ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous daf Sanhedrin 19
(a) Rebbi Meir explains "u'min ha'Mikdash Lo Yeitzei" to mean that the Kohen
Gadol should not negate his Kedushah, as we learned in our Mishnah, and not
literally, like Rebbi Yehudah - because according to Rebbi Yehudah (who
forbids him to go to the Levayah at all), the Torah could just as well have
written "u'mi'Beiso Lo Yeitzei". Why does it need to mention "Mikdash"?
(b) In spite of the principle 'Kohanim Zerizim Heim', the Torah is afraid
that the Kohen Gadol, of all people, might - in his anguish, inadvertently
desecrate his Kedushah and make himself Tamei, even though it has forbidden
him to do so.
(a) Our Mishnah describes how the S'gan would walk on the outside of the
Kohen Gadol as he walked past the Aveilim. According to the Beraisa - the
Mashu'ach she'Avar walked with the S'gan on his right.
(b) The Rosh Beis-Av walked on his left, the Kohen Gadol on one side, and
the Aveilim and the people on the other.
1. The Rosh Beis-Av was - the chief of the group of Kohanim that served in
the Beis-Hamikdash on that day.
(c) When the Kohen Gadol was an Aveil, the S'gan again stood on his right as
the people filed past him. Of the two who stood on his left when he
comforted others - the Mashu'ach she'Avar was missing here, because the
Kohen Gadol might instinctively feel that he was quietly smirking at his
2. The Mashu'ach she'Avar was - the deputy Kohen Gadol who once stood in for
the Kohen Gadol proper on Yom Kipur when he became Tamei and was unable to
serve that year.
(d) Rav Papa extrapolates three things from this Beraisa: 1. that the S'gan
and the Memuneh are one and the same; 2. that the Aveilim stand still and
the people file past - and 3. that the mourners stand on the left of the
(a) Nowadays, we do the reverse, and it is the Aveilim who walk in between
two rows formed by the comforters. This change of custom came about, the
Beraisa tells - following a squabble between two families in Yerushalayim as
to who should file past the mourners first.
(b) Rebbi Yossi instigated in Tzipori - to revert to the original custom.
(c) According to Rami bar Aba, the author of the current statements, he also
instigated in Tzipori, that ...
1. ... a woman taking her son for a walk in the main road - should let him
walk in front of her (and not behind her [because of an incident that once
occurred, where evil men abducted a woman's son from behind her, and
subsequently used it as a means to lure her to a secluded spot in order to
(d) The great Rebbi Yashiyah informed Rebbi Menashya bar Avas that a Shurah
requires ten people - excluding the Aveilim, irrespective of whether the
2. ... women should make a point of conversing in the bathrooms in the
fields, to avoid the possibility of men walking in inadvertently and
transgressing the laws of Yichud.
1. ... stood still and the comforters filed past them, or whether they ...
2. ... filed past the comforters.
(a) According to the Beraisa, after a Levayah - the Kohen Gadol says
'Tisnechamu' ('be comforted').
(b) The Tana cannot be referring to his reply to those who comfort him -
because that would be a terrible curse (insinuating that one of the
comforter's relations should die).
(c) We therefore prove from here - that this is what a Kohen Gadol would say
to an Aveil.
(a) The Pasuk writes "Beis David Koh Amar Hashem, Diynu la'Boker Mishpat",
from which Rav Yosef extrapolates that a king can be judged - because
otherwise, how could he possibly judge others (as we learned on the previous
Daf in the name of Resh Lakish)?
(b) Rav Yosef reconciles this with our Mishnah, which precludes a king from
either judging or being judged - by establishing the latter by a king of
Yisrael, whereas he is speaking about one of the Malchei Beis David.
(c) The prohibition of a King of Yisrael to judge or to be judged was the
result of an episode that took place during the time of the second
Beis-Hamikdash - involving Yanai Hamelech.
(d) Shimon ben Shetach called him to court - because his Eved had killed
someone, and the Torah says "ve'Hu'ad bi'Ve'alav" (obligating the master of
the damaging property to come and 'stand by his ox').
(a) We learn from the Pasuk "v*e'Amdu ha'Anashim* Asher Lahem ha'Riv *Lifnei
Hashem*" - that a. litigants are obligated to stand and b. they are standing
not only before Beis-Din, but before Hashem, too (since Hashem is present
when Beis-Din sits, as we learned in Pirkei Avos).
