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Sanhedrin 93



(a) Rebbi Yochanan extrapolates from the sequence in the Pasuk, which describes the 'three' men walking unscathed in the burning furnace and the fourth figure resembling an angel - that Tzadikim are greater than angels.

(b) Rebbi Tanchum bar Chanila'i explains how all the nations of the world came and tapped Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah on the face - because, they claimed in wonder, if they had such a great G-d, how could they (Yisrael, whom the three Tzadikim represented) prostrate themselves before the image?

(c) Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah responded with the Pasuk in Daniel - "Lecha Hashem ha'Tzedakah ve'Lanu Boshes ha'Panim".

(d) Rebbi Yonasan explained the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Amarti E'eleh be'Tamar" - to mean that Hashem thought (Kevayachol) that the whole of Yisrael (which is compared to a date-palm) was on His side; however ...
2. ... "Ochzah le'Sansinav" - He 'discovers' (Kevayachol) that He only had a thin branch to hold on to (Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah, who, out of all the Tzadikim, were the only ones to refuse to prostrate themselves before the idol).
(e) Yisrael is compared to a palm-tree - because like it, they only have one heart (that is dedicated to their Father in Heaven).
(a) In the Pasuk in Zecharyah ...
1. ... "Ra'isi ha'Laylah" refers to - Hashem's intention to turn the entire world into night (to plunge it into darkness).
2. ... "Ish Rochev al Sus" refers to - Hashem (who is called "Ish Milchamah").
3. ... "Sus Adom" means - that He meant to turn the world into blood (to kill everyone).
4. ... "ve'Hu Omed Bein ha'Hadasim" - until He saw Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah (since Tzadikim are compared to myrtles).
5. ... "Asher ba'Metzulah" - who were in Bavel (which is called by this name on account of its depth).
6. ... "Susim ... Levanim" - which is when the red horses turned white.
(b) Rav Papa extrapolates from this final D'rashah - that dreaming about a white horse bodes well.

(c) According to Rav, after Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah were saved from the furnace, they died from an Ayin ha'Ra, whereas according to Shmuel, they drowned - in the spit of those who spat at them in disgust after they left the furnace (see Marg'lis ha'Yam)?

(d) Rebbi Yochanan maintains - that they actually went to Eretz Yisrael, where they married and had children.

(a) A similar Machlokes Tana'im is cited in the Beraisa between Rebbi Eliezer, Rebbi Yehoshua and the Chachamim, respectively. The Chachamim there prove from the Pasuk "Sh'ma Na Yehoshua ha'Kohen ha'Gadol Atah ve'Rei'echa ... ki Anshei Mofes Heimah" - that Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah went to Eretz Yisrael, where Yehoshua Kohen Gadol served in that capacity, since they are the "men of Miracles" referred to in the Pasuk.

(b) The problem we have with Daniel in respect of the episode with Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah is - where he was when the three Tzadikim were thrown into the furnace. Why was he not thrown in together with them?

(c) According to Rav, he went to dig a river in Teverya (or in Har ha'Melech), and according to Shmuel, the king sent him to bring Aspasta seeds. According to Rebbi Yochanan, he sent him to Egypt - to bring back some large Egyptian sows for breeding.

(d) We reconcile this with Todos the doctor, who states in a Beraisa that every cow or sow that left Egypt had to have its womb removed, to avoid breeding it with their own males - by establishing the ones that Daniel brought with him as being small (young) ones, which the authorities, unaware that they were intended for breeding, permitted him to take out.

(a) When the Beraisa states 'Sheloshah Hayu be'Osah Eitzah' - it is referring to the plan to get Daniel out of harm's way, before Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah were cast into the furnace.

(b) Hashem wanted Daniel out of the way - so that people would realize the greatness of the three Tzadikim, and not attribute their salvation to Daniel's righteousness (since he would have certainly been caught and thrown into the furnace together with them).

(c) Nevuchadnetzar viewed Daniel - as a god (even going so far as to prostrate himself in front of him).

(d) This explains the interest that ...

1. ... Daniel himself had to be out of the way - because he was afraid, that, due to the Pasuk in Va'eschanan "Pesilei Eloheihem Tisrefun ba'Eish", he would succumb to the fire.
2. ... Nevuchadnetzar had to remove him from the scene - because he did not want people to say that he had burned his own god in fire.
(a) Achav ben Kulyah and Tzidkiyah ben Ma'aseyah were - false prophets.

(b) After portraying them as a public curse, the Pasuk writes about them "Asher Kalam Melech Bavel", which Rebbi Yochanan in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yochai explains to mean - that they were burned to a cinder (hence the Lashon "Kalam" [rather than 'Sarfam'], from the word 'K'layos', ears of corn, that are generally roasted).

(c) The disgusting thing they did - was to visit Nevuchadnetzar's daughter, when each one tried to convince her, in the Name of Hashem, to be intimate with his colleague.

(d) When Nevuchadnetzar's daughter reported their visit to her father - he instructed her to send them to him.

