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Sanhedrin 22

SANHEDRIN 21-22 - Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fawer has dedicated two more days of study material to honor her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner) of blessed memory (Yahrzeit: 18 Teves). May the merit of supporting and advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.


(a) Question: Why is the new writing called Ashuris?
(b) Answer: The Yisraelim exiled to Ashur brought it with them.
(c) (Beraisa - Rebbi): At first the Torah was given in Ashuris; after Yisrael sinned, it was changed to Ro'atz (was forgotten); after they repented, it was returned to Ashuris - "Shuvu l'Vitzaron (to your former glory)"
1. It is called Ashuris because it is the most glorious writing.
2. R. Shimon ben Elazar says, "Vovei ha'Amudim" - just as the Amudim did not change, the Vovim (the letters, i.e. the writing) did not change.
3. (Another proof) "Ki'Chsavam vechi'Lshonam" - just as the language did not change, the writing did not change.
(d) Question: What do we learn from "Mishnah ha'Torah ha'Zos"?
(e) Answer: This teaches that he writes two Sifrei Torah for himself; one he takes with him, the other he stores away;
1. The one he takes with him he hangs on his arm - "Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid".
2. The other opinion expounds this like Rav Chanah bar Bisna.
3. (Rav Chanah bar Bisna): One who prays must picture the Shechinah in front of him - "Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid".
(f) Question: According to R. Shimon, the writing did not change - what do we learn from "Lo cha'Halin Kisva"?
(g) Answer #1 (Rav): The message (written at Belshatzar's party) was written in At-Bash (in place of each letter is substituted the opposite letter of the Aleph-Beis, i.e. Tov for Aleph, Shin for Beis...); it said 'Yatas Yatas Idach Pugchamat';
1. Daniel explained, it means "Menei Menei Tekel u'Farsin" - Hash-m calculated that your kingship did not yet finish its allotted time; it is being taken from you as a punishment, it will be split among the kingdoms of Peras and Madai.
(h) Answer #2 (Shmuel): Every third letter of the (true) message ("Menei Menei..") was made into one word (Mimsos), and likewise for the letters following them, and the letters following them - Hash-m wrote 'Mimsos Nenakfei A'alran'.
(i) Answer #3 (R. Yochanan): Every word was written backwards - 'Anam Anam Lekes Nisrefu'.
(j) Answer #4 (Rav Ashi): The first two letter of every word were switched - 'Nemei Nemei Ketel Poresin'.
(a) (Mishnah): We may not ride on a king's horse, nor sit on his throne, or use his scepter;
(b) We may not see him when he takes a haircut or is naked or in the bathhouse - "Som Tasim Alecha Melech", you must fear him.
(c) (Gemara - R. Yakov): Avishag (the Na'arah picked for David) was permitted to Shlomo, for a king may use what another king used;
1. She was forbidden to Adoniyahu, for he was not a king.
(d) Question: What was her relationship with David?
(e) Answer: "Va'Tehi la'Melech Sochenes Va'Tesharesehu".
1. She asked David to marry her; he told her that he may not take a 19th wife.
2. Avishag: That is a lame excuse (really, you are too old and weak to have relations).
3. "Va'Tavo Bas Sheva El ha'Melech ha'Chedrah" - David called Bas Sheva, she cleaned herself 13 times (the number of words in this verse) (Rashi - after relations; Ramah - she desired David so much, she emitted his semen from their last relations) in front of Avishag.
(a) Shba This teaches how terrible divorce is - they permitted David (because he was weak) to be secluded with a woman (which was forbidden after the incident with Amnon), they did not permit him to divorce one of his wives (in order to marry Avishag).
(b) (R. Eliezer): One who divorces his first wife, even the Mizbe'ach cries over this - "Mizbach Hash-m Bechi va'Anakah...Eshes Ne'urecha Asher Ata Bagadta Bah".
(c) (R. Yochanan): A man's wife only dies if he cannot pay what he owes (Rashi - what he stole; Tosfos - Korbanos he vowed to bring) - "Im Ein Lecha Leshalem Lamah Yikach Mishkavcha mi'Tachtecha".
(d) (R. Yochanan): If a man's first wife dies, it is as if the Mikdash was destroyed in his lifetime - "Hineni Loke'ach Mimecha Es Machmad Eineicha...va'Tamas Ishti...Hineni Mechalel Es Mikdashi Machmad Eineichem".
(e) (R. Alexandri): If a man's wife dies, the world darkens for him - "Or Chashach b'Ahalo".
(f) (R. Yosi bar Chanina): His steps get shorter - "Yetzeru Tza'adei Ono".
(g) (R. Avahu): His counsel will not succeed - "V'Sachlichehu Atzaso".
(h) (Rabah bar bar Chanah): Matchmaking is as difficult as splitting the Yam Suf - "Elokim Moshiv Yechidim Baysah Motzi Asirim b'Kosharos",
(i) Question: But Rav Yehudah taught, 40 days before a fetus is formed, a Voice from Heaven announces 'Bas Ploni will marry Almoni!
(j) Answer: That refers to a person's first match, Rabah bar bar Chanah discusses a second match.
(k) (R. Shmuel bar Nachman): There is a substitute for everything except for the wife of one's youth - "V'Eshes Ne'urim Ki Sima'es (even if he despises her, he will return to love her).
(l) (Rav Yehudah): A person only feels contented with his first wife - "...U'Smach me'Eshes Ne'urecha".

