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Sanhedrin 38



(a) Rebbi instructed his servants to give Yehudah and Chizkiyah (sons of Rebbi Chiya) some wine - because they sat silently at a Se'udah without saying anything.

(b) Having drunk, they stated - that ben David (Mashi'ach) will only come when the heads of the Galus in Bavel and the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael will be destroyed?

(c) Rebbi, the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael, reacted with the words - 'Banim, Kotzim Atem Matilin Li be'Einai!', accusing them of setting out to hurt him.

(d) Rebbi Chiya defended his sons - by pointing out that since 'Yayin' had the same numerical value as 'Sod', when wine goes in, secrets come out (meaning that what they had said was nothing personal, but the truth).

(a) Rav Chisda Amar Mar Ukva (or Amar Rav Chisda Darash Mari bar Mar) explains the Pasuk "va'Yishkod Hashem al ha'Ra'ah va'Yevi'ehah Aleinu Ki Tzadik Hashem Elokeinu" to mean - that Hashem displayed His righteousness by leaving Galus Yechonyah intact when Galus Tzidkiyah arrived, since they were big Talmidei-Chachamim, who would ensure that with the aid of the great Yeshivos that they set up there, Torah would flourish during the Galus.

(b) The basis for this is the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'ha'Charash ve'ha'Misger Elef" (hinting at the thousand Talmidei-Chachamim who accompanied Yechonyah into Galus). They were called ...

1. ... "Charash" - because once they began to speak (in Divrei Torah), everyone else remained silent.
2. ... "Misger" - because once they stopped (leaving a question unanswered), nobody was able to resume, since there was nobody who was able to find an answer.
(c) Ula connects Hashem's righteousness to the Pasuk in Devarim "*ve'Noshantem* ba'Aretz ... (va'Avadtem Meheirah)" - whose numerical value is eight hundred and fifty-two, the equivalent to the number of years that they were destined to remain in Eretz Yisrael, before being sent into exile. Hashem changed His mind however, and sent them to Bavel two years prematurely, in order to avoid the fulfillment of the Pasuk "Ki Avod Toveidun Maher ve'Hishamed Tishameidun".


1. They build the Beis-Hamikdash - four hundred and eighty years after arriving in Eretz Yisrael.
2. The Beis-Hamikdash was destroyed - four hundred and ten years later.
(e) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learns from the D'rashah of "ve'Noshantem" - that when Hashem says "Meheirah", He means eight-hundred and fifty-two years.
(a) When the Beraisa, in addition to the reasons given in our Mishnah for Hashem having created only one man, adds ...
1. ... 'she'Lo Yih'yu ha'Tzadikim Omrim Anu B'nei Tzadik', the Tana means - that the Tzadikim will argue that since they are sons of a righteous god, they do not need to keep away from sin, since they are anyway not prone to sin.
2. ... 've'ha'Resha'im Omrim, Anu B'nei Rasha', the Tana means - that the Resha'im will claim that they cannot help sinning because they are sons of a wicked god.
(b) When he says 'she'Lo Yih'yu Mishpachos Misgaros Zu ba'Zu, the Tana seems to be repeating the argument of 'my father is greater than your father' mentioned in our Mishnah. And when he adds 'Mipnei ha'Gazlanim u'Mipnei ha'Chamsanim', he means - that they will steal each other's land on the pretext that it had originally belonged to their respective god, and that they are merely taking it back.

(c) True, people are guilty of that crime anyway - but at least Hashem has given them no legal argument to back up their claim.

(d) Our Mishnah referred to Hashem's praise worthiness in creating everyone with a different face. He did that - to prevent people from stealing each other's wives or property, on the pretext that they are the husband or the owner.

(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, lists three things by which each person is unique. Two of them are voice and looks, the third, is - Da'as (the workings of the mind).

(b) He created each person with a different ...

1. ... voice and appearance - to avoid people from committing adultery, as we explained earlier.
2. ... mind - to enable them to protect their property against thieves, by outwitting would-be thieves.
(c) Another Beraisa lists three reasons why Hashem created Adam on Erev Shabbos; one to counter the heretics, one to put the person in his place and one for his benefit. Consequently, the three reasons are - so that heretics will not be able to claim that Adam assisted Hashem in the creation; so that man should realize how insignificant he is, considering that a gnat was created before he was, and so that man should enter the world and find everything ready for his benefit.

(d) In the context of the third reason, according to the Tana ...

1. ... "Chochmas Bansah Beisah" - refers to Midas ha'Chochmah, with which Hashem created the world.
2. ... "Chatzvah Amudehah Shiv'ah" - refers to the seven days of the Creation.
3. ... "Tavchah Tivchah, Maschah Yeinah, Af Archah Shulchanah" - refers to the earth and the rivers, all the pleasures of this world (which are compared to a laid table).
4. ... "Shalchah Na'arosehah (al Gapei Meromei K'ras)" - refers to Adam and Chavah.
(a) To resolve the discrepancy between the Pasuk "al Gapei ... " (implying that Hashem placed Adam in a high location) and that of "al Kisei", Rabah bar bar Chanah explains - 'al Gapei', before he sinned, and 'al Kisei', after he sinned.