(a) When Nevuchadnetzar told them that ...
1. ... Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah had informed him that what they planned to do was prohibited, they replied - that they were as much prophets as Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah were, and that Hashem had revealed this to them and not to Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah.
2. ... he wished to put them to the test by throwing them into furnace, to see whether they too, would survive, like the three Tzadikim had - they replied that this was unfair, since the first ones were three, whereas they were only two.
(b) When Nevuchadnetzar then gave his consent to pick anyone they wished to make up the threesome - they chose Yehoshua Kohen Gadol, thinking that they would be saved on his merit.

(c) We learn from the Pasuk "ha'Lo Zeh Ud Mutzal me'Eish" - that although Yehoshua Kohen Gadol himself emerged from the furnace intact, his clothes were scorched (hence he is referred to as an "Ud Mutzal me'Eish" [a log saved from the fire]).

(d) He explained to Nevuchadnetzar that his clothes were burned, whereas the clothes of ...

1. ... Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah were not - because they were three, whereas he was only one.
2. ... Avraham Avinu were not - because Avraham in the furnace was not in the company of Resha'im, whereas *he* was.
(e) The adage that emerges from this is - that two dry logs cause a wet one to burn.
(a) In spite of what we just explained, Rav Papa presents a legitimate reason for Yehoshua Kohen Gadol's punishment - because his sons married women who were not fitting for the Kehunah, and he did not rebuke them.

(b) This is even hinted in the Pasuk, where the Navi describes Yehoshua Kohen Gadol as wearing - dirty clothes, which cannot be taken literally, and must mean that although he himself was clean, his clothes were not (an allusion to his sons who had sinned, even though he had not).




(a) Rebbi Tanchum cites bar Kapara in Tzipori, who discusses the Pasuk "Sheish Se'orim ha'Eileh Nasan Li Bo'az". The problem bar Kapara has with explaining the six barleys to mean ...
1. ... literally six grains of barley is - that Bo'az would never have given Rus such a miserly gift, particularly in view of the Mishnah in Pe'ah, which specifies the minimum gift to a poor person in the barn as six Kabin (1 Kav = 24 egg-volumes).
2. ... six Sa'in (1 Sa'ah = 144 egg-volumes) of barley is - that this is far too much to expect a woman to carry.
(b) Neither can the Pasuk be referring to six Kabin or six Lugin (1 Lug = 6 egg-volumes [which *is* feasible for a woman to carry]) - because one only tends to bring Sa'in into the barn, and not other measurements (see also Agados Maharsha at the end of Amud Alef).

(c) What the Pasuk means - is that Bo'az gave Rus six barley grains, but not to sustain her (which presumably, he gave her separately), only as a hint that six great Tzadikim would descend from her, each of whom would be blessed with six B'rachos.

(d) Three of the Tzadikim hinted there were David, Mashi'ach and Daniel. The other three were - Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah.

(a) The six B'rachos of David are contained in the Pasuk in Shmuel "va'Ya'an Echad me'ha'Ne'arim va'Yomer Hinei Ra'isi ben le'Yishai Beis-ha'Lachmi ... ". The 'lad' said this - because Shaul was beset by an evil spirit and was looking for a harpist to remove it.

(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explains the six B'rachos. By "Yode'a Nagein" Do'eg meant that David knew how to ask Kashyos, and by "ve'Gibor Chayil" - that he also knew how to give answers.

(c) When the 'lad' said ...

1. ..."ve'Ish Milchamah", he meant - that he knew how to 'fight the battles of Torah' (i.e. Pilpul)
2. ... "ve'Navon Davar" - that he was able to extrapolate one thing from another (Meivin Davar mi'Toch Davar).
(d) "ve'Ish To'ar" meant that he could prove his point down to the Halachah, and "va'Hashem Imo" - that the Halachah was always like him.
(a) Shaul's response to this was - that his son Yonasan possessed all those qualities, all that is, except for the last one, which even he himself did not possess.

(b) The significance of the Pasuk ...

1. ... (in connection with Shaul) "u've'Chol Asher Yifneh Yarshi'a" is - proof of what we just said (because if Shaul himself transgressed the Torah [see Agados Maharsha], then the Halachah would obviously not have been like him [like Rebbi Eliezer, like whom we do not generally rule because he was in Cherem]).
2. ... (in connection with David) "u've'Chol Asher Yifneh Yatzli'ach" (the true quotation is "be'Chol Derachav Maskil") is - proof that the Halachah is always like him.
(c) The 'lad' who told Shaul about David was - Do'eg ha'Edomi, an outstanding Talmid-Chacham who was even the Av Beis-Din of the Beis-Din ha'Gadol.

(d) Rav Yehudah refers to his statement as Lashon ha'Ra - because he heaped all these praises on David (see Agados Maharsha) in order to kindle the spark of jealousy in Shaul's heart, in the hope that he would subsequently kill him.

(a) The Pasuk "ve'Nachah Alav Ru'ach Hashem, Ru'ach Chochmah u'Vinah, Ru'ach Eitzah u'Gevurah - Ru'ach Da'as ve'Yir'as Hashem" pertains to Mashi'ach.

