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Sanhedrin 22

SANHEDRIN 21-22 - Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fawer has dedicated two more days of study material to honor her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner) of blessed memory (Yahrzeit: 18 Teves). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.



(a) Rebbi maintains in a Beraisa, that the Torah was actually given in K'sav Ashuris, and the reason that that they were unable to read the writing on the wall was - because it was written in code?

(b) And it is called K'sav Ashuris - because it is the richest of all the scripts.

(c) Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar in the name of ... Rebbi Elazar ha'Muda'i also agrees that the Torah was given in Ashuris, but he adds that it was never changed, and he learns it from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Vavei ha'Amudim" - where the Torah compares the 'Vavin' (a play on words, since the hooks were shaped like 'Vavin') to the planks of the Mishkan, which remained forever, as we learned in Yuma).
2. ... "ve'el ha'Yehudim, ki'Chesavam ve'chi'Leshonam" - again based on the Torah's comparison between the language (which was Lashon ha'Kodesh throughout) and the script (which didn't change either).
(d) And he interprets the Pasuk "ve'Chasav Lo es *Mishneh ha'Torah* ha'Zos" to mean - that the king wrote two Sifrei-Torah, as we explained earlier.
(a) From the juxtaposition of the Pasuk in Tehilim "Shivisi Hashem Lenegdi Tamid" to that of "Ki mi'Yemini bal Emot", Rebbi Shimon ben Elazar ... learns - that the king arranged the Seifer-Torah like a Kame'a, and hung it on his arm (as we explained earlier).

(b) The other Tana (see Maharshal and Maharsha) explains "Shivisi Hashem Lenegdi Tamid" like Rav Chana bar Bizna Amar Rebbi Shimon Chasida, who learns from there - that when one Davens one should consider it as if he was standing in front of the Shechinah.

(c) "Mene Mene Tekil u'Farsin'' means - that 'Hashem has weighed your (Beltshazar's) deeds and found you lacking. So he torn your kingdom from you (twice, once from you personally, and once to give it away to Persia and Medes).

(d) According to the Amora'im, the words appeared in code (which is the reason that they were unable to read it. According to

1. ... Rav, 'Yetes Yetes Edich Pugchemat' - is the 'Atbash' of the intended words (which means that 'Alef = 'Tav', 'Beis' = 'Shin' ... ).
2. ... Shmuel ('Mamtus Nankefi E'elran') - each subsequent letter (of "Mene Mene ... ") belongs to the next word, so that the 'Mem' forms the first letter of 'Mamtus', the 'Nun', the first letter of 'Nankefi' and the 'Alef', the first letter of 'E'elran'; then the 'Mem' (of the next word ['Mene']) forms the second letter of 'Mamtus', and the 'Nun', the second letter of 'Nankefi', and so on.
3. ... Rebbi Yochanan ('Enem Enem Liket Nisrafu') - each of the four words ("Mene Mene ... ") appeared on the wall backwards.
4. ... Rav Ashi - ('Neme Neme Ketil Pursin') the first two letters of each word were inverted.
(a) Our Mishnah forbids one to ride on the king's horse, to sit on his throne - or to use his scepter (incorporating any of his moveable objects).

(b) Besides not seeing him whilst he is having his haircut, one may not see him - when he naked or in the bath-house.

(c) The source of all these Halachos is - the Pasuk in Shoftim "Som Tasim Alecha Melech", which teaches us to hold the king in awe.

(a) Avishag ha'Shunamis was the girl whom they designated to keep David Hamelech warm, when in his old age, clothes no longer served that purpose.

(b) According to Rav Ya'akov Amar Rebbi Yochanan she was permitted to Shlomoh but forbidden to Adoniyah - because Shlomoh was a king (and one king may use the scepter of another king), whereas Adoniyah was a Hedyot (to whom it is forbidden).

(c) When Avishag asked David why he did not marry her - he replied that he already had eighteen wives.

(d) When Avishag gave the parable of a thief who cannot find anything to steal, and who therefore makes himself out to be transformed - she meant to suggest that David made himself out to be a righteous man who would not contravene the Halachah, when, in reality, his refusal was based n the fact that, due to his age and physical weakness, he was no longer able to perform Tashmish.

