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Sanhedrin 4



(a) Rebbi Yochanan lists Rebbi, Rebbi Yehudah ben Ro'etz, Beis Shamai, Rebbi Shimon and Rebbi Akiva, who all hold "Yesh Eim la'Mikra".

(b) The Torah writes in Tazri'a (in connection with the birth of a girl) "ve'Tam'ah Shevu'ayim ke'Nidasah". The Talmidim suggested to Rebbi Yehudah ben Ro'etz - that the word (which is missing a 'Vav') should really be read "Shiv'im", meaning that the birth of a girl renders the mother Tamei for seventy days.

(c) Initially, he answered them - that it stands to reason that, just as the days of Taharah following the birth of a girl are double those of a boy (sixty-six against thirty-three), so too, should it be with regard to the days of Tum'ah (fourteen against seven, and not seventy).

(d) He ran after them however, to tell them an even better explanation - that 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra'?

(a) Even Beis Shamai agree that the blood of any Korban that is placed on the outer (copper) Mizbe'ach atones with just one placing of blood. In this context, 'any Korban' means - an Olah, a Shelamim and an Asham (which Lechatchilah require two Matanos).

(b) The source of this ruling is - the Pasuk in Re'ei "ve'Dam Zevachecha Yishafech al Yesod ha'Mizbeach".

(c) The blood of a Chatas (which Lechatchilah requires four Matanos), according to Beis Shamai - requires at least two Matanos.

(d) Beis Hillel - ascribe the same Din to a Chatas as to the other Korbanos (that one Matanah will suffice Bedieved).

(a) According to Rav Huna, Beis-Shamai's ruling is based on the triple "Karnos" that occurs in Vayikra. He Darshens the three words the way they are read (even though two of them are missing a 'Vav'), making a total of six Keranos, four Lechatchilah, and Bedieved, two.

(b) Beis-Hillel learn from the same words, that one Matanah will suffice - because, they go after the Mesores (the spelling), making a total of four Matanos, three of them Lechatchilah, and one Bedieved.

(c) Beis-Hillel decline to learn that all four are a Mitzvah Lechatchilah, but do not hold back the Mitzvah Bedieved - because without at least one Matanah, there would be nothing to earn the sinner an atonement.

(a) The Tana Kama in the Beraisa requires two full-length walls of a Succah, plus a third wall of a Tefach. According to Rebbi Shimon, a Succah requires three full-length walls, plus a fourth wall of a Tefach.

(b) The source of the one-Tefach wall is - 'Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai'.

(c) Based on the triple "ba'Sukos" (in Parshas Emor), the Machlokes between Rebbi Shimon and the Rabbanan - is based on the fact that the first two times, the word is written without a 'Vav', leaving ...

1. ... four walls according to the Rabbanan, who go after the spelling (from which we deduct one, as we shall see shortly). Comes the Halachah ... and, reduces the third wall to a Tefach.
2. ... six walls according to Rebbi Shimon, who goes after the reading (from which we then deduct two, as we shall see). Comes the Halachah ... and reduces the fourth wall to a Tefach.
(d) We deduct one wall according to the Chachamim, and two, according to Rebbi Shimon - because we need the first "ba'Sukos" to teach us the basic Halachah.
(a) Rebbi Akiva learns from the Pasuk "ve'al Kol Nafshos Meis Lo Yavo" - that if one Revi'is (of a Lug [that constitutes life]) flows even from two corpses, it renders someone under the same roof Tamei Meis.

(b) The Rabbanan argue with Rebbi Akiva, and require the Revi'is of blood to come from *one* corpse - because they go after the spelling, and the word "Nafshos" is spelt without a 'Vav' (implying one corpse).

(a) The Beraisa learns from the Pasuk "Lo Sevashel G'di ba'Chaleiv Imo" - the prohibition of cooking meat together with milk.

(b) The Torah cannot be referring to cooking a kid in its mother's Cheilev (fat) - because the word is read "ba'Chaleiv Imo" (meaning in the milk of its mother) and not "be'Cheilev Imo" (in its mother's fat).

(c) Rav Acha bar Ya'akov extrapolates from this Beraisa - that everyone holds 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra'.

(d) Even though everyone holds 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra', the Rabbanan's do not require five judges for Mamonos, like Rebbi, who learns from "Asher Yarshi'un Elohim" a second pair of judges - because, in their opinion, this Pasuk is not coming to add new judges, but refers to the same judges as "ad ha'Elohim Yavo D'var Sh'neihem".




