POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous daf Sanhedrin 12
1) WHERE AND WHEN WE ME'ABER THE YEAR
(a) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber the year in famine years
(because people need to eat the new grain as soon as
2) IBUR ON ACCOUNT OF TUM'AH
(b) (Beraisa - Rebbi): "V'Ish Ba mi'Ba'al Shalishah
va'Yavei...Lechem Bikurim...Se'orim" - the first part of
Eretz Yisrael in which the fruits ripen is Ba'al
Shalishah, and even so, only one species ripened.
1. Suggestion: Perhaps it was wheat!
(c) (Beraisa): We only Me'aber the year after Rosh Hashanah;
if it was made Me'aber before Rosh Hashanah, it is not
2. Rejection: "Se'orim".
3. Suggestion: Perhaps this was before the Omer!
4. Rejection: "Ten la'Am va'Yochelu" (and fresh grain
is forbidden until after the Omer).
5. Conclusion: It was fitting to Me'aber the year -
Elisha did not Me'aber it because it was a famine
year, everyone needed the new grain immediately.
1. In forced circumstances, we Me'aber it right after
Rosh Hashanah; still, the only month we add is a
(d) Question: Two Chachamim came from Tiverya; the Persians
(some say - rain) detained them, but Hash-m enabled them
to pass. They came to inform Rava that the Nasi wanted to
add a Netziv (i.e. Me'aber the year), but the Romans did
not allow him; Chachamim gathered in the month in which
Aharon died (Av) to Me'aber the following year. (The
message was said in a disguised way, so news of the Ibur
would not reach the authorities.)
(e) Answer: They may decide whether or not to Me'aber before
Rosh Hashanah, they do not reveal the decision before
(f) Question: How do we know that 'Netziv' refers to a month?
(g) Answer: "Veli'Shlomo Shneim Asar Nitzavim...Chodesh
(h) Question: But it says "U'Netziz Echad Asher ba'Aretz"!
(i) Answer #1 (Rav Yehudah or Rav Nachman): One of them was
appointed over all of them.
(j) Answer #2 (The other of Rav Yehudah and Rav Nachman): The
extra one was for Chodesh ha'Ibur.
(k) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber from one year to another
(Rashi - to Me'aber this year on account of next year,
which should be Me'uberes; Tosfos - we do not consider
now if next year should be Me'uberes);
1. We do not Me'aber three years at once
(consecutively; alternatively, we do not decide at
once to Me'aber three (non-consecutive) years).
(l) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber a Shemitah year (for this
prolongs the prohibition to work the land), nor the year
after Shemitah (for people need the new grain quickly);
2. R. Shimon says, a case occurred, R. Akiva was in
prison, he was Me'aber three years at once.
3. Chachamim: No, Beis Din was Me'aber each year in its
1. It is customary to Me'aber the year before Shemitah
(to allow another month of working the land);
(m) These Tana'im argue about whether or not we may import
produce, as the following Tana'im argue.
2. R. Gamliel's house would Me'aber the year after
Shemitah (because people can import produce).
1. (Beraisa): We may not import vegetables from Chutz
(n) Question: About what do they argue?
2. Raboseinu permit this.
(o) Answer (R. Yirmeyah): The first forbids because we are
concerned that (Tamei) dirt will come with the
vegetables, Raboseinu are not concerned.
(a) (Beraisa): We do not Me'aber a year on account of Tum'ah
(to enable Yisrael to bring Korban Pesach in Taharah);
(b) R. Yehudah says, we Me'aber the year on account of
1. R. Yehudah: A case occurred, Chizkiyah ha'Melech was
Me'aber the year on account of Tum'ah, and prayed
that Hash-m should forgive him - "Ha'Am...Lo
Hiteharu Ki Achelu Es ha'Pesach b'Lo cha'Kasuv Ki
3) WHEN IS PESACH BROUGHT B'TUMAH?
2. R. Shimon: Had he been Me'aber on account of Tum'ah,
it would have been proper;
(c) (Beraisa - R. Yehudah): We Me'aber the year (on account
i. He prayed for forgiveness because we only add a
second Adar, and he added a second Nisan.
3. R. Shimon ben Yehudah says, he prayed for
forgiveness because he persuaded Yisrael to bring
Korban Pesach on Pesach Sheni (and they should have
brought it on Pesach (Rishon)).