(b) The Pasuk in Mishlei poses a question "Mi Pesi Yasur Heinah?" - meaning 'Which fool caused Adam to approach here (the Tree of Knowledge)'?

(c) And the Pasuk replies - 'The one who is lacking understanding (the woman) told him to'.

(d) It is from the Pasuk "No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv" - that we ascribe the term "Chasar Leiv" in Mishlei to Chavah (see Agados Maharsha).

(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Glom Rae Eunuch" - that Adam was created from all over the world (wherever the eyes can see).

(b) The basis for Rav Oshaya Amar Rav saying that ...

1. ... Adam's body was made from the earth of Bavel is - the depth of Bavel, which indicates that Hashem must have taken a lot of earth from there to form him.
2. ... his head was made from the earth in Eretz Yisrael is - the fact that Eretz Yisrael is both the highest and the most important of all the lands.
3. ... his buttocks were made from Ark de'Agma is - the fact that it is the deepest part of Bavel.
(c) His remaining limbs were made - from the rest of the world.



(a) Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Achai) bar Chanina describes what took place on each of the twelve hours of the sixth day of the Creation. If the earth from which he was made was piled up in the first hour and he became a Golem in the second, in the third hour - Hashem formed his limbs.

(b) In the fourth hour Hashem breathed a Neshamah into him and in the fifth, he stood up. In the sixth - he named all the animals.

(c) In the seventh hour he married Chavah, and in the ninth, he was commanded not to eat from the Eitz ha'Da'as. In the eighth hour - 'Two went to bed, and four climbed out' (Adam, Chavah, Kayin and his twin sister [see Tosfos]).

(d) We know that Adam was expelled from Gan Eden in the twelfth hour; in the tenth hour - he sinned, and the eleventh, he was judged.

(a) From the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Adam bi'Yekar ve'Lo Yalin", we learn - that Adam did not even manage to stay one night in Gan Eden before he was expelled from there.
2. ... "Nimshal ka'Beheimos Nidmu", Rami bar Chana learns - that a wild animal is not able to kill a human-being unless, on account of the person's sins, the wild animal perceives him as a wild animal.
(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav describes the dialogue between Hashem and certain groups of angels. They commented "Mah Enosh Ki Sizkerenu ... " - after Hashem had told them - about man's behavior.

(c) Hashem responded to that - by placing His little finger among them and burning them.

(d) After the same had happened to a second group of angels, the third group (after alluding to the fate that the first two groups suffered) - replied that since nothing came of the first two sets of angels who tried to stop Hashem from creating man, Hashem, who is Master of the world should do as He sees fit.

(a) Hashem's response to the angels, when they pointed to the generation of the flood and of the tower, and asked Him whether the first groups of angels were not right, was - that He had the patience to wait until old age (for them to do Teshuvah - see Melo ha'Ro'im'.

(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim ve'ad Ketzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as the distance between one end of the world to the other".
2. ... "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani *va'Tashes Alai Kapecha*" - that after he sinned, Hashem placed His Hand on him and shrank him down to size.
(c) Rebbi Elazar learns from the same Pasuk "le'Min ha'Yom Asher Bara Elokim es ha'Adam al ha'Aretz u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam ha'Rishon was as tall as the distance between one end of the world to the other".

(d) We reconcile the two seemingly contradictory Pesukim - by simply equating the two distances.

(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav extrapolates from the Lashon of "Yakru" in the Pasuk in Tehilim (in connection with the creation of Adam discussed earlier) "ve'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa Keil" (meaning "How honored are Your friends (the Tzadikim), in my eyes, Hashem!") - that Adam spoke Arama'ic (since 'Yakru' in this sense is of Arama'ic origin [see Agado Maharsha in Bava Basra 55b DH 'Asidin Tzadikim').

(b) Adam made this declaration - after Hashem had shown him each subsequent generation together with its Darshanim and its Chachamim, including Rebbi Akiva, in whose Torah he rejoiced, but whose death saddened him.

(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explains the Pasuk "Vayikra Hashem Elokim el ha'Adam Vayomer Lo *Ayeka*" - as the acronym of 'le'An Natah Libecha?' (where is your heart turning), from which he extrapolates that Adam had leanings towards heresy (see Agados Maharsha).

(d) The Pasuk writes in Hoshe'a "ve'Heimah ke'Adam Avru *B'ris*". Based on the Pasuk ...

