POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
Prepared by Rabbi P. Feldman
of Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous daf Sanhedrin 4
1) EXPOUNDING A VERSE AS WE READ IT, OR AS IT IS WRITTEN
(a) (Rav Yitzchak bar Yosef): The following Tana'im all
expound the way we read (pronounce) a verse: Rebbi, R.
Yehudah ben Ro'atz, Beis Shamai, R. Shimon and R. Akiva.
(b) Rebbi expounds "Yarshi'un" (above);
(c) R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz expounds thusly in a Beraisa.
1. (Beraisa) Question: When the Torah says that a woman
who gave birth to a girl is Tamei "Shevu'ayim" (two
weeks), the word lacks a 'Vov', should we read
'Shiv'im' (70 days)?
(d) Beis Shamai expound thusly in a Mishnah.
2. Answer (R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz): (A woman who gave
birth to a boy is Tamei for seven days, followed by
33 days of Taharah;) just as the days of Taharah for
giving birth to a girl are (66,) twice that for a
boy, likewise the days of Tum'ah are twice as many.
i. After the Talmidim left, R. Yehudah ran after
them. 'We need not learn from a woman who gave
birth to a boy - we read it "Shevu'ayim", we
expound the way we read a verse.'
1. (Mishnah - Beis Shamai): Any sacrifice whose blood
is thrown on the outer Altar, if it was thrown once,
it atoned, except for a Chatas, for which two
sprinklings are needed;
(e) R. Shimon expounds thusly in a Beraisa.
2. Beis Hillel say, even for a Chatas, one sprinkling
3. (Rav Huna): Beis Shamai learn from the three times
it says "Keranos" (plural), teaching six; we use
four to teach l'Chatchilah, and two to teach what is
Me'akev (necessary for atonement).
4. Two of the occurrences of 'Keranos' are written
missing the 'Vov' (as if it says 'Karnas', singular)
- Beis Hillel only learn one from each of those, and
two from "Keranos" written with a 'Vov', making four
i. They use one to teach what is Me'akev, and
three to teach l'Chatchilah (to sprinkle on
three additional corners).
ii. Question: Why not use all four to teach
iii. Answer: We never find atonement without any
1. (Beraisa): Two walls of a Sukah must be the full
required length (seven Tefachim), one wall can be
(just over) a Tefach (if placed within three
Tefachim of a wall); (f) R. Akiva expounds thusly in a Beraisa.
2. R. Shimon says, three walls must be the full length,
one can be (just over) a Tefach.
3. Question: What do they argue about?
4. Answer: Chachamim expound the way a verse is
written, R. Shimon expounds the way we read it.
5. Two of the occurrences of 'Sukos' are written
missing the 'Vov' (as if it says 'Sukas', singular)
- Chachamim only learn one from each of those, and
two from "Sukos" written with a 'Vov', making four
in all; we do not expound the first occurrence, so
i. A tradition from Moshe from Sinai teaches that
one of them may even be a Tefach, leaving two
6. R. Shimon learns two walls from each "Sukos", even
those written without a 'Vov', six in all; we do not
expound the first occurrence, so four remain;
i. A tradition from Sinai teaches that one may
even be a Tefach, leaving three full walls.
1. (Beraisa - R. Akiva) Question: How do we know that a
Revi'is of blood from two dead bodies conveys Tum'ah
to an Ohel?
(g) Objection (Rav Acha bar Yakov): Surely, all the Tana'im
expound the way we read a verse!
2. Answer (R. Akiva): "Al Kol *Nafshos* Mes" - two
souls, and one quantity of blood;
3. Chachamim expound the way it is written, 'Nafshas'
1. (Beraisa): "Ba'*Chalev* Imo (in the milk of its
mother)" - one might have thought, it is (Rashi -
only; Ran - even) forbidden to cook meat in *Chelev*
- we (Ran - only) learn from the way we read it.
2) HOW TO ANSWER THE QUESTION FROM "CHALAV"
2. (No Tana forbids cooking meat in Chelev - all must