(d) Inference: He holds that Tum'ah is Dechuyah (Korbanos
Tzibur can be brought b'Tum'ah, but we must do as much as
(e) Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon): The Tzitz is Meratzeh
(makes acceptable Korbanos brought b'Tum'ah) whether or
not the Kohen Gadol is wearing it at the time.
(f) R. Yehudah says, it is Meratzeh only when he is wearing
1. R. Shimon: Yom Kipur proves that it is Meratzeh even
when he is not wearing it (he does not wear it for
the Avodah in the Kodesh ha'Kodoshim, yet if it was
done b'Tum'ah, it is acceptable)!
(g) Counter-question: In any case, R. Yehudah contradicts
himself in the Beraisa!
2. R. Yehudah: No, Avodah b'Tum'ah is acceptable
because Tum'ah is Hutrah (wholly permitted)
1. He said that we Me'aber the year (on account of
Tum'ah), and that Chizkiyah did so and prayed for
(h) Answer: You must say, the Beraisa is abbreviated, it
should say thusly: we do not Me'aber a year on account of
Tum'ah, if this was done, it is Me'uberes;
(i) R. Yehudah says, it is not Me'uberes;
1. R. Yehudah: A case occurred...
(j) (According to this, Inference (d) is unfounded, so
Question (e) is not a question.)
(k) Question (Beraisa - R. Shimon): Had he been Me'aber on
account of Tum'ah, it would have been proper.
1. The way we now explain the Beraisa, this is like the
(l) Answer (Rava): No, R. Shimon permits to Me'aber on
account of Tum'ah, the first Tana forbids.
(m) Support (Beraisa): L'Chatchilah it is forbidden to
Me'aber on account of Tum'ah; R. Shimon permits this.
(n) Question: According to R. Shimon, why did he pray for
(o) Answer: We only add a second Adar, and he added a second
(p) Question: Didn't Chizkiyah expound "Ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh
Lachem" - there is no other (e.g. a second) Nisan!
(q) Answer: He erred regarding Shmuel's law.
1. (Shmuel): We may not Me'aber the year on Adar 30,
for it is fitting to make this day Rosh Chodesh
(r) A Beraisa teaches exactly like Shmuel.
2. Chizkiyah thought, the fact that it is fitting does
not matter (as long as it was not made Rosh
(a) (Beraisa - R. Shimon ben Yehudah): He prayed for
forgiveness because he persuaded Yisrael to bring Korban
Pesach on Pesach Sheni.
(b) Question: What was the case?
(c) Answer (Rav Ashi): (Slightly more than) half the men in
Yisrael were Teme'im, (almost) half were Tehorim; most of
the women were Tehoros, making the majority of Yisraelim
1. At first, he thought that women are obligated to
bring Korban Pesach, therefore the majority of
Yisraelim (obligated in Pesach) were Tehorim, so the
Teme'im must wait until Pesach Sheni;
(d) (Shmuel): We may not Me'aber the year on Adar 30, for it
is fitting to make this day Rosh Chodesh Nisan.
2. Later, he thought that women are not obligated in
Pesach, therefore the majority were Teme'im, they
should have brought Pesach (Rishon) b'Tum'ah
(therefore, he prayed for forgiveness).
(e) Question: If it was made Me'uberes on this day, what is
(f) Answer (Ula): We do not Mekadesh the coming Chodesh (i.e.
*announce* that it is Adar Sheni; we do Mekadesh (and
announce) the Chodesh after this (Nisan)).
(g) Question: If they were Mekadesh the Chodesh, what is the
(h) Answer #1 (Rava): The year is not Me'uberes.
(i) Answer #2 (Rav Nachman): The year is Me'uberes, the month
(j) Question (Rava): There are 30 days from Purim until
Pesach, during which we teach the laws of Pesach. (Since
an Ibur year was not declared before the 14th of Adar, we
treated this day like Purim, and started teaching the
1. (Beraisa): We ask about laws of Pesach 30 days
before Pesach (even though normally, one should only
ask about what is being taught);
(k) Answer (Rav Nachman): People know that Ibur Shanah
depends on calculations, they will realize that until
now, the calculation did not mandate an Ibur Shanah (they
will not treat Chametz lightly).
2. R. Shimon ben Gamliel says, we ask two weeks before
3. Summation of question: Since we already started
teaching laws of Pesach, when people hear that
Pesach was delayed, they will treat the prohibition
of Chametz lightly!