ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 38
(a) Rebbi instructed his servants to give Yehudah and Chizkiyah (sons of
Rebbi Chiya) some wine - because they sat silently at a Se'udah without
(b) Having drunk, they stated - that ben David (Mashi'ach) will only come
when the heads of the Galus in Bavel and the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael will be
(c) Rebbi, the Nasi in Eretz Yisrael, reacted with the words - 'Banim,
Kotzim Atem Matilin Li be'Einai!', accusing them of setting out to hurt him.
(d) Rebbi Chiya defended his sons - by pointing out that since 'Yayin' had
the same numerical value as 'Sod', when wine goes in, secrets come out
(meaning that what they had said was nothing personal, but the truth).
(a) Rav Chisda Amar Mar Ukva (or Amar Rav Chisda Darash Mari bar Mar)
explains the Pasuk "va'Yishkod Hashem al ha'Ra'ah va'Yevi'ehah Aleinu Ki
Tzadik Hashem Elokeinu" to mean - that Hashem displayed His righteousness by
leaving Galus Yechonyah intact when Galus Tzidkiyah arrived, since they were
big Talmidei-Chachamim, who would ensure that with the aid of the great
Yeshivos that they set up there, Torah would flourish during the Galus.
(b) The basis for this is the Pasuk in Melachim "ve'ha'Charash ve'ha'Misger
Elef" (hinting at the thousand Talmidei-Chachamim who accompanied Yechonyah
into Galus). They were called ...
1. ... "Charash" - because once they began to speak (in Divrei Torah),
everyone else remained silent.
(c) Ula connects Hashem's righteousness to the Pasuk in Devarim
"*ve'Noshantem* ba'Aretz ... (va'Avadtem Meheirah)" - whose numerical value
is eight hundred and fifty-two, the equivalent to the number of years that
they were destined to remain in Eretz Yisrael, before being sent into exile.
Hashem changed His mind however, and sent them to Bavel two years
prematurely, in order to avoid the fulfillment of the Pasuk "Ki Avod
Toveidun Maher ve'Hishamed Tishameidun".
2. ... "Misger" - because once they stopped (leaving a question unanswered),
nobody was able to resume, since there was nobody who was able to find an
1. They build the Beis-Hamikdash - four hundred and eighty years after
arriving in Eretz Yisrael.
(e) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov learns from the D'rashah of "ve'Noshantem" - that
when Hashem says "Meheirah", He means eight-hundred and fifty-two years.
2. The Beis-Hamikdash was destroyed - four hundred and ten years later.
(a) When the Beraisa, in addition to the reasons given in our Mishnah for
Hashem having created only one man, adds ...
1. ... 'she'Lo Yih'yu ha'Tzadikim Omrim Anu B'nei Tzadik', the Tana means -
that the Tzadikim will argue that since they are sons of a righteous god,
they do not need to keep away from sin, since they are anyway not prone to
(b) When he says 'she'Lo Yih'yu Mishpachos Misgaros Zu ba'Zu, the Tana seems
to be repeating the argument of 'my father is greater than your father'
mentioned in our Mishnah. And when he adds 'Mipnei ha'Gazlanim u'Mipnei
ha'Chamsanim', he means - that they will steal each other's land on the
pretext that it had originally belonged to their respective god, and that
they are merely taking it back.
2. ... 've'ha'Resha'im Omrim, Anu B'nei Rasha', the Tana means - that the
Resha'im will claim that they cannot help sinning because they are sons of a
(c) True, people are guilty of that crime anyway - but at least Hashem has
given them no legal argument to back up their claim.
(d) Our Mishnah referred to Hashem's praise worthiness in creating everyone
with a different face. He did that - to prevent people from stealing each
other's wives or property, on the pretext that they are the husband or the
(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa, lists three things by which each person is
unique. Two of them are voice and looks, the third, is - Da'as (the workings
of the mind).
(b) He created each person with a different ...
1. ... voice and appearance - to avoid people from committing adultery, as
we explained earlier.
(c) Another Beraisa lists three reasons why Hashem created Adam on Erev
Shabbos; one to counter the heretics, one to put the person in his place and
one for his benefit. Consequently, the three reasons are - so that heretics
will not be able to claim that Adam assisted Hashem in the creation; so
that man should realize how insignificant he is, considering that a gnat was
created before he was, and so that man should enter the world and find
everything ready for his benefit.
2. ... mind - to enable them to protect their property against thieves, by
outwitting would-be thieves.
(d) In the context of the third reason, according to the Tana ...
1. ... "Chochmas Bansah Beisah" - refers to Midas ha'Chochmah, with which
Hashem created the world.
2. ... "Chatzvah Amudehah Shiv'ah" - refers to the seven days of the
3. ... "Tavchah Tivchah, Maschah Yeinah, Af Archah Shulchanah" - refers to
the earth and the rivers, all the pleasures of this world (which are
compared to a laid table).
4. ... "Shalchah Na'arosehah (al Gapei Meromei K'ras)" - refers to Adam and
(a) To resolve the discrepancy between the Pasuk "al Gapei ... " (implying
that Hashem placed Adam in a high location) and that of "al Kisei", Rabah
bar bar Chanah explains - 'al Gapei', before he sinned, and 'al Kisei',
after he sinned.