(a) We conclude that in fact, the Rabbanan do not argue with Rebbi Yehudah ben Ro'etz regarding "ve'Tam'ah Shevu'ayim ... " by the birth of a girl. Beis Hillel learn from "ve'Chiper", "ve'Chiper", "ve'Chiper" (written by various Chata'os Beheimah) - that even though he only sprinkled the blood of a Chatas three times, twice or even only once, the Kaparah takes effect.

(b) We could also learn this by means of Damim le'Ma'alah from Damim le'Matah, which we interpret to mean the blood that is sprinkled above the red thread from the blood that is sprinkled below it. In other words ...

1. ... we learn the Chatas (whose blood is sprinkled above the red thread) from the blood of the other Korbanos (whose blood is sprinkled below it [and which only requires one Matanah Bedieved, as we have already learned]). Alternatively ...
2. ... we learn the blood of a Chatas Beheimah, which is mentioned above, from that of a Chatas ha'Of, which is mentioned below, or from the Ashamos, which are mentioned below (at the end of the Parshah [though we prefer the first-quoted explanation]), all of which only require one Matanah.
(c) We nevertheless need the triple "ve'Chiper" to teach us that only one Matanah is crucial - because otherwise, we might have learned from the Chata'os ha'Penimiyos (e.g. on Yom Kipur [whose blood is brought inside]), where every Matanah is crucial.

(d) It might be better to learn Chutz (Korbanos whose blood is sprinkled in the Azarah) from Chutz, rather than from P'nim (Korbanos whose blood is sprinkled inside) - but on the other hand, it might be better to learn a Chatas which is sprinkled on the Keren from a Chatas which is sprinkled on the Keren rather than from other Korbanos which are not sprinkled on other parts of the Mizbe'ach.

(a) Even though everyone holds 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra', the Rabbanan nevertheless ...
1. ... disagree with Rebbi Shimon that a Succah requires four walls - because they learn from the third "ba'Succos" that a Succah requires S'chach.
2. ... disagree with Rebbi Akiva that a Revi'is of blood from two corpses is Metamei be'Ohel - because they will interpret "ve'Al Kol *Nafshos* Meis Lo Yavo" to mean that one may not become Tamei be'Ohel through one of the many corpses in the world.
(b) Rebbi Shimon takes for granted that a Succah needs S'chach - because that is why it is called a 'Succah'.
(a) Rebbi Yishmael learns from the triple "le'Totafos" (in Parshas Bo, Va'eschanan and Eikev, in connection with Tefilin) - that Tefilin comprise four Parshiyos (since two of the three are written without a 'Vav'.

(b) Rebbi Akiva maintains - that this is not necessary, meaning that one cannot learn the four Parshiyos from there, because, as we see from our Sugya, he holds 'Yesh Eim li'Mesores, in which case, if anything, we ought to learn from here that Tefilin comprise six Parshiyos.

(c) So *he* learns the four Parshiyos - from the word "Totafos", which is an acronym for 'Tat' 'Pas', each of which means two (one in the Kaspi language, the other, in ancient African).

(a) We can extrapolate from Rebbi Yishmael - that there are proponents of 'Yesh Eim li'Mesores' after all, creating a problem with what we just learned (that everyone holds 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra').

(b) So we revert to our original interpretation, that the Rabbanan do indeed hold 'Yesh Eim li'Mesores'. We then attempt to ascribe the reason that, in the Beraisa of Cheilev everyone holds 'Yesh Eim le'Mikra' - to the fact that where there is no Mesores that clashes with the reading of he word (such as in that case).

(a) Rebbi Yehudah ben Teima learns from the Pasuk "Yera'eh Kol Zechurcha" - that someone who is blind in one eye is Patur from the Mitzvah of Aliyas Regel.

(b) He learns it from there - by Darshening 'Yir'eh', Yera'eh'. This means that just as, when we fulfill the Mitzvah of appearing in the Beis-Hamikdash on the Shalosh Regalim, Hashem comes to see us with two eyes, so too, must we appear before Him with two eyes (see also Tosfos DH 'ke'Derech').

(c) This finally proves - that even where the Mesores does not clash with the Mikra, there are still Tana'im who go after the Mesores, and not the Mikra.

(d) Nevertheless, even the proponents of "Yesh Eim li'Mesores" do not forbid cooking Cheilev rather than milk, together with meat - because the phrase "Do not cook a kid in its mother's milk" implies something that is normally cooked, whereas 'cooking' meat in fat is defined as frying, not cooking.

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