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Sanhedrin 38


(a) R. Chiya's sons Chizkiyah and Yehudah were at a meal in front of Rebbi, they were silent. Rebbi gave them wine to open them up.
(b) When they were drunk, they said '(Mashi'ach) ben David will not come until two great houses will cease - that of the Roshei Galusa in Bavel, and the Nesi'im in Eretz Yisrael - "Vehayah l'Mikdash ul'Even Negef ul'Tzur Michshol li'Shnei Vatei Yisrael" (Mashi'ach will be the Mikdash of Yisrael, but he will end the greatness of two houses).
1. Rebbi (the Nasi): You put thorns in my eyes!
2. R. Chiya: Don't be angry at them - the Gematri'a of wine is 70, just like Sod (secret) - when wine enters, secrets come out.
(c) (Rav Chisda) Question: "Vayishkod Hash-m Al ha'Ra'ah...Ki Tzadik Hash-m" - because Hash-m is a Tzadik, He was quick to bring evil on us?!
(d) Answer #1 (Rav Chisda): Yes - it was Tzedakah to bring the exile of Tzidkiyahu while the exiles with Yechonyah (the Chachamim) were still alive.
1. (We expound the verse that discusses these exiles.)
2. "Vehe'Charash" - they are called Cheresh, because when they speak in Torah, all are like Chershim (they have nothing to add);
3. "Veha'Masger" - if they cannot resolve a Halachic matter, it is Sagur (no one opens it).
4. "Elef" - there were 1000 of them.
(e) Answer #2 (Ula): The Tzedakah was to bring the exile (after 850 years) two years before the Gematri'a of "V'Noshantem" (had we been a full 852 years in Eretz Yisrael, the next verse, "Avod Toveidun" would have applied).
(f) (Rav Acha bar Yakov): We learn from this that for Hash-m, 852 years is considered "Meherah" (quickly).
(a) (Mishnah): Therefore (Hash-m originally created only one man...)
(b) (Beraisa): Hash-m originally created only one man, to prevent Minim from saying that there are different powers that created;
1. Alternatively: it was for the sake of Tzadikim and Resha'im.
i. Tzadikim should not think 'we descend from a Tzadik, it is easy for us to be Tzadikim, we need not distance ourselves far from sin'.
ii. Rasha'im should not think 'we descend from a Rasha, repentance will not help us'.
2. Also, it was to prevent contention among families;
i. Now that we all descend from one man, families contend with each other - if we descended from two men, there would be even more contention!
3. Also, to dissuade theft and extortion:
i. Now that we all descend from one man, people steal - if we descended from two men, even more people would steal (they would say, 'this belonged to my father')!
(c) (Mishnah): Also, this shows Hash-m's greatness...
(d) (Beraisa): This shows Hash-m's greatness: if a person makes a stamp to mint coins, they all look the same;
1. Hash-m made all people in the mold of Adam ha'Rishon, yet no two people look alike.
2. "Tishapech k'Chomer Chosam" (after death, man's form will become physical).
3. Question: Why don't people look the same?
4. Answer: In order that people will not see a nice house or woman and claim 'It is mine' - "V'Yimana me'Resha'im Oram".
(e) (Beraisa - R. Meir): People are different from each other in three ways: voice, appearance and thinking.
1. In voice and appearance - in order that men will not have relations with others' wives;
2. In thinking - on account of thieves and extortionists (people think of different places to hide valuables).
(f) (Beraisa): Man was created on Erev Shabbos (at the end of creation) in order that Minim should not be able to say that man was a partner in creation.
1. Also: if a man will get haughty, we will tell him that mosquitoes were created before him.
2. Also: in order that he should immediately guard the Mitzvah of Shabbos.
3. Also: in order that he should find everything ready for him.
4. A parable: a king built palaces and fixed them up; he prepared a banquet, then, he brought the guests in - "Chachmos Bonsah Veisah...";
i. "Chachmos Bonesah Veisah" - Hash-m created the world with Chachmah;
ii. (The verse continues) "Chotzevah Amudeha Shiv'ah" - these are the seven days of creation;
iii. "Tovchah Tivchah Moschah Yeinah Af Orchah Shulchanah" - these are seas, rivers and all needs in this world.
iv. "Sholchah Na'aroseha Sikra" - this is Adam and Chavah;
(g) Contradiction (Rabah bar bar Chanah): This verse continues "Al Gapei (a high place) later it says "Al Kisei"!
