POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 21
SANHEDRIN 21-22 - Mrs. Estanne Abraham-Fawer has dedicated two more days of
study material to honor her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner)
of blessed memory (Yahrzeit: 18 Teves). May the merit of supporting and
advancing the study of the Talmud be l'Iluy Nishmaso.
1) HE MAY NOT MARRY TOO MANY WIVES
(a) (Mishnah): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may not marry
more than 18 wives.
2) DAVID'S WIVES AND CHILDREN
(b) R. Yehudah says, he may marry more, on condition that
they do not divert his heart (from fearing Hash-m).
(c) R. Shimon says, he may not marry even one that will
divert his heart;
(d) Question: If so, why does the Torah forbid taking *too
(e) Answer: It is forbidden to take many even if they inspire
him to fear Hash-m, like Avigayil.
(f) (Gemara) Question: In our Mishnah, R. Yehudah derives a
Halachah from (what he understands to be) the reason for
a Mitzvah, and R. Shimon does not - elsewhere, they hold
1. (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): One may not take a security
from a widow, whether she is rich or poor - "V'Lo
Sachabol Beged Almanah";
(g) Answer: Here (marrying too many wives) is different,
because the Torah gave the reason - "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo
Nashim *in order that* v'Lo Yasur Levavo" (therefore, R.
Yehudah derives a Halachah from the reason);
2. R. Shimon says, one may take from a rich widow, but
not from a poor widow, you must return it, you ruin
3. Question: What does this mean?
4. Answer: *If* you would take from a poor widow, since
you must return it every day, you would ruin her
reputation (because people will see you by her every
5. Summation of question: R. Shimon derives a Halachah
from the reason for a Mitzvah , R. Yehudah does not!
1. R. Shimon: Had the Torah only said "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo
Nashim", we would have known that this in order that
they will not divert his heart;
(h) Question: What is the source that only 18 are allowed?
2. The Torah explicitly said "V'Lo Yasur Levavo" to
teach that he may not marry even one that will
divert his heart.
3. Question: If so, why must the Torah forbid taking
4. Answer: It forbids taking many, even like Avigayil.
(i) Answer: David had (children from) six wives "Amnon
la'Achino'am...veha'Shishi Yisre'am l'Eglah", and Shmuel
told him "V'Osifah Lecha ka'Henah vecha'Henah" - another
six and another six.
(j) Objection (Ravina): Wsst "Ka'Henah" teaches (six more, in
all) 12, "vecha'Henah" teaches (another 12, in all) 24!
(k) Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may
not marry more than 24 wives.
(l) According to the opinion that expounds 'Vov'
("*ve*cha'Henah"), he should be allowed 48!
(m) Support (Beraisa): "V'Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - a king may
not marry more than 48 wives.
(n) Question: What is the reason for the Tana of our Mishnah?
(o) Answer (Rav Kahana): He equates the latter 'Ka'Henah' to
the former 'Ka'Henah' - just as the former teaches six
more, also the latter.
(a) Question: David had a seventh wife, Michal, when Shmuel
told him "Ka'Henah vecha'Henah"!
3) THE EPISODE WITH TAMAR
(b) Answer (Rav): Eglah is Michal; she is called Eglah
because she was as dear to him as a calf (as Shimon said)
- "Lulei Charashtem b'Eglasi".
(c) Question: But Michal did not have children - "Ul'Michal
Bas Sha'ul Lo Hayah Lah Yeled Ad Yom Mosah"!
(d) Answer (Rav Chisda): She did not have a child *Ad*
(before) the day she died, she bore a child the day she
(e) Objection: The verse listed David's children in Chevron -
the episode with Michal was (later, in) Yerushalayim!
1. "U'Michal...va'Tere Es ha'Melech David Mefazez
u'Mcharcher Lifne Hash-m va'Tivez Lo b'Libah"'
(f) Correction: Rather, she did not have more children after
this episode, she had children from before.
2. (Rav Yehudah): She was punished for this (by not
(g) Question: "Va'Yikach David Od Pilagshim v'Nashim
(h) Answer: He took more, until he had 18,
(i) Question: What is the difference between Pilagshim and
(j) Answer (Rav Yehudah): Wives have a Kesuvah and Kidushin,
Pilagshim do not have a Kesuvah nor (our text, Rambam;
Rashi (on Chumash), Ra'avad - but have) Kidushin.
