POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 59
1) MAY NOCHRIM LEARN TORAH?
(a) (R. Yochanan): A Nochri that learns Torah is Chayav Misah
- "Torah...Morashah" - it is a Morashah (inheritance) for
Yisrael, not for Nochrim.
2) BLOOD OF A LIVING ANIMAL
(b) Question: Why is this not included among his seven
(c) Answer: It is included in theft;
1. According to the opinion that expounds it is as if
said Me'orasah (Torah is Mekudeshes to Yisrael), it
is included in Arayos.
(d) Question (Beraisa - R. Meir): If a Nochri engages in
Torah, he receives reward like a Kohen Gadol - "Asher
Ya'aseh Osam *ha'Adam* va'Chai";
1. It does not say that *Yisraelim* will live through
the Mitzvos, rather, Adam - this teaches that if a
Nochri engages in Torah, he is rewarded like a Kohen
(e) Answer: He is rewarded for learning his seven Mitzvos (he
is liable for learning anything else in Torah).
(a) (Beraisa): R. Chanina ben Gamliel says, a Nochri is
liable even for eating blood of a living animal.
3) MITZVOS GIVEN TO BENEI NO'ACH AND YISRAEL
(b) (Beraisa): "Ach Basar b'Nafsho Damo Lo Sochelu" - this
refers to a limb of a living animal;
(c) R. Chanina ben Gamliel says, this also includes blood of
a living animal.
(d) Question: What is his reason?
(e) Answer: We expound the verse as if it said 'Basar
b'Nafsho Lo Sochelu, Damo b'Nafsho Lo Sochelu';
1. Chachamim say, this comes to permit (limbs of
living) Sheratzim (this will be explained).
(f) (R. Chanina ben Gamliel): Similarly, blood of a living
animal is forbidden to Yisrael - "...Levilti Achol ha'Dam
Ki ha'Dam Hu ha'Nefesh" (do not eat blood while it is
connected to the soul, i.e. while the animal is alive).
1. Chachamim say, this forbids Dam ha'Nefesh of
bloodletting (i.e. the whole time it is flowing).
(a) Question: Why does the Torah forbid blood of a living
animal to Benei No'ach, and again to Yisrael?
(b) Answer: This is as R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina taught - any
Mitzvah said to Benei No'ach (it appears in the Torah
before Ma'amad Har Sinai) and is repeated at (or after)
Sinai, it applies to Benei No'ach and Yisrael;
1. Any Mitzvah said to Benei No'ach that is not
repeated at Sinai, it applies only to Yisrael;
(c) Question: Why does he (R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina) say that
a Mitzvah said to Benei No'ach and repeated at Sinai
applies to Benei No'ach and Yisrael?
2. The only example we have is Gid ha'Nasheh, according
to R. Yehudah.
1. (Had it not been repeated, we would say that it
applies to Benei No'ach and to Yisrael (presumably,
we only received more Mitzvos at Sinai, we did not
lose Mitzvos) since it was repeated, this should
teach that it only applies to Yisrael!
(d) Answer: We find that Nochrim were punished for idolatry
(surely, they were commanded), and idolatry was repeated
at Sinai - this teaches that such Mitzvos apply to
Nochrim and Yisrael.
(e) Question: Why does he say that a Mitzvah said to Benei
No'ach and not repeated at Sinai applies only to Yisrael
- this should indicate that it only applies to Nochrim!
(f) Answer: We never find something permitted to a Yisrael
and forbidden to a Nochri.
(g) Question: Yafes To'ar is permitted to a Yisrael and
forbidden to a Nochri!
(h) Answer: This is only because the Parshah does not apply
1. (Yafes To'ar only applies during conquest - )
Nochrim are not permitted to make war to conquer
(i) Question: Nochrim are killed for stealing less than the
value of a Perutah, a Yisrael is exempt for this!
(j) Answer: Yisraelim are commanded about theft as Nochrim
1. They are liable because they do not pardon such an
amount; Yisraelim are exempt because we pardon it.
(k) Question: We said that a Mitzvah said to Benei No'ach and
repeated applies to both - but Milah was said before
Sinai ("V'Ata Es Brisi Tishmor") and after ("Uva'Yom
ha'Shemini Yimol"), yet it only applies to Yisrael!
(l) Answer #1: The latter verse is needed to permit Milah on
4) WHO IS COMMANDED ABOUT MILAH?
(m) Question: The Mitzvah to have children was said before
Sinai ("Peru u'Rvu") and after ("Shuvu Lachem
l'Ahaleichem"), yet it only applies to Yisrael!
(n) Answer: The latter verse is needed to teach that
something forbidden by a vote of Beis Din is not
permitted until Beis Din votes to permit it (even if they
fixed a limited time for the prohibition, similar to
Hash-m's prohibition of relations before Ma'amad Har
(o) Question: If so, we can say that every Mitzvah repeated
after Sinai was repeated for a certain Chidush (and only
applies to Yisrael)!
