POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 91
1) RESPONSES TO "MINIM"
(a) Question (Kaiser of R. Gamliel): You say that the dead
will live - but they are dirt, dirt does not live!
2) CLAIMS AGAINST YISRAEL
(b) Kaiser's daughter herself answered: There are two potters
in our city, one makes vessels out of water, the other
out of clay - which is better?
(c) Kaiser: The one who makes vessels out of water.
(d) His daughter: If he makes vessels out of water, all the
more so he can make out of clay - likewise, Hash-m can
make people out of a drop of semen, all the more so he
can make out of dirt!
(e) (Tana d'vei R. Yishmael): Glass vessels are made through
the breath of man, if they are broken, they can be fixed
- people are made through the Ru'ach of Hash-m, all the
more so if they die, they can be revived!
(f) Question (a Min): You say that the dead will live - but
they are dirt, dirt does not live!
(g) Answer (R. Ami): A parable - a king told his servants to
build palaces in a place where there is no water or dirt.
They did so; later they fell. He told them to rebuild
them in a place with water or dirt; they said that they
1. The king was angry - if you can build where there is
no water or dirt, all the more so where there is!
(Likewise, Hash-m makes living people out of a puny
drop of semen (alternatively - he made the world out
of nothing), all the more so he can make people from
(h) A Min (to Gaviha ben Pasisa): You say that the dead will
live - the living die, all the more so the dead will not
2. R. Ami: If you do not believe me (that Hash-m can
make life from dirt) go look at a (special kind of)
mouse (that spontaneously generates) that is
currently half-dirt - later, it will be a full
3. Suggestion: Perhaps Hash-m needs much time to make
life from dirt.
4. Rejection: Look on the mountain, there is only
(Aruch - not even) one Chalazon (Rashi - the sea
worm from which we get dye for Techeiles; Aruch -
locust; Ramah - a spontaneously generating land
creature) - tomorrow, rain will fall, it will be
full of them!
(i) Gaviha: You say that the dead will not live - those who
were never alive come to life, all the more so those who
(a) (Beraisa): On Nisan 24 the marauders' claims were
silenced - Africans (Girgashim, a Kena'ani nation that
fled to Africa when we entered Eretz Yisrael) came to
debate with Yisrael in front of Alexandrus Mukdon.
3) THE PARTNERSHIP OF BODY AND NESHAMAH
1. Africans: Eretz Yisrael is "Eretz Kena'an
li'Gvuloseha" - it belongs to us, we descend from
(b) Gaviha ben Pasisa asked Chachamim 'Allow me to answer
them - if they defeat me, you can say that they defeated
a commoner; if I win, you can say that the Torah defeated
them!' Chachamim agreed.
1. Gaviha: What is your source that Eretz Kena'an
belongs to you?
(c) Similarly, Miztrayim came to debate with Yisrael in front
of Alexandrus Mukdon, Chachamim allowed Gaviha to answer.
2. Africans: The Torah.
3. Gaviha: I will also bring a proof from the Torah!
"Arur Kena'an Eved Avadim Yihyeh l'Echav" - a
slave's properly belongs to its master! Also - you
owe us for many years that you have not worked for
4. Africans asked Alexandrus for three days to find an
answer - they were unable to, they fled, leaving
their fields and vineyards (in Eretz Yisrael)
planted (it was Shemitah, the produce was very
1. Miztrayim: "...Va'Yash'ilum" - return the gold and
silver that you borrowed! (R. Yonah - the true
explanation of "Va'Yash'ilum" is that Yisrael
*requested* gold and silver; Gaviha answered them
according to their misunderstanding that it was a
(d) Benei Yishmael and Benei Keturah came to debate with
Yisrael in front of Alexandrus Mukdon, Chachamim allowed
Gaviha to answer.
2. Gaviha: Your source that we borrowed from you is the
Torah - it also says "U'Moshav Benei
Yisrael...b'Miztrayim..." - you owe us wages for
600,000 people working for 430 years!
3. Miztrayim asked for three days to find an answer -
they were unable to, they fled, leaving their fields
and vineyards planted (it was Shemitah).
1. Benei Yishmael and Benei Keturah: We are partners
with you in Eretz Yisrael "V'Eleh Toldos Yishmael
ben Avraham...V'Eleh Toldos Yitzchak ben Avraham"!
2. Gaviha: I will also bring a proof from the Torah!
"Va'Yiten Avraham Es Kol Asher Lo l'Yitzchak
veli'Vnei ha'Pilagshim...Matanos (va'Yshalchem...El
Eretz Kedem)" - if a father divided his properly
among his children and sent them away from each
other, neither has any claim to what the other
i. Question: What gifts did he give them?
ii. Answer (R. Yirmeyah bar Aba): He gave them the
Shem Tum'ah (Kishuf).
(a) Antoninus (the Roman emperor who was a Talmid of Rebbi):
The body and Neshamah can each exempt itself from
1. The body can say, the Neshamah sinned - since it
left me, I have sat in the grave like a rock!