(k) (Rav Yehudah): David had 400 children from Yafos To'ar
(attractive women taken in war);
1. They grew Bluris (long hair in back), they sat in
gold wagons at the head of the troops - they were
the strong-arms of Beis David (to scare the enemy).
(a) (Rav Yehudah): Tamar was the daughter of a Yafes To'ar
(she was conceived before her mother converted) - "Daber
Na El ha'Melech Lo Yimna'eni Mimeka";
1. Had she been David's daughter from a Yisraelis, she
would have been Amnon's sister!
(b) (Rav Yehudah): "Ul'Amnon Re'a...Chacham" - he was a
Chacham for evil.
(c) (Rav Yehudah): "Va'Tichak Es ha'Meshares va'Titzok
Lefanav" - she made fried food for him.
(d) Question: "Va'Yisna'eha" - (afterwards) why did he hate
(e) Answer (R. Yitzchak): His Ever got caught on a hair, it
(f) Question: She did not intend for this!
(g) Correction: She intentionally tied a hair to castrate
(h) Question: But Rava taught, "Va'Yetzei Lach Shem ba'Goyim
b'Yafyech" - Benos Yisrael do not have hair in the
underarms or near their Ervah (Maharsha - they shave it;
Maharshal - Hash-m causes that it does not grow)!
(i) Answer: Tamar was the daughter of a Yafes To'ar.
(j) (Beraisa - R. Yehoshua ben Korchah): "Va'Tichak Tamar
Efer Al Roshah..." - this taught a great lesson to Benos
1. If such a great disgrace can occur even to the
king's daughter, all the more so to regular women;
if it can occur even to modest women, all the more
so to immodest women!
4) HE MAY NOT ACQUIRE EXTRA HORSES OR MONEY
2. (Rav Yehudah): At that time, they decreed against
seclusion (with a married woman) and relations with
a single girl.
(k) "Va'Adoniyah...Misnasei Leimor Ani Emloch" - he tried on
the crown which only fits those fitting to be kings of
Beis David, but it did not fit him.
3. Question: Seclusion is forbidden mid'Oraisa!
i. Question (R. Yochanan): "Ki Yesisecha Achicha
Ven Imecha" - do maternal brothers entice, but
not paternal brothers?!
4. Correction: Rather, they decreed against seclusion
with a single girl.
ii. Answer (R. Yochanan): Rather, this hints that a
man may be secluded with his mother, not with
(l) Question: "Va'Ya'as...va'Chamishim Ish Ratzim Lefanav" -
what was special about them?
(m) Answer (Beraisa): He removed their spleens and the skin
of the bottom of their feet (so they could run faster,
thorns would not hurt them).
(a) (Mishnah): "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" - only what he needs for
his chariots (the army).
5) SHLOMO HAD TOO MANY HORSES, MONEY AND WOMEN
(b) "V'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo Me'od" - only what he
needs to pay his army.
(c) He writes a Sefer Torah for himself, he takes it to war,
when he returns, when he judges - "V'Haysah Imo v'Kara Bo
Kol Yemei Chayav".
(d) (Gemara - Beraisa) Suggestion: "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" -
perhaps he may not even have for his chariots or cavalry!
(e) Rejection: "Lo Yarbeh *Lo*" - it is forbidden only if he
increases to aggrandize himself.
(f) Question: Which horses are forbidden?
(g) Answer: Idle horses (that just run in front of him).
(h) Question: What is the source that even one idle horse is
(i) Answer: "Lema'an Harbos Sus".
(j) Question: If so, why does it say "Susim" (plural)?
(k) Answer: This teaches that he transgresses a Lav for every
1. Question: Had it not said "*Lo*", we would have said
that he may not even have for his army (but a king
(l) (Mishnah): "V'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo Me'od" - only
what he needs to pay his army.
2. Answer: We would have taught that he may only have a
bare minimum for his army - "*Lo*" permits
(m) (Beraisa) Suggestion: "V'Chesef v'Zahav Lo Yarbeh Lo" -
one might have thought, even what he needs to pay his
(n) Rejection: "Lo Yarbeh *Lo*" - he does not increase for
himself, he may increase in order to pay his army.
