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Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Sanhedrin 82



(a) Initially, when Rav Kahana asked Rav what punishment was due to a Bo'el Aramis who was not killed by a zealous person - he could not recall the answer.

(b) He remembered however, following a dream that Rav Kahana related to him, based on a Pasuk in Mal'achi. "Bagdah Yehudah" he said, referred to Avodah-Zarah. He interpreted ...

1. ... "ve'So'evah Ne'es'sah be'Yisrael ... " - as homosexuality.
2. ... "Ki Chilel Yehudah es K'dosh Hashem" - as prostitution.
3. ... "u'Ba'al Bas Keil Neichar" - as having relations with a Nochris.
(c) And the Pasuk concludes "Yachris Hashem la'Ish Asher Ya'asenah ... ". Rav interprets the words ...
1. ... "Er ve'Onah be'Ohalei Ya'akov" - as pertaining to a sinner who is a Talmid-Chacham, and who will leave no children or grandchildren who are Talmidei-Chachamim.
2. ... "u'Magish Minchah la'Hashem Tzevakos" - as pertaining to a sinner who is a Kohen, and who will leave no children or grandchildren who will bring a Minchah to Hashem (i.e. who will serve in the Beis-Hamikdah).
(a) Rebbi Chiya bar Avuyah ...
1. ... extrapolates from the Pasuk "u'Ba'al bas Keil Neichar" - that if someone who has relations with a Nochris, it is as if he had married a foreign god (because otherwise, gods don't have daughters.
2. ... says - that the skull of Yehoyakim was left lying at the gates of Yerushalayim, an on it was written 'Od ve'Zos Acheres' (This and another one).
(b) When Rebbi P'reida's grandfather once came across it - he tried twice to bury it, but each time the earth rejected it; so he concluded that it must be the skull of Yehoyakim, about which the Navi Yirmiyah prophesied 'Kevuras Chamor Yikaver' (and dead donkeys tended to be left lying in the streets in those days).

(c) What prompted ...

1. ... him to wrap it in silks and place it in a box - was the fact that it was not Kavod for a king's skull to be left lying in the open like that.
2. ... his wife to burn it - was the neighbor's comments that it must be the skull of Rebbi P'reida's first wife, whom he could not forget.
(d) Rebbi P'reida's grandfather's final words on the subject were - that the prophetic words 'Zos ve'Od Achares' written on the skull had now been fulfilled.
(a) When Rav Dimi arrived from Eretz Yisrael, he stated that it was the Beis-Din of the Chashmona'im who decreed on 'Nashga' - the acronym of Nidah, Shifchah, Goyah, Eishes Ish.

(b) In this context, we must interpret ...

1. ... 'Nidah" to mean - that even though Halachically, there is no such thing as Nidah by Nochrim, the fact that she is technically a Nidah is a desecration of Kedushas Yisrael.
2. ... 'Shifchah' - that Yisrael are considered the master nation, and the Nochrim, like a Shifchah.
3. ... 'Eishes Ish' - that (like we just explained by Nidah) Chazal took into account the fact that it resembles Eishes Ish, even though, min ha'Torah, 'Eishes Ish' does not pertain to them, only 'Be'ulas Ba'al'.
(c) And when Ravin arrived, he presented it as 'Nashgaz'. The 'Zayin' stands for - Zonah.

(d) The reason that ...

1. ... Ravin rejects Rav Dimi's version is - because, as we jut explained, there is no Ishus by Nochrim (and neither did the Rabbanan institute it, in his opinion).
2. ... Rav Dimi rejects Ravin's is - because Nochrim do not tend to make their wives Hefker.
(a) Rav Chisda rules that if someone asks a Rav whether he may go ahead and kill a Bo'el Aramis - he is told that he may not (in other words, the concession only applies to someone who acts spontaneously).

(b) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan says the same thing, adding that had Zimri ...

1. ... separated from Kozbi - and Pinchas would have then killed him, he would have been Chayav Miysah (because the concession to kill them only applies whilst they are actually involved in the act).
2. ... had turned round and killed Pinchas (in self-defense) -he would have been Patur.
(c) What prompted Zimri to do what he did - was his tribe (Shimon)'s request, that the judges appointed by Moshe were beginning to kill the sinners (mainly from Shimon), and that he should intervene on their behalf.