(a) David refuted Avishag's suggestion - by calling in bas-Sheva and having thirteen Bi'os with her.

(b) The reason that David did not simply divorce one of his eighteen wives was - because the Chachamim did not allow him to (because divorcing one's wife is a terrible thing [in spite of the fact that the alternative was to permit the Isur of Yichud, which had barely been decreed]).

(c) Rebbi Elazar declared that when someone divorces his first wife - even the Mizbe'ach sheds tears.

(d) And Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "ve'Im Ein Lecha Le'shalem, Lamah Yikach Mishkavcha mi'Tachtecha" - that a man's wife dies when he fails to pay his debts.
2. ... "ben Adam, Hin'ni Loke'ach Mim'cha es *Machmad Einecha* ba'Mageifah ... va'Tamas Ishti ba'Erev" and the Pasuk there "Hin'ni Mechalel es Mikdashi Ge'on Uzchem *Machmad Einechem*" - that the death of a man's first wife is akin to the Beis-Hamikdash being destroyed in his life-time.
(a) Rebbi Alexandri learns from the Pasuk "Or Choshech be'Ohalo ve'Neiro Alav Yidach" - that with the death of a man's first wife, his world becomes dark.

(b) Rebbi Yossi b'Rebbi Chanina learns from a Pasuk that his steps become shorter, and Rebbi Avahu, from the Pasuk "va'Tashlichehu Atzaso" - that his ability to counsel is affected, too.

(c) Rabah bar bar Chanah Amar Rebbi Yochanan compares matching them in the first place to the splitting of the Reed Sea. On the other hand, Rav Yehudah Amar Rav explains how - forty days before a baby boy is born, a Heavenly Voice announces 'So-and-so's daughter is reserved for so-and-so!'

(d) And we reconcile the two statements - by establishing the first one by the second marriage (which is arranged according to one's merits), and the second one by the first marriage, which goes by Mazel.

(a) Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni lists - a wife as the only thing that has no substitute.

(b) When Rav Yehudah quoted his son Rav Yitzchak the Pasuk "Yehi Mekorcha Baruch u'Semach, me'Eishes Ne'urecha", he was telling him - that a person only derives satisfaction for the wife of his youth (i.e. his first wife).

(c) When Rav Yitzchak asked his father to cite a practical example - he pointed to his mother (Rebbi Yehudah's own wife).

(d) We reconcile this with the fact that Rav Yehudah also cited his wife as a practical example of the Pasuk in Koheles "u'Motze Ani Mar mi'Maves, es ha'Ishah ... " - by confining the former to suppressing her Yeitzer-ha'Ra, in which she excelled, even though basically, she was a difficult character to live with.




(a) When Rav Shmuel bar Uni'ah in the name of Rav, describes a woman as a 'Golem', based on the Pasuk "Ki Bo'alayich Osayich", he means to say - that, if we compare a woman to a vessel, it is her first husband, the man who first has relations with her, who completes her, and it is with him that she makes a covenant.

(b) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk ...

1. ... "Va'yamas Elimelech Ish Naomi" - that when a man dies, it is his wife who bears the brunt of the loss.
2. ... "va'Ani be'Vo'i mi'Padan, Meisah Alai Rachel" - that when a woman dies, it is her husband who does.
(c) The king requires a haircut every day - because of the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Melech be'Yofyo Techezenah Einecha".

(d) The hair of ...

1. ... a Kohen Gadol needs to be cut - once a week, Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yochanan explains, in time for the change of Mishmaros each Shabbos (so that he should look smart when the Kohanim of the new Mishmar arrive).
2. ... a Kohen Hedyot - must be cut once a month.
(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... "ve'Rosham Lo Yegalechu *u'Pera* Lo Yeshalechu" in conjunction with the Pasuk (in connection with a Nazir) "Gadel *Pera* Se'ar Rosho") - that a Kohen may not grow a Pera, and that a growth of thirty days constitutes a Pera (as we learned in the Mishnah in Nazir), because the Torah writes ...
2. ... "Kadosh *Yih'yeh*", and the numerical value of "Yih'yeh" is thirty, as Rav Masna explains.
(b) Abaye learns from the Lashon "Pera Lo Yeshalechu" - that he is forbidden to have long hair. Had the Torah written "Lo Yeshalchu Pera", he would require a haircut within the thirty-day period (see also Tosfos DH 've'Eima').