(m) (His son) Rav Yitzchak: What is an example of this?
(n) Rav Yehudah: Your mother.
(o) Question: But Rav Yehudah told Yitzchak 'Your mother illustrates, "U'Motzi Ani Mar mi'Maves Es ha'Ishah"!'
(p) Answer: She is harsh, but she forgives easily.
(q) (Rav Shmuel bar Onya): A woman is like an unfinished vessel, she makes a covenant with the one (her first husband) who makes her a finished vessel - Ki Vo'alayich Osayich".
1. When a woman dies, it is as if only her husband is bereaved - "Mesah Alai Rachel".
(a) (Mishnah): We may not see him...
(b) (Beraisa): A king cuts his hair every day, a Kohen Gadol cuts his hair every Erev Shabbos, a regular Kohen cuts his hair once in 30 days.
1. A king cuts his hair every day on account of "Melech b'Yafyo Techezenah Einecha".
(c) (R. Shmuel bar Nachman): A Kohen Gadol cuts his hair every Erev Shabbos to look nice for the new Mishmar.
(d) A regular Kohen cuts his hair once in 30 days on account of "...U'Fera Lo Yishalechu Kaso Yichsemu Es Rosheihem";
1. We learn a Gezerah Shavah "Pera-Pera" from Nazir: it says here "U'Fera Lo Yishalechu", and it says there "Gadel Pera Se'ar Rosho" - just as there it means 30 days of growth, also here.
2. (Mishnah): If one accepted Nezirus without specifying the term, he is a Nazir for 30 days.
3. Question: What is the source of this law?
4. Answer (Rav Masnah): "Kadosh Yihyeh" - the Gematri'a of Yihyeh is 30.
(e) Question (Rav Papa): We should say that he may not grow his hair at all!
(f) Answer (Abaye): Had it said 'Lo Yishalechu Pera', that would be correct;
1. However, it says "U'Fera Lo Yishalechu", they may have Pera (30 days growth), they may not have more.
(g) Question: Kohanim nowadays should also be commanded to cut their hair every 30 days!
(h) Answer: The prohibition of long hair is like drinking wine, it only applies in the Mikdash.
(i) Question: Drinking wine is forbidden even nowadays, when they do not enter the Mikdash!
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): I say that a Kohen should be forbidden to drink wine today (in order that he will be able to serve if the Mikdash will suddenly be rebuilt);
2. However, after the Churban we are not concerned, he may drink at any time.
3. (Abaye): Nowadays, Kohanim drink wine - this is like Rebbi.
4. Inference: Chachamim forbid them to drink.
i. Summation of question: This is in order that they will be ready to serve if the Mikdash is suddenly rebuilt - likewise, they should be obligated to cut their hair every 30 days, so they can serve!
(j) Answer #1: If the Mikdash is suddenly rebuilt, a long-haired Kohen could cut his hair and serve.
1. Question: Likewise, a drunk Kohen could nap and serve (yet Chachamim forbid them to drink)!
i. (Rav Acha) Walking a Mil (2000 Amos) or any amount of sleep negates the effects of wine.
2. Answer: Rav Nachman taught, that is only when he drank only one Revi'is - if he drank more, walking or sleep will worsen his condition!
(k) Answer #2 (Rav Ashi): Shtuyei Yayin (serving when drunk) is Mechalel (disqualifies) the Avodah, therefore Chachamim decreed about it;
1. Pru'ei Rosh (serving with long hair) does not Mechalel Avodah, therefore Chachamim did not decree about it.
(l) Question (Beraisa): The following are Chayav Misah: Pru'ei Rosh and Shtuyei Yayin.
1. We know the source for Shtuyei Yayin - "Yayin v'Shechar Al Tesht...v'Lo Samusu";
2. Question: What is the source for Pru'ei Rosh?
3. Answer: The Torah equates this to Shtuyei Yayin (they are written adjacently): just as Shtuyei Yayin is Chayav Misah, also Pru'ei Rosh.
4. Summation of question: Likewise, we should equate them and say that Pru'ei Rosh is also Mechalel Avodah!
(m) This is left difficult.
(a) Question (Ravina): How did we know the law before Yechezkeil said this verse?
1. Counter-question (Rav Ashi): "Kol Ben Nechar Erel Lev v'Erel Basar Lo Yavo El Mikdashi" - (a Rasha or Arel may not enter the Mikdash) -- how did we know the law before Yechezkeil?
(b) Answer to both questions (Rav Ashi): You must say, it was a tradition from Moshe from Sinai, Yechezkeil wrote a verse alluding to it.
(n) Question: What does it mean "Kaso Yichsemu Es Rosheihem"?
(o) Answer (Beraisa): It is a Lulainis haircut.
(p) Question: What is this?
(q) Answer (Rav Yehudah): A unique haircut.
(r) Question: How is it done?
(s) Answer (Rav Ashi): The end of one hair reaches to the root of the next hair.
(t) Question (Rabanan): How did the Kohen Gadol cut his hair?
(u) Answer (Rebbi): Look at Ben El'asha (my son-in-law).
1. (Beraisa - Rebbi): Ben El'asha spent much money in order to demonstrate the haircut of the Kohen Gadol.
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