(b) Yanai Hamelech continued to remain seated even after Shimon ben Shetach
ordered him to stand - because he expressed willingness to adhere to the
instructions of the other members of Beis-Din, and he was waiting to hear
what they would say.
(c) The reaction of the other judges to the king's challenge was - to bury
their faces in the ground.
(d) Shimon ben Shetach's response to the judges' irresponsible behavior
was - to accuse them of being great thinkers (see Agados Maharsha), and to
ask the Master Thinker to therefore punish them.
(e) Hashem responded to that - by sending the Angel Gavriel, who knocked
them into the ground and they died.
(a) Rav Ashi permits a Nasi to forego his Kavod, but not a king.
(b) Rebbi Yehudah nevertheless permits a king to perform Yibum or Chalitzah
(as we learned in our Mishnah) - because the prohibition does not apply to a
(c) The Rabbanan interpret the Pasuk "ve'es Neshei Adonecha be'Cheikecha"
(from which Rebbi Yehudah proves that a king may marry the Almanah of a
king, as we learned in our Mishnah) to mean (not, 'the wives of your
master', but) - 'the women ... ', with specific reference to Shaul's two
daughters Meirav and Michal.
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi, seeing as Meirav and Michal were sisters,
David must have married Michal only after Meirav's death. Rebbi Yehoshua ben
Korchah however, explains - that David's betrothal to Meirav was void ...
(b) ... because it was based on a loan (the wealth Shaul had promised David,
and which David had agreed to forego in return for Meirav).
(c) Rav explains Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah's proof for this from the Pasuk
"T'nah es Ishti es Michal Asher Erasti Li be'Me'ah Orlos P'lishtim" as - the
inference from "es Ishti Michal", 've'Lo Meirav Ishti'.
(a) After having betrothed her to David , Shaul gave Michal to -Palti ben
(b) ... because, even though he had added a hundred Orlos of P'lishtim to
the loan which he asked as Kidushin money - he maintained that 'ha'Mekadesh
be'Milveh u'Perutah, Da'atah a'Milveh' (the woman's mind is on the [more
(c) David believed his betrothal to be valid - because he held that
'ha'Mekadesh ... Da'atah a'Perutah' (because a bird in the hand is worth two
in the bush').
(d) The basis of their Machlokes, assuming that they both held 'ha'Mekadesh
be'Milveh u'Perutah, Da'atah a'Perutah' - is whether a hundred Orlos is
worth anything (David), because they can be fed to cats and dogs, or not
(a) The problem we now have with Rebbi Yossi (who holds that David married
Michal after the death of Meirav her sister) is - what does the Pasuk now
imply when it writes "T'nah *es Ishti* es Michal".
(b) And we answer this by first presenting another problem, based on the
Pasuk which speaks about the five sons of Michal, whom Shaul had given to
Adrichal ha'Mecholasi. Rebbi Yossi explains - that the Pasuk comes to
compare the Kidushin of Meirav to that of Michal, inasmuch as, like the
Kidushin of the latter, it was invalid (seeing as she was already betrothed
(c) Consequently- the Pasuk "T'nah es Ishti es Michal", according to Rebbi
Yossi, now comes (not for the inference, but) to teach us the basic fact
that the betrothal of Michal to Palti ben Layish was void (and the second
Pasuk teaches us that that of Meirav was void, too).
(d) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah declines to learn the Kidushin of Meirav from
a Pasuk that talks about Michal. In his opinion therefore, the Pasuk
mentions Michal when it is really speaking about the sons of Meirav - to
teach us the principle that someone who brings up somebody else's children
is considered as if they were his/her children.
(a) Rebbi Chanina learns from the Pasuk in Rus (in connection with the birth
of Rus' son Oved) "va'Tikrenah Lo ha'Shechenos Shem Leimor *Yulad ben
le'Naomi*" - the same principle that Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah just learned
(b) Rebbi Yochanan learns it from the Pasuk "ve'Ishto ha'Yehudiyah Yaldah es
Yered, Avigdor ... Eileh B'nei Bisya bas Paroh, Asher Lakach Mered". "Yered,
Avigdor ... " - were two of the names of Moshe.
