people of the
one who is tired out from learning (Chizkiyah), will not be delivered into
the hands of the one who oppresses them (Sancheriv).
2. ... "ka'Eis ha'Rishon Heikal Artzah Zevulun ve'Artzah Naftali" to mean -
that not like the first ones (the ten tribes) who lightened the yoke of
3. ... "ve'ha'Acharon Hichbid" - are the last ones (the people of
Chizkiyahu), who have taken upon themselves the yoke of Torah-study.
4. ... "Derech ha'Yam Eiver ha'Yarden" - therefore they have merited
miracles like those of the Yam-Suf and the Yarden.
(a) Hashem therefore demanded that Sancheriv - do Teshuvah, and leave
(b) If he refused - he will be rolled around the nations in shame, or he
will be like dung.
(c) The problem with the Pasuk "Acharei ha'Devarim ve'Emes ha'Eilah Ba
Sancheriv Melech Ashur va'Yichan al Yehudah ... " is - that the Torah
("ve'Emes") that the people learned can hardly be a reason for Sancheriv's
(d) Ravina therefore explain - that Sancheriv's arrival followed Hashem's
decision to spare Chizkiyahu the fears involved in having to go out and
bring in Sancheriv's army and destroy it, and to bring it in Himself and
kill them ...
(e) ... and what's more, He swore that that is what He would do - and that
explains the word "ve'Emes" (symbolizing Hashem's seal, which is 'Emes').
(a) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Al Harai Avusenu" - to mean that the corpses strewn around the
mountains would make excellent fodder for Yisrael's horses and animals, and
Rebbi Yitzchak Nafcha that ...
(b) Chizkiyah stuck a sword in the Beis-Hamedrash - and proclaimed that
whoever fails to study Torah will be pierced with it.
2. ... the Pasuk "ve'Chuval Ol Mipnei Shemen" (meaning that the yoke of
Sancheriv will be broken because of the oil of Chizkiyahu) - refers to the
oil of the lamps that Chizkiyah would light in the Shuls and the
Batei-Medrash, to enable the people to learn Torah.
(c) The inspectors discovered from Geives to Antipras - that there was not a
man or woman, a boy or a girl, who was not fully conversant with the Dinim
of Tum'ah and Taharah.
(d) The significance of the Pasuk (describing the generation of Chizkiyah)
"ve'Hayah ba'Yom ha'Hu Yihyeh ... Elef Gefen be'Elef Kesef, le'Shamir
u'le'Shayis Yihyeh" is - that although they did not own much property, and
food prices were high, they were so involved with their Torah-study, that
they left the crops to the birds (so to speak), and didn't bother to pick
(a) When Yeshayah invited the B'nei Yehudah to take the loot of Sancheriv,
they asked him whether it needed to be distributed or whether each person
could help himself (see Agados Maharsha). To which he replied - like the
locusts, where each one helps itself.
(b) Initially, they declined the offer - because they said, the loot
contained the property of the ten tribes, to which they had no right.
(c) When Yeshayah responded "ke'Meshek Geivim Shokek Bo", he meant - that
just as the water brought via pipes to the Mikvah transforms a Tamei into a
Tahor, so too, is loot that passes into the hands of Nochrim, transferred
from the original owner to the new one.
(a) On the day that Sancheriv besieged Yerushalayim, he made ten journeys.
(b) The Pasuk then lists twelve stops. To resolve this discrepancy, we
interpret the last three places in a different context. We explain ...
1. ... "Tzahali Kolech bas-Galim" to mean - that Yisrael, children of
Avraham, Yitzchak and Ya'akov, who performed as many Mitzvos as the waves of
the sea, should pray to Hashem.
(c) We need to say that Avru and Ma'abarah are two different places -
because otherwise, there would only be nine places instead of ten.
2. ... "Hakshivah Layshah" - that it is not Sancheriv whom they need to
fear, but Nevuchadnetzar, who is compared to a Layish (a lion).
3. ... "Aniyah Anasos" - as Yirmiyah, who came from Anasos, would prophesy.
(a) In spite of the fact that the Pasuk uses the Lashon "Layish", whereas
Yirmiyah referred to Nevuchadnetzar as "Alah *Aryeh* mi'Subko" - the
connection is firm, since both mean 'a lion'.
(b) Anasos was situated in the portion of Binyamin. Yirmiyah however - was
from the tribe of Levi, since he was a Kohen.