(p) Answer: When the warning not to transgress is repeated,
this shows that it applies to Benei No'ach and Yisrael.
(a) Question: R. Yosi b'Rebbi Chanina said that the only
Mitzvah (said to Benei No'ach that is not repeated) is
Gid ha'Nasheh, according to R. Yehudah;
5) MEAT WAS NOT PERMITTED TO ADAM HA'RISHON
1. Also Milah and Peru u'Rvu were not repeated!
(b) Answer: They were repeated, but to teach a different
1. Only Gid ha'Nasheh was not repeated at all.
(c) Answer #2 (to Question (k)): Milah was never given to all
Benei No'ach, only to Avraham - "V'Ata Es Brisi Tishmor
Ata *v'Zar'acha Acharecha*".
(d) Question: If so, also Benei Yishmael should be commanded
about Milah, they also descend from Avraham!
(e) "Ki v'Yitzchak Yikarei Lecha Zara" (only Yitzchak's
descendants are considered Avraham's seed).
(f) Question: Benei Esav should be commanded about Milah,
they also descend from Yitzchak!
(g) Question (R. Oshaya): If so, Benei Keturah (Avraham's
children after he remarried Hagar) should not be
commanded about Milah, they do not descend from Yitzchak;
(h) Answer: R. Yosi bar Avin taught, "Es Brisi Hefar" comes
to include Benei Keturah.
(a) (Rav Yehudah): Adam ha'Rishon was not allowed to (Tosfos
- kill animals to) eat meat - "(All vegetation) Lachem
Yihyeh l'Achlah ul'Chol Chayas ha'Sadeh" - the animals
are not Lachem (for man to eat);
1. After the flood, it was permitted - "K'Yerek Esev
Nasati Lachem Es Kol".
(b) Question: "U'Rdu bi'Dgas ha'Yam";
2. Suggestion: Perhaps even a limb of a living animal
3. Rejection: "Ach Basar b'Nafsho Damo Lo Sochelu".
4. Suggestion: Perhaps even limbs of living Sheratzim
5. Rejection: "Ach".
6. Question: How does this teach that Sheratim are
7. Answer (Rav Huna): "Damo" - something whose blood is
distinguished (in Halachah) from the flesh (the
Torah does not do so regarding Sheratzim).
1. Suggestion: This authorized man to eat fish!
(c) Answer: No, it authorized him to force fish to work for
1. Question: Can fish work?
(d) Question: "(U'Rdu...) uv'Of ha'Shamayim";
2. Answer: Yes, as evidenced by Rachbah's question.
i. Question (Rachbah): If one harnessed a fish and
a goat to pull a wagon together, is he liable
(for Kilai Behemah)?
1. Suggestion: This authorized man to eat birds!
(e) Answer: No, it authorized him to force birds to work for
1. Question: Can birds work?
(f) Question: "(U'Rdu...) uv'Chol Chayah ha'Romeses Al
ha'Aretz". (Surely, this authorized man to eat Chayos,
one cannot use them to work!)
2. Answer: Yes, as evidenced by Rabah bar Rav Huna's
i. Question (Rabah bar Rav Huna): According to R.
Yosi bar Yehudah (who says that a worker's
right to eat (and the prohibition to muzzle an
animal) is only when he (or it) works with his
feet and hands (forelegs), if one threshes with
geese and chickens, what is the law? (Does the
right to eat depend on working with four limbs,
or that none of the four limbs are idle?)
(g) Answer: No, it authorized him to force snakes to work for
1. (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Menasya): Had the snake not
been cursed (and lost its legs), it would have been
a great servant; every Yisrael would have had two,
to find gems for him, and to fertilize his field.
(h) Question (Beraisa - R. Yehudah ben Teima): In Gan Eden,
angels were roasting meat (for him to eat) and straining
wine for Adam ha'Rishon; the snake saw Adam's honor and
(i) Answer: They brought him meat that fell from Shamayim.
(j) Question: Does meat fall from Shamayim?!
(k) Answer: Yes - R. Shimon ben Chalafta encountered lions;
they roared at him (they wanted to eat him). He said
"Ha'Kefirim Sho'agim la'Taref" - two pieces of meat came
down (from Shamayim). The lions ate one, he took the
other to the Beis Medrash and asked if it was Tahor or
1. Rabanan: Tamei things do not descend from Shamayim.
(l) Question (R. Zeira): If an animal resembling a donkey
descended from Shamayim, what is the law?
(m) Rabanan: We already said, Tamei things do not descend
from Shamayim. (Surely, this will not happen; if it did,
it would be Tahor.)