(d) So obliged by taking twenty-four thousand people with him, and accosting Kozbi.

(a) When Zimri accosted her Kozbi she initially declined on the basis of her father's instructions to go for Yisrael's leader (Moshe), exclusively.

(b) Zimri's responded - by pointing out that not only was he also a leader of a tribe (Shelumiel ben Tzurishaday, the Nasi of Shimon), but that his greatgrandfather Shimon (the second-born of Ya'akov) was senior to Levi, Moshe's greatgrandfather (who was Only the third-born).

(c) He then - grabbed Kozbi by the hair and took her before Moshe, whom he asked whether she was permitted or not, and if not, who had then allowed him to marry a daughter of Yisro (also from Midyan).

(d) Moshe and the men who were with him reacted - by weeping. He did not do what Pinchas did - because he forgot the Halachah.

(a) Moshe forgot the Halachah, but Pinchas remembered, as Rav informs us, quoting the Pasuk "va'Yar Pinchas ben Elazar" ('Ra'ah Ma'aseh, ve'Nizkar Halachah').

(b) He reminded Moshe that, when he came down from Har Sinai - he had taught them 'ha'Bo'el es ha'Kutis, Kana'in Pog'in Bo'.

(c) When he referred to 'Achi Avi Aba', he referred to Moshe (his grandfather Aharon's brother).

(d) Moshe's famous reply was - 'Karyana de'Igresa Iyhu Lehavi Parvanka' ('The one who reads the letter is the one who should carry out its instructions').

(a) When, to explain "va'Yar Pinchas", Shmuel quotes the dictum "Ein Chochmah, ve'Ein Tevunah ve'Eitzah Neged Hashem", he means - that Pinchas recalled the Halachah that when there is a Chilul Hashem, it is not the time to give honor to one's Rebbe, but to act, which explains why Pinchas went ahead and killed Zimri and Kozbi, and did not wait for Mosha to do it.

(b) According to Rebbi Yitzchak Amar Rebbi Elazar, he saw a Mal'ach - who began killing the people. He then removed the metal from the tip of the wooden spear - to hide his true intentions from the B'nei Shimon (as we will now see).

(c) We learn from the words "va'Yikach Romach be'Yado" - that it is forbidden to enter the Beis-Hamedrash (from where he now set out on his mission).

(d) To gain entry into the tent where Zimri and Kozbi were, he complained to the B'nei Shimon - that he did not see why the B'nei Shimon were greater than the B'nei Levi (his tribe [i.e. why *they* should have all the fun, whilst his tribe practiced restraint]).

(e) The B'nei Shimon responded with the words - 'Let him enter. The Tzadikim have permitted it!')




(a) Six miracles occurred with Pinchas.

(b) The first miracle was that Zimri did not separate from Kozbi (which would have forbidden Pinchas to take any action). Zimri might have also called out for help, but miraculously did not?

(c) The third miracle was that Pinchas (who was not an experienced swordsman) pierced Zimri and Kozbi in exactly the right spot, and the fourth miracle was as he picked them up, they did not slide off the sword (to show the people that he killed them for their sin, and not for any personal reason).

(d) The miracle that occurred ...

1. ... as he carried them through the tent entrance was - that an angel raised the lintel for Pinchas to carry them through without having to bend down.
2. ... after that was - that another angel began killing the B'nei Shimon, to keep them occupied looking after their dead, leaving them no time to kill Pinchas for having killed their Nasi.
(a) When depositing them in front of Hashem, Pinchas declared 'What, for these, twenty-four thousand of Yisrael had to die'?

(b) According to Rebbi Elazar, the Pasuk writes "va'Ya'amod Pinchas va'Yefalel", and not va'Yispalel" - to hint that his prayers achieved wonders (from the word 'Pela'os'), as we shall now see.

(c) As a result of his prayers ...