(b) Rebbi Alexandri explains the Pasuk there "ve'Hericho be'Yir'as Hashem" to mean that he is loaded with Mitzvos and suffering. According to Rava however, based on the Pasuk there "ve'Lo le'Mar'eh Einav Yishpot ... ", it means - that he will able to judge people with his sense of smell alone.

(c) ben Kuziba - ruled Yisrael after the dynasty of Hurdus (Herod) terminated, for two and a half years.

(d) The Chachamim killed him - because he claimed to be Mashi'ach, yet he was unable to judge by means of smell (see also Metzapeh Eisan).

(a) The Pasuk "Asher Ein Bahem Kol Me'um, ve'Tuvei Mar'eh, u'Maskilim be'Chol Chochmah, ve'Yod'ei Da'as, u'Mevinei Mada, va'Asher Ko'ach Bahem La'amod be'Heichal ha'Melech ... " - is written about Daniel, Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah.

(b) The meaning of ...

1. ... "Asher Ein Bahem Me'um is - that they did not even have a puncture made by the lancet of a blood-letter (common practice in those days) see also Agados Maharsha.
2. ... "va'Asher Ko'ach Bahem La'amod be'Heichal ha'Melech". Besides having to hold back their laughter and not talking, according to Rebbi Chama b'Rebbi Chanina - they also had to stay awake and refrain from relieving themselves, for the long hours that they stood before Nevuchadnetzar.
(c) According to Rebbi Elazar, all four above-mentioned Tzadikim were from Yehudah. Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni however, maintains - that only Daniel was from the tribe of Yehudah. The other three were from other tribes. As for the six Tzadikim that would descend from Rus, cited above - he does not subscribe to that opinion. Note, that a number of the forthcoming opinions disagree with statements made earlier.

(d) The Navi Yeshayah told Chizkiyah ha'Melech that some of his descendants (Daniel, Chananya, Mishael and Azaryah) would be "Sarisim", which means eunuchs, according to Rav. The reason that they did that to them is - because someone who has no family is more free to serve the king diligently (see Agados Maharsha).

(a) Rebbi Chanina interprets "Sarisim" to mean - that Avodah-Zarah was uprooted (at the time of the episode with Chananyah, Mishael and Azaryah).

(b) Rav will explain the Pasuk ...

1. ... that we quoted earlier "Asher Ein Bahem Kol Me'um" to refer - specifically to the time that they were appointed (but not necessarily later).
2. ... "ve'Chaval Lo Isai Behon" to mean - that they were not wounded from the fire.
3. ... "ve'Rei'ach Nur Lo Adas Behon" to mean - that they were even wounded from the smoke.
(c) Rav has no problem with the Pasuk "Koh Amar Hashem la'Sarisim Asher Yishmeru es Shabsosai ... ", in spite of its derogatory connotations - because in fact, he concedes that "Sarisim" also incorporates Rebbi Chanina's interpretation (in which case, it refers here, to the nullification of the Avodah-Zarah, even according to Rav).

(d) Rebbi Chanina (who does not hold that they were eunuchs) explains the Pasuk there "be'Veisi u've'Chomosai Yad va'Shem Tov mi'Banim u'mi'Banos" to mean (not that they could not have children, but) - that what Hashem would yet give them would be better than the children that they had already had and who had died young.

(e) Rebbi Tanchum quoting bar Kapara in Tzipori, explains the end of that Pasuk "Shem Olam Eten Lo Asher Lo Yikares" to mean - that he would merit a Seifer to be written in his name.

(a) Rebbi Yirmiyah bar Aba learns from the Pasuk in Nechemyah "Zachrah Li Elokai le'Tovah" - that Nechemyah patted himself on the back (by asking Hashem to remember his good deeds), which is the reason why, despite the fact that the majority of Seifer Ezra was said by Nechemyah (see also Agados Maharsha), it is called Ezra (and Nechemyah in effect, does not have a Seifer called after him [even though most of Ezra is unofficially referred to as 'Nechemyah']).

(b) Granted that David too, said "Zochreini Hashem bi'Retzon Amecha" - but he was asking on the merits of Hashem's mercy, not on that of his own good deeds.

(c) According to Rav Yosef, Nechemyah too, was asking on the merits of Hashem's mercy, and the reason that he was punished in this way was - for speaking derogatively about his predecessors, including Daniel, who was greater than him, accusing them of not lowering the market prices of basic commodities.

(d) We know that Daniel was greater than Nechemyah from the fact that he saw a vision, which the men who were with him were unable to see. And those men, according to Rebbi Yirmiyah (or Rebbi Chiya bar Aba) were none other than - Chagai, Zecharyah and Malachi, who were prophets (which Nechemyah was not).

(a) Daniel was greater than Chagai, Zacharyah and Malachi in that he saw the vision, whereas they did not, and they were greater than him - inasmuch as they were Nevi'im, which he was not.

(b) Daniel was exiled to Bavel with Yechonyah, eleven years before the Churban, whereas Nechemyah led Yisrael out of Galus Bavel seventy years after the Churban.

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