(h) Answer (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Before he sinned, he was Al Gapei; after he sinned, he was Al Kisei.
(i) "Mi Pesi...Chasar Lev Omerah Lo" - Hash-m said, 'Who enticed Adam?'
(j) The woman (she is called lacking understanding) - "No'ef Ishah Chasar Lev".
(a) (Beraisa - R. Meir): The dirt from which Adam was created was taken from all over the world - "Golmi Ra'u Einecha".
(b) (R. Oshaya): (The dirt for) his body was taken from Bavel, his head from Eretz Yisrael, his limbs (Rashi - hands and feet) from other lands;

(c) (Rav Acha): His buttocks came from Bavel.
(d) (R. Yochanan ben Chanina): There are 12 daytime hours; the first hour, his dust was gathered;
1. The second hour, he was made into a form;
2. The third hour, his limbs were formed;
3. The fourth hour, a Neshamah was put into him;
4. The fifth hour, he stood on his feet;
5. The sixth hour, he named the animals;
6. The seventh hour, Chavah was made for him;
7. The eighth hour, they had relations and two children;
8. The ninth hour, he was commanded not to eat from Etz ha'Da'as;
9. The 10th hour, he transgressed;
10. The 11th hour, he was judged;
11. The 12th hour, he was expelled - "V'Adam bi'Kar Bal Yalin" (he did not spend the night in the grandeur of Gan Eden).
(e) (Rami bar Chama): Wild animals only rule over a man if he appears to them like an animal - "Nimshal ka'Behemos Yidmu".
(f) (Rav Yehudah): When Hash-m wanted to create man, He created a group of angels and asked if He should create man.
1. The angels asked how man would act; after Hash-m told them, they said "Mah Enosh Ki Sizkerenu"?
2. Hash-m stuck His small finger among them, burning them. He created a second group of angels, the same happened with them.
3. The third group asked 'What did the first groups accomplish? The whole world is Yours, do as You wish!'
4. When the generations of the flood and the dispersion came, which transgressed greatly, the angels said 'the first groups were right!'
5. Hash-m: "V'Ad Ziknah...Ani Esbol" (I will forever bear man).
(g) (Rav Yehudah): Adam stretched from one end of the world to the other - "Bara "Elokim Adam Al ha'Aretz ulmi'Ktze ha'Shamayim v'Ad Ketze ha'Shamayim".
1. After he sinned, Hash-m put His hand on him and diminished him - "...Va'Tashes Alai Kapecha".
(h) (R. Elazar): Adam extended from the ground until Shamayim - "Al ha'Aretz ulmi'Ktzei ha'Shamayim";
1. After he sinned, Hash-m diminished him - "Va'Tashes Alai Kapecha".
(i) Contradiction: The verse says that he stretched from one end of the world to the other, it also implies that he reached from the ground until Shamayim!
(j) Answer: These are the same size.
(k) (Rav Yehudah): Adam spoke Arame'ic - "V'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa".
(l) (Reish Lakish): "Zeh Sefer Toledos Adam" - this teaches that Hash-m showed Adam every generation, its expounders, and its Chachamim.
1. When he saw R. Akiva, he enjoyed his Torah but was saddened by his death - "V'Li Mah Yakru Re'echa".
(m) (R. Chananel - the following three Amora'im explain how Minim defend themselves, by *falsely* expounding that Adam also did as they do. Ramah - they are true Drashos of Chachamim.)
(n) (Rav Yehudah): Adam was a Min - "(Hash-m asked) Ayeka" - where is your heart leaning (i.e. to idolatry)!