(b) The Pasuk in Mishlei poses a question "Mi Pesi Yasur Heinah?" - meaning
'Which fool caused Adam to approach here (the Tree of Knowledge)'?
(c) And the Pasuk replies - 'The one who is lacking understanding (the
woman) told him to'.
(d) It is from the Pasuk "No'ef Ishah Chasar Leiv" - that we ascribe the
term "Chasar Leiv" in Mishlei to Chavah (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) Rebbi Meir in a Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Glom Rae Eunuch" - that
Adam was created from all over the world (wherever the eyes can see).
(b) The basis for Rav Oshaya Amar Rav saying that ...
1. ... Adam's body was made from the earth of Bavel is - the depth of Bavel,
which indicates that Hashem must have taken a lot of earth from there to
(c) His remaining limbs were made - from the rest of the world.
2. ... his head was made from the earth in Eretz Yisrael is - the fact that
Eretz Yisrael is both the highest and the most important of all the lands.
3. ... his buttocks were made from Ark de'Agma is - the fact that it is the
deepest part of Bavel.
(a) Rebbi Yochanan (or Rebbi Achai) bar Chanina describes what took place on
each of the twelve hours of the sixth day of the Creation. If the earth from
which he was made was piled up in the first hour and he became a Golem in
the second, in the third hour - Hashem formed his limbs.
(b) In the fourth hour Hashem breathed a Neshamah into him and in the fifth,
he stood up. In the sixth - he named all the animals.
(c) In the seventh hour he married Chavah, and in the ninth, he was
commanded not to eat from the Eitz ha'Da'as. In the eighth hour - 'Two went
to bed, and four climbed out' (Adam, Chavah, Kayin and his twin sister [see
(d) We know that Adam was expelled from Gan Eden in the twelfth hour; in the
tenth hour - he sinned, and the eleventh, he was judged.
(a) From the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Adam bi'Yekar ve'Lo Yalin", we learn - that Adam did not even manage
to stay one night in Gan Eden before he was expelled from there.
(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav describes the dialogue between Hashem and certain
groups of angels. They commented "Mah Enosh Ki Sizkerenu ... " - after
Hashem had told them - about man's behavior.
2. ... "Nimshal ka'Beheimos Nidmu", Rami bar Chana learns - that a wild
animal is not able to kill a human-being unless, on account of the person's
sins, the wild animal perceives him as a wild animal.
(c) Hashem responded to that - by placing His little finger among them and
(d) After the same had happened to a second group of angels, the third group
(after alluding to the fate that the first two groups suffered) - replied
that since nothing came of the first two sets of angels who tried to stop
Hashem from creating man, Hashem, who is Master of the world should do as He
(a) Hashem's response to the angels, when they pointed to the generation of
the flood and of the tower, and asked Him whether the first groups of angels
were not right, was - that He had the patience to wait until old age (for
them to do Teshuvah - see Melo ha'Ro'im'.
(b) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav learns from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim ve'ad Ketzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam
ha'Rishon was as tall as the distance between one end of the world to the
(c) Rebbi Elazar learns from the same Pasuk "le'Min ha'Yom Asher Bara Elokim
es ha'Adam al ha'Aretz u'le'Miktzei ha'Shamayim" - that Adam ha'Rishon was
as tall as the distance between one end of the world to the other".
2. ... "Achor va'Kedem Tzartani *va'Tashes Alai Kapecha*" - that after he
sinned, Hashem placed His Hand on him and shrank him down to size.
(d) We reconcile the two seemingly contradictory Pesukim - by simply
equating the two distances.
(a) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav extrapolates from the Lashon of "Yakru" in the
Pasuk in Tehilim (in connection with the creation of Adam discussed earlier)
"ve'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa Keil" (meaning "How honored are Your friends (the
Tzadikim), in my eyes, Hashem!") - that Adam spoke Arama'ic (since 'Yakru'
in this sense is of Arama'ic origin [see Agado Maharsha in Bava Basra 55b DH
(b) Adam made this declaration - after Hashem had shown him each subsequent
generation together with its Darshanim and its Chachamim, including Rebbi
Akiva, in whose Torah he rejoiced, but whose death saddened him.
(c) Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explains the Pasuk "Vayikra Hashem Elokim el
ha'Adam Vayomer Lo *Ayeka*" - as the acronym of 'le'An Natah Libecha?'
(where is your heart turning), from which he extrapolates that Adam had
leanings towards heresy (see Agados Maharsha).
(d) The Pasuk writes in Hoshe'a "ve'Heimah ke'Adam Avru *B'ris*". Based on
the Pasuk ...
1. ... "es *B'risi* Heifar", Rebbi Yitzchak explains this Pasuk to mean -
that Adam pulled back the skin of his B'ris Milah, to make himself an Areil
(see Agados Maharsha).