1. ... Hashem answered the Angels, who wanted to kill him for his brazenness - that he had inherited his zealousness from his ancestor Levi (who, together with his brother Shimon, had killed the town of Sh'chem in their zealousness for their daughter. But he was also an averter of anger the grandson of an averter of anger (Aharon who, like Pinchas, stopped a plague [with the Ketores]).
2. ... the Torah answered the tribes (who accused him of acting brashly because he was the grandson of 'Puti', alias Putiel, Yisro - who had fattened calves for Avodah-Zarah), by referring to him as Pinchas ben Aharon ben ha'Kohen (who represented Yisrael before Hashem).
(d) For having atoned for K'lal Yisrael - Pinchas was rewarded with a. a covenant of peace; b. with everlasting Kehunah.
(a) Rav Nachman Amar Rav explains the significance of the four hundred and twenty four Be'ilos that Zimri made with Kozbi - in that they made him weak, rendering him incapable of retaliating (though this would weaken the first two miracles which we discussed earlier). The connection with the Pasuk "Zarzir Mosnayim O Tayash" is - that the numerical value of "Zarzir" is four hundred and twenty four (see Agados Maharsha).

(b) The continuation "u'Melech Alkom Imo" means - that Hashem (who is called 'Melech Alkom) was on his side, and had he known that, he would not have needed to wait for Zimri to become weak.

(c) The Beraisa disagrees. According to the Tana - Zimri had sixty Be'ilos with Kozbi.

(d) When the Tana says 'Ad she'Na'aseh ke'Beitzah (or ke'Beitzim) ha'Muzeres' - he means that his testicles because soft like scrambled eggs from the vast amount of seed and the many Be'ilos.

(e) And he also described him as a row (of plants) full of water.

(a) Rav Kahana describes the place where they lay as being sixty Amos. Rav Yosef quoting a Beraisa, describes her womb - as being sixty Amos long (though it is not clear what these measurements mean).

(b) Although, as Rav Sheishes says, Kozbi's real name was Sh'vilna'i, the Torah nevertheless calls her 'Kozbi' - because she let down father (who had ordered her to go for Moshe exclusively, as we explained earlier).

(c) Others say that Kozbi is the acronym of 'Kus Bi Am Zeh', which means - 'Destroy this nation through me'.

(d) And the meaning of ...

1. ... the saying 'What is Sh'vilna'i doing between the canes and the willows', or 'among the canes' means -that it is a secluded place, and that one can therefore assume that she is there, in order to commit adultery.
2. ... 'Gafsah le'Imah' means - that by virtue of the fact that people tend to refer to a Zonah (a harlot) as a 'Zonah bas Zonah', she is branding her mother as being a Zonah.
(a) Zimri actually had five names. We have already explained that his real name was 'Sh'lumiel ... ' and 'Zimri' because 'she'Na'aseh ke'Beitzah ha'Muzeres'. He was called 'ben Salu' - because he either caused the people to describe his family as a sinful one or he caused Hashem to examine their sins.

(b) He was also called 'Shaul' because he lent himself out for sin. And he was called 'ben ha'Cana'anis' - because he behaved like the Cana'anim (who were a highly immoral nation).

(a) When Rav Acha bar Huna asked Rav Sheishes whether a Kohen who served be'Tum'ah is Chayav Miysah or not, he resolved the She'eilah from our Mishnah - Kohen she'Shimesh be'Tum'ah, Ein Echav ha'Kohanim Mevi'in Oso le'Beis-Din ... ', and if he was Chayav Miysah, why not just leave the sinner to die at the at the hand of Hashem?

(b) We counter this argument however - by suggesting that if he was not Chayav Miysah, how could we allow the Kohanim to kill him (the exact opposite viewpoint [as we argued earlier])?

(c) We reconcile this theory with our Mishnah which rules ...

1. ... 'Mi she'Lakah ve'Shanah, Beis-Din Machnisin Oso le'Kipah' (even though no Chiyuv Miysah is mentioned here) - by reestablishing the Mishnah like Rebbi Yirmiyah Amar Resh Lakish, by Malkiyos of Chayvei Kerisus.
2. ... 'Gonev es ha'Kisva' - by reestablishing it by someone who steals a 'K'li Shareis', like Rav Yehudah (as we learned earlier).
3. ... 'ha'Mekalel es ha'Kosem' because of its similarity to Mevarech es Hashem (as Tani Rav Yosef taught us earlier).
4. ... 'Bo'el es ha'Kutis' - because, as we learned above, Rav accepted Rav Kahana's dream, that a Kohen she'Shimesh be'Tum'ah is indeed Chayav Miysah bi'Yedei Shamayim.
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