(c) When Rav Papa asked him why this prohibition does not apply nowadays, he replied 'like wine' - meaning that just as wine is only prohibited at a time when the Kohen actually goes to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash (because the Torah writes there "be'Vo'am el he'Chatzer ha'Penimis"), so it is with serving with long hair.

(a) The Beraisa rules - that a Kohen who knows ...
1. ... only to which of the twenty-four groups he belongs - may not drink wine during the week that his group is due to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash.
2. ... to which Beis-Av he belongs as well - may not drink wine on the day that his Beis-Av was due to serve (though he may on the other days of that week).
3. ... neither of them - may never drink wine at all.
(b) Rebbi - allows him to drink wine at any time.

(c) 'Takanaso Kalkalaso' (which is translated as if was written 'Kalkalaso Taknaso') means - that the Churban ha'Bayis, which upset the entire order of the Mishmaros (during which time they were forbidden to drink wine during their Mishmar, but not at other times), permits them to drink wine nowadays, since we are not afraid that the Beis-Hamikdash will be built suddenly.

(d) Abaye said that Kohanim who drink wine any time nowadays - rely on Rebbi's opinion.

(a) The reason for the Chachamim's prohibition is - because they are afraid that the Beis-Hamikdash will be built suddenly, and any Kohen who drank wine will be unfit to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(b) They nevertheless permit a Kohen to have long hair - because it is immediately rectifiable, by having a haircut.

(c) They do not, on the other hand, rely on Rav Acha, who permits a Kohen to serve in the Beis-Hamikdash if he drank wine, as long as he walks a Mil or sleeps a little (making it equally easy to rectify), because of a statement of Rav Nachman Amar Rabah bar Avuhah, who said that if someone drank *more* than a Revi'is - not only will walking and sleeping not dissipate the drunkenness, but it will cause the person to become even more drunk.

(d) Rav Ashi bases the above discrepancy on a basic distinction between a Kohen who drank wine and one who had a haircut. It is because - whereas the former would not desecrate the Avodah even if they did serve (so the Chachamim did not decree), the latter would (so they did).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk "Yayin ve'Sheichar Al Teisht Atah u'Vanecha ve'Lo Samusu" that a Kohen who drinks wine and serves in the Beis-Hamikdash is Chayav Miysah. The Tana of the Beraisa learns that he is also Chayav Miysah for serving with long hair - from the Pasuk in Yechezkel, which compares the two by juxtaposing them.

(b) This poses a Kashya on Rav Ashi (which will remain unanswered) - because, by the same token, based on the principle 'Ein Hekesh le'Mechtzah', we ought also to compare a Kohen who drank wine and served, to one who served with long hair, with regard to desecrating the Avodah (see Hagahos ha'G'ra).

(c) The problem with relying on Yechezkel for this Hekesh, Ravina asked Rav Ashi, is from where they knew that a Kohen who serves with long hair is Chayav Miysah, before Yechezkel revealed it. Rav Ashi ultimately answers - that it is really 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai', only Yechezkel supported with a Pasuk.

(d) Yechezkel also supported - the prohibition of an Areil Basar and an Areil Leiv (someone who serves idols) serving in the Beis-Hamikdash.

(a) The Pasuk in Yechezkel, with reference to the hair-cut of a Kohen, uses the expression "Kasom Yiksemu es Rasheihem", which the Tana compares to the haircut of Lulianus. This in turn - is one where the tip of one hair reaches the root of the next one.

(b) When Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel described it as 'Tisporta Yechida'ah', he meant - that it was a unique haircut.

(c) When they asked Rebbi about the haircut of a Kohen Gadol, he pointed at ben El'asha - who was his son-in-law.

(d) In connection with the huge sum of money that ben El'asha spent to learn how to give such a haircut, Rebbi commented - that he did it only in order to demonstrate the hair-cut of a Kohen Gadol.

***** Hadran Alach, Kohen Gadol *****

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