(b) Rebbi: A parable - a king had a nice orchard, he
appointed two guards, one lame and one blind. The lame
man said to the blind man 'There are nice figs here -
carry me, I will take them and we will eat them'; they
2. The Neshamah can say, the body sinned - since I left
it, I have been flying like a bird (without
4) THE FUTURE WORLD
1. Later, the king came and saw that the figs were
missing. The lame man said 'I could not walk to take
them'; the blind man said 'I could not see them to
take them'. The king put the lame man on the blind
man and judged them (for together, they can see and
(c) Antoninus: Why does the sun rise in the east and set in
2. Similarly, Hash-m will put the Neshamah in the body
and judge them together - "Yikra El ha'Shamayim
me'Al" refers to the Neshamah, "V'El ha'Aretz la'Din
Amo" refers to the body.
(d) Rebbi: If it would be the opposite, you would also ask me
(e) Antoninus: I ask, why doesn't it make a full circle and
set in the place it started?
(f) Rebbi: It goes to greet its Maker (the Shechinah is in
the west) - "U'Tzva ha'Shamayim Lecha Mishtachavim"
(g) Antoninus: Why doesn't it go to the middle of the sky,
bow and set there (it is normal to bow from a distance)!
(h) Rebbi: If so, people would not be aware when it is about
to set - this would cause problems for workers and
(i) Question (Antoninus): When is the Neshamah put in a
person - at the time of Pekidah (Rashi - when Hash-m
decrees the nature of the person that will result from
the drop of semen; Ramah - conception), or at the time
the fetus is formed?
(j) Answer #1 (Rebbi): When the fetus is formed.
(k) Rejection (Antoninus): A piece of unsalted meat cannot
stand for three days - likewise, if the Neshamah does not
enter the drop of semen immediately, it would rot.
(l) Answer #2 (Antoninus): Rather, it enters at the time of
(m) (Rebbi): A verse supports you - "U'Fkudasecha Shomrah
(n) Question (Antoninus): When does the Yetzer ha'Ra begin to
rule over a person - when the fetus is formed, or at
(o) Answer #1 (Rebbi): When the fetus is formed.
(p) Rejection (Antoninus): If so, it would kick in the womb
and leave prematurely!
(q) Answer #2 (Antoninus): Rather, it rules from birth.
(r) (Rebbi): A verse supports you - "La'Pesach Chatas
(a) Contradiction (Reish Lakish): It says "(Hash-m will
gather the exiles) Bam Iver u'Pise'ach (implying that
they are still blemished)...", and it says "Ka'Ayal
Pise'ach (implying that they are healed)"!
5) SOURCES FOR "TECHIYAS HA'MESIM"
(b) Resolution: They will be revived blemished, then Hash-m
will heal them.
(c) Contradiction (Ula): It says "Bilah ha'Maves la'Netzach",
and it says "Ha'Na'ar Ben Me'ah Shanah Yamus"!
(d) Resolution: Death will cease from Yisrael, Nochrim will
live long (but not eternal) lives.
(e) Question: Will Nochrim be in the world to come?!
(f) Answer: Yes, to serve us - "V'Omdu Zarim v'Ra'u
(g) Contradiction (Rav Chisda): It says "V'Chofrah ha'Levanah
u'Voshah haChamah" (they will be dim), and it says
"Ve'Hayah Or ha'Levanah k'Or haChamah...Shiv'asayim k'Or
(h) Resolution #1: In Yemos ha'Mashi'ach they will be bright,
in the world to come they will appear dim (on account of
the great radiance of Tzadikim).
(i) Resolution #2: According to Shmuel, who says that the
only difference between this world and Yemos ha'Mashi'ach
is that the kingdoms will cease to rule over Yisrael,
both refer to the world to come;
1. In the place of Tzadikim they will be bright, in the
place of the Shechinah they will appear dim.
(j) Contradiction (Rava): It says "Ani Amis va'Achayeh"
(blemished people will be revived (blemished) as they
were), and it says "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" (they will be
(k) Resolution: First Hash-m will revive people the way He
killed them; then, He will heal what He struck.
(a) (Beraisa) Suggestion: "Ani Amis va'Achayeh" - perhaps
this is as we find in this world, Hash-m brings new
(babies) to life, not people that He killed!
(b) Rejection "Machatzti va'Ani Erpa" - just as He will heal
the same people He struck, he will bring to life the same
people He killed;
1. This refutes those who say that there is no source
in Torah for Techiyas ha'Mesim.
(c) (Beraisa - R. Meir): A source in Torah for Techiyas
ha'Mesim - "Az *Yashir* Moshe" (the future tense).
1. Similarly: "Az *Yivneh* Yehoshua Mizbe'ach...", is
also a source for Techiyas ha'Mesim.
(d) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): A source in Torah for Techiyas
ha'Mesim - "Ashrei Yoshvei Veisecha Od *Yehalelucha*"
2. Question: But it also says "Az Yivneh Shlomo Bamah
li'Chmosh Shikutz Mo'av", surely this does not
allude to the future!
3. Answer: The Torah considers it as if he built a
Bamah (because he did not stop his wives from
(e) (R. Yehoshua ben Levi): Anyone who sings Shirah in this
world merits to sing in the world to come - "*Od*
Yehalelucha (those who sang will sing again)".
(f) (R. Chiya bar Aba): A source in Torah for Techiyas
ha'Mesim - "Kol Tzofayich Nos'u Kol Yachdav *Yeranenu*".