2. ... "Vayomru, al Asher Azvu es B'ris Hashem Elokei Avosam", Rav Nachman
explains it to mean - that he was a Kofer ba'Ikar (that he denied Hashem's
(a) Rebbi Eliezer says in Pirkei Avos that one should study Torah diligently
and know what to reply to an Apikores (which normally pertains to someone
who questions the value of Talmidei-Chachamim), which Rebbi Yochanan
qualifies - by restricting it to gentiles (because Jewish Apikorsim tend to
reject answers, and even use them to strengthen their own beliefs).
(b) Rebbi Yochanan says that each of the many Pesukim in the Torah which
insinuate that Hashem spoke to His colleagues (Kevayachol) - has a counter
proof (either in the form of another Pasuk close by, or from the very phrase
itself), which states that Hashem is One.
(c) As if to prove Rebbi Eliezer's statement, to counter the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Na'aseh Adam", Rebbi Yochanan cites the Pasuk - "Va'yivra Elokim es
(d) To explain why the Torah uses the plural form in the first place, we
quote the Pasuk "bi'Gezeiras Irin Pisgama u've'Ma'amar Kadishin She'iltin" -
which teaches us that Hashem always consults with His Heavenly Court before
taking drastic action in the world.
2. ... "Havah Nerdah ve'Navlah Sham Sefasam", he cites the Pasuk - Va'yered
Hashem li'Re'os es ha'Ir ve'es ha'Migdal".
3. ... "u'Mi ke'Amcha Yisrael Goy Echad ba'Aretz Asher Halchu Elokim .. " -
li'Fedos *Lo* le'Am".
4. ... "Ad di Karsin Ramayu" (implying a number of thrones for a number of
gods) - "ve'Atik Yomin Yasiv" (implying that He alone sits).
(a) The last of the 'problematic' Pesukim ("Ad di Karsin Ramayu") does not
fit the previous explanation. The significance of the "thrones", according
1. ... Rebbi Akiva is - one for Hashem and one for David Hamelech.
(b) We know that Rebbi Akiva accepted Rebbi Yossi Hagelili's explanation -
because that is how he himself explains the Pasuk in a Beraisa.
2. ... Rebbi Yossi Hagelili (who does not agree with the concept of placing
a human-being on a par with Hashem [Kevayachol] is - one throne for Din and
one for Tzedakah (Rachamim).
(c) Rebbi Elazar ben Azarya disagrees however. After advising Rebbi Akiva to
stick to Nega'im and Ohalos, and to leave Agadah to those who were competent
at it, he explained - that one of the two thrones was for sitting on, and
the other, for use as a footstool.
(a) Rav Nachman said - that unless someone is able to counter the heretics
like Rav Idis, he is better off to desist.
(b) When a heretic asked Rav Idis why Hashem said to Moshe "Alei el Hashem",
instead of "Alei Elai", he replied - that in fact, it was not Hashem himself
who was speaking, but the Angel (the great Sofer) Matatron, whose numerical
value equals that of his Master (314, the numerical value of Shakai).
(c) When the heretic asked Rav Idis ...
1. ... why we do not then worship him - he cited him the Pasuk "Al Tamer Bo"
(Do not confuse Me with him).
2. ... that if, as the Torah specifically writes, Matatron was not even able
to forgive our sins, then of what use was he - he replied that indeed, that
is why Moshe rejected him as a Sheli'ach (insisting that Hashem accompany
Yisrael to Eretz Yisrael, and not Matatron).
(a) When a certain heretic asked Rebbi Yishmael b'Rebbi Yossi why the Torah
writes "va'Hashem Himtir al S'dom ... me'es Hashem" (and not "me'Iti") the
laudryman answered - that it is the way of the Torah to write like that.
(b) As a precedent, he cited a Pasuk in Bereishis - where Lemech said to his
wives "Neshei Lemech, Ha'azenah Imrasi" (instead of "Nashai").
(c) The laudryman claimed that he had heard the above answer from a D'rashah
by Rebbi Meir, who, according to Rebbi Yochanan, would divide his D'rashos
into three - Halachah, Agadah and Meshalim (parables).
(a) Rebbi Meir had - three hundred parables about foxes up his sleeve, of
which only three remain with us.
(b) When Yechezkel says "Avos Yochlu Boser, ve'Shinei Banim Tichhenah", he
means - that sometimes children's teeth hurt because their father's ate
unripe grapes (which may also be meant as a rhetorical question).
(c) The second parable is the Pasuk "Moznei Tzedek Avnei Tzedek" (see Agados
Maharsha). The third, which begins "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz" - ends
"ve'Yavo Rasha Tachtav".
(d) After advising the wolf to help the Jews to prepare for Shabbos and then
join them at the Shabbos-table, the fox quoted him the Pasuk ...
1. ... "Avos Yochlu Boser ... " - following his flight from the Jewish
quarter, as they chased him out with sticks. He wanted to kill the fox, but
the wily fox quoted him this Pasuk (in the form of a message that he
probably had to suffer for his father's sins. Then he took him to the well.
2. ... "Tzadik mi'Tzarah Nechlatz ... ", after inducing him to lower himself
down the well for a delicious meal of meat and 'cheese' via the second
bucket (see Agados Maharsha), when the wolf lowered himself into the well
via the bucket, and he rose to the top in the second bucket.