1. Question: Had it not said "*Lo*", we would have said
that he may not even have for his army (but he needs
(o) Question: What will we expound from "Lo Yarbeh *Lo*
2. Answer: We would have taught that he may only have
the minimum needed to pay an army - "*Lo*" permits
extra (in case he will need to hire more soldiers).
(p) Answer: This excludes commoners (they may marry many
(a) Contradiction (Rav Yehudah): It says "Li'Shlomo Arba'im
Elef Urvos Susim"; it also says " Arba'as Alafim Uryos
6) THE KING WRITES AN EXTRA SEFER TORAH
(b) Answer: Either he had 40,000 stable houses, each with
4,000 horse pens, or 4,000 stable houses, each with
(c) Contradiction (R. Yitzchak): It says "Ein Kesef Nechshav
bi'Ymei Shlomo li'M'umah" - it also says "Ha'Kesef
bi'Yrushalayim ka'Avanim" (it had some importance)!
(d) Answer: Before he married Bas Par'o (he engaged only in
Chachmah), it had no importance; after he married her, it
was like stones.
(e) (R. Yitzchak): When Shlomo married Bas Par'o, Gavri'el
inserted a reed in the sea; dirt got deposited, Romi was
later built there.
(f) Question (R. Yitzchak): Why weren't the reasons for
(g) Answer (R. Yitzchak): The reasons for two Mitzvos were
revealed, and the greatest Chacham stumbled in them.
1. It says "Lo Yarbeh Lo Nashim" - Shlomo thought, I
will take many, they will not veer my heart;
i. Ultimately, they did - "Hitu Es Levavo".
2. It says "Lo Yarbeh Lo Susim" - Shlomo thought, I
will acquire many, we will not return to Mitzrayim;
i. Ultimately, they did - "Va'Tetzei Merkavah
(a) (Mishnah): He writes a Sefer Torah for himself.
7) THE LANGUAGE AND WRITING OF THE TORAH
(b) (Beraisa): It is not enough that he inherited one.
(c) (Rabah): Even if a person inherited a Sefer Torah, it is
a Mitzvah to write one himself - "Kisvu Lachem Es
(d) Question (Abaye - Beraisa): It is not enough that he
1. Inference: This only applies to a king!
(e) Answer: No, the only difference about a king is that he
must write a second Sefer Torah.
(f) (Beraisa): "V'Chasav Lo Es Mishnah ha'Torah ha'Zos" - he
writes two Sifrei Torah for himself; one he takes with
him, the other he stores away.
1. The one he takes with him he hangs on his arm -
"Shivisi Hash-m l'Negdi Tamid".
(g) He does not take it into a bathhouse or Beis ha'Kisei -
"V'Haysah Imo v'Kara Bo", he only takes it where he may
(a) (Mar Zutra): Originally, the Torah was given to Yisrael
in Lashon ha'Kodesh, in Ivri writing (forms of the
1. In the days of Ezra, it was given in Arame'ic, in
(b) (Beraisa - R. Yosi): Ezra was fitting that the Torah be
given through him, just Moshe preceded him.
2. Yisrael chose Lashon ha'Kodesh and Ashuris; they
left Arame'ic and Ivri writing for commoners.
3. Question: Who are the commoners?
4. Answer (Rav Chisda): Kusim.
5. Question: What is Ivri writing?
6. Answer (Rav Chisda): Writing in big letters (Rashi;
R. Tam - a writing particular to a place called
Libona'ah; Maharsha - the writing we were used to
from Lavan's house).
1. It says "U'Moshe Alah El ha'Elokim" - likewise, it
says "Hu Ezra Alah mi'Bavel" - just as the Aliyah of
Moshe was for Torah, also that of Ezra.
2. It says regarding Moshe "V'Osi Tzivah
Hash-m...Lelamed Eschem Chukim u'Mishpatim" -
likewise, it says "Ezra...u'Lelamed b'Yisrael Chok
3. Even though the Torah was not given through Ezra,
the writing changed through him - "U'Chsav
4. It also says "Lo cha'Halin Kisva";
5. It also says "V'Kasav Es *Mishnah* ha'Torah ha'Zos"
- a writing that will Mishtaneh (change).