1. ... "es *B'risi* Heifar", Rebbi Yitzchak explains this Pasuk to mean - that Adam pulled back the skin of his B'ris Milah, to make himself an Areil (see Agados Maharsha).
2. ... "Vayomru, al Asher Azvu es B'ris Hashem Elokei Avosam", Rav Nachman explains it to mean - that he was a Kofer ba'Ikar (that he denied Hashem's existence).
(a) Rebbi Eliezer says in Pirkei Avos that one should study Torah diligently and know what to reply to an Apikores (which normally pertains to someone who questions the value of Talmidei-Chachamim), which Rebbi Yochanan qualifies - by restricting it to gentiles (because Jewish Apikorsim tend to reject answers, and even use them to strengthen their own beliefs).

(b) Rebbi Yochanan says that each of the many Pesukim in the Torah which insinuate that Hashem spoke to His colleagues (Kevayachol) - has a counter proof (either in the form of another Pasuk close by, or from the very phrase itself), which states that Hashem is One.

(c) As if to prove Rebbi Eliezer's statement, to counter the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Na'aseh Adam", Rebbi Yochanan cites the Pasuk - "Va'yivra Elokim es ha'Adam be'Tzalmo".
2. ... "Havah Nerdah ve'Navlah Sham Sefasam", he cites the Pasuk - Va'yered Hashem li'Re'os es ha'Ir ve'es ha'Migdal".
3. ... "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael Goy Echad ba'Aretz Asher Halchu Elokim .. " - li'Fedos *Lo* le'Am".
4. ... "Ad di Karsin Ramayu" (implying a number of thrones for a number of gods) - "ve'Atik Yomin Yasiv" (implying that He alone sits).
(d) To explain why the Torah uses the plural form in the first place, we quote the Pasuk "bi'Gezeiras Irin Pisgama u've'Ma'amar Kadishin She'iltin" - which teaches us that Hashem always consults with His Heavenly Court before taking drastic action in the world.
(a) The last of the 'problematic' Pesukim ("Ad di Karsin Ramayu") does not fit the previous explanation. The significance of the "thrones", according to ...
1. ... Rebbi Akiva is - one for Hashem and one for David Hamelech.
2. ... Rebbi Yossi Hagelili (who does not agree with the concept of placing a human-being on a par with Hashem [Kevayachol] is - one throne for Din and one for Tzedakah (Rachamim).
(b) We know that Rebbi Akiva accepted Rebbi Yossi Hagelili's explanation - because that is how he himself explains the Pasuk in a Beraisa.

(c) Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya disagrees however. After advising Rebbi Akiva to stick to Nega'im and Ohalos, and to leave Agadah to those who were competent at it, he explained - that one of the two thrones was for sitting on, and the other, for use as a footstool.

(a) Rav Nachman said - that unless someone is able to counter the heretics like Rav Idis, he is better off to desist.

(b) When a heretic asked Rav Idis why Hashem said to Moshe "Alei el Hashem", instead of "Alei Elai", he replied - that in fact, it was not Hashem himself who was speaking, but the Angel (the great Sofer) Matatron, whose numerical value equals that of his Master (314, the numerical value of Shakai).

(c) When the heretic asked Rav Idis ...

1. ... why we do not then worship him - he cited him the Pasuk "Al Tamer Bo" (Do not confuse Me with him).
2. ... that if, as the Torah specifically writes, Matatron was not even able to forgive our sins, then of what use was he - he replied that indeed, that is why Moshe rejected him as a Sheli'ach (insisting that Hashem accompany Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael, and not Matatron).
(a) When a certain heretic asked Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi why the Torah writes "va'Hashem Himtir al S'dom ... me'es Hashem" (and not "me'Iti") the laudryman answered - that it is the way of the Torah to write like that.

(b) As a precedent, he cited a Pasuk in Bereishis - where Lemech said to his wives "Neshei Lemech, Ha'azenah Imrasi" (instead of "Nashai").

(c) The laudryman claimed that he had heard the above answer from a D'rashah by Rebbi Meir, who, according to Rebbi Yochanan, would divide his D'rashos into three - Halachah, Agadah and Meshalim (parables).

(a) Rebbi Meir had - three hundred parables about foxes up his sleeve, of which only three remain with us.

(b) When Yechezkel says "Avos Yochlu Boser, ve'Shinei Banim Tichhenah", he means - that sometimes children's teeth hurt because their father's ate unripe grapes (which may also be meant as a rhetorical question).

(c) The second parable is the Pasuk "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek" (see Agados Maharsha). The third, which begins "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz" - ends "ve'Yavo Rasha Tachtav".

(d) After advising the wolf to help the Jews to prepare for Shabbos and then join them at the Shabbos-table, the fox quoted him the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Avos Yochlu Boser ... " - following his flight from the Jewish quarter, as they chased him out with sticks. He wanted to kill the fox, but the wily fox quoted him this Pasuk (in the form of a message that he probably had to suffer for his father's sins. Then he took him to the well.
2. ... "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz ... ", after inducing him to lower himself down the well for a delicious meal of meat and 'cheese' via the second bucket (see Agados Maharsha), when the wolf lowered himself into the well via the bucket, and he rose to the top in the second bucket.
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