(o) (R. Yitzchak): Adam did not circumcise himself (Ramah - even though he was commanded to; some say, he was born circumcised, but stretched his foreskin to conceal it) - it says here "K'Adam Avru Veris", and it says "Es Brisi Hefar".
(p) (Rav Nachman): He denied Hash-m - it says here "K'Adam Avru Veris", and it says "Asher Ozvu Es Bris Hash-m".
(a) (Mishnah - R. Eliezer): Be diligent to learn Torah, and know what to answer a heretic.
(b) (R. Yochanan): This only refers to a Nochri heretic, but answering a Yisrael heretic (who already knew the truth and denied it) will only cause him to deny more.
(c) (R. Yochanan): Any verse the heretics use to 'prove' that there is more than one G-d, a (nearby or the same) verse refutes them.
1. "Na'aseh Adam b'Tzalmenu (plural)" - "Va'Yivra (singular) Elokim Es ha'Adam b'Tzalmo".
2. "Neredah v'Novlah" - "Va'Yered Hash-m (singular).
3. "Niglu Elav Elokim" - "La'Kel ha'Oneh Osi".
4. "Elokim Kerovim Elav" - "B'Chol Kor'enu Elav".
5. "U'Mi ch'Amcha...Asher Holchu Elokim..." - "Lifdos Lo l'Am";
6. "Ad Di Charsavan Remiv (throne*s* were set up for Hash-m)" - "V'Atik Yomin Yesiv (singular)".
(d) Question: Why are all these verses written in the plural?
(e) Answer: This is as R. Yochanan taught, Hash-m always consults with His Heavenly Court before doing anything - "Bi'Gzeras Irin Pisgama uv'Memar Kadishin She'elsa".
(f) Question: That explains all of them, except for "Ad Di Charsavan Remiv"!
(g) Answer: This teaches that He also set up a throne for David.
1. (Beraisa - R. Akiva): ("Charsavan Remiv" -) Hash-m set up one throne for Himself, and one for David;
2. R. Yosi: Do not put mortals on equal standing with Hash-m! Rather, He has one throne for judgment, and one for Tzedakah.
(h) Question: Did R. Akiva accept R. Yosi's rebuttal?
(i) Answer (Beraisa - R. Akiva): ("Charsavan Remiv" -) Hash-m has one throne for judgment, and one for Tzedakah;
(j) R. Eliezer ben Azaryah: Apply yourself to (the very difficult) laws of Tzara'as and Tum'as Ohel, but not Agada!
1. Rather, one is a throne, one is a footstool.
(k) (Rav Nachman): If you cannot answer heretics as Rav Idis can, do not answer them.
1. A Min: It says "V'El Moshe Amar Ale El Hash-m" - it should say "Elai"!
2. Rav Idis: Hash-m did not say this to Moshe, Metatron said it, his name has the same Gematri'a (314) as (Shakai,) a name of Hash-m (therefore, the Torah did not need to say that he said this) - "Ki Shemi b'Kirbo".
3. The Min: If so, we should serve Metatron!
4. Rav Idis: "Al Temar Bo" - do not put (serve) him in place of Me.
5. The Min: "Lo Yisa l'Fish'achem" - what would we gain by Metatron leading us?
6. Rav Idis: Indeed, that is why we rejected him - "...Im Ein Panecha Holchim..."
(l) Question (a Min, of R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi): "Va'Sh-m Himtir Al Sedom...va'Esh me'Es Hash-m" - it should say 'Me'Ito"!
1. A launderer: Allow me to answer with another question - "Va'Yomer Lemech l'Nashav Adah v'Tzilah Shema'an Koli Neshei Lemech" - it should say 'Nashai' (my wives)!
(m) Answer (to both questions - the launderer): This is the way the Torah speaks.
(n) R. Yishmael b'Rebbi Yosi: Where did you learn this?
(o) The launderer: R. Meir taught this.
1. (R. Yochanan): R. Meir used to teach one third Halachos, one third Agados, and one third parables.
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