1. Kalev (Bisya's husband) was called "Mered" - because he rebelled against
(d) Rebbi Yochanan learns Rebbi Yehoshua ben Korchah's principle from this
Pasuk - from the fact that it refers to Moshe as Bisya's son (which is not
2. Bisyah is referred to as "Yehudiyah - because she denounced idolatry and
converted, and anyone who denounces idolatry earns that title.
(e) And Rebbi Elazar learns it from the Pasuk "Ga'alta bi'Zero'a Amecha,
B'nei Ya'akov *ve'Yosef* Selah" - where it refers to Yisrael as Yosef's
children, because he sustained them.
(a) The problem with the Pasuk "ve'Eileh Toldos Aharon u'Mosheh" - is that
it goes on to list the sons of Aharon, but not those of Moshe.
(b) Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan learns from there - that
someone who teaches his friend's son Torah is considered as if he had
(c) As we do not find anywhere that Ya'akov redeemed Avraham, when the Pasuk
writes that he did - it means that he relieved him from the onus of rearing
twelve, which he was originally meant to shoulder.
(d) When the Pasuk there writes ...
1. ... "Lo Atah Yevosh Ya'akov", it refers to - Yitzchak, and ...
2. ... "ve'Lo Atah Panav Yechvaru" - to Avraham (see Agados Maharsha).
(a) The Pasuk sometimes refers to Palti ben Layish as 'Paltiel' - because
'Hashem (perhaps based on Chazal 'If not for Divine assistance, it would be
impossible to resist the Yeitzer-Hara') saved him from sinning.
(b) Knowing that Michal was betrothed to David, to avoid sinning - he placed
a sword between himself and Michal each night, and declared that whichever
of them would succumb to the evil inclination, would be pierced by it.
(c) When the Pasuk describes how, when she was taken back to David, he
followed her in tears, those were not tears of sorrow at losing a wife, but
of losing the trial of temptation.
(d) The significance of the place 'Bachurim' where he turned back is - that
they both remained bachelor and virgin (respectfully) after their parting.
(a) When Rebbi Yochanan says ...
1. ... 'Tokfo shel Yosef Invesanuso shel Bo'az', he means to say that Bo'az
was that much greater than Yosef - inasmuch as whereas Yosef was dealing
with a married woman, Boaz was dealing with a Penuyah, and what's more, she
was lying on the same bed as him.
(b) When the Pasuk writes "Vayehi ba'Chatzi ha'Laylah, Vayecherad ha'Ish
*Vayilafes"* - it means that his Eiver became hard like the tip of a turnip.
2. ... 'Tokfo shel Bo'az Invesanuso shel Palti ben Layish - he means that
Palti was that much greater than Boaz, inasmuch as the latter only went
through the Nisayon once, whereas he had to live with it for a number of
(c) Rebbi Yochanan explains the Pasuk in "Eishes Chayil". When Shlomoh wrote
1. ... "Rabos Banos Asu Chayil", he had in mind - Yosef and Boaz.
(d) And according to Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeni Amar Rebbi Yonasan, when
Shlomoh wrote ...
2. ... "ve'At Alis al Kulanah", he had in mind - Palti ben Layish.
1. ... "Sheker ha'Chein", he had in mind - Yosef.
2. ... "ve'Hevel ha'Yofi" , he had in mind Boaz.
3. ... "Ishah Yir'as Hashem hi Sis'halal" - he had in mind Palti ben Layish.
(a) According to others, "Sheker ha'Chein" refers to the generation of
Moshe, "ve'Hevel ha'Yofi", to that of Yeshua, and "Ishah Yir'as Hashem hi
Sis'halal" - to the generation of Chizkiyahu Hamelech, whose generation
learned Torah even more intensely that the previous two (as we will learn in
Cheilek, where Chazal describe how they searched from Dan to Be'er-Sheva,
but were unable to find an Am ha'Aretz).
(b) According to yet others, "Sheker ha'Chein" refers to the generation of
Moshe and Aharon, and "ve'Hevel ha'Yofi", to that of Chizkiyah, whereas
"Ishah Yir'as Hashem hi Sis'halal" refers to the generation of Rebbi Yehudah
b'Rebbi Ila'i - who studied Torah with immense self-sacrifice, and out of
extreme poverty (as was said about the Talmidim in his generation, that six
of them would share one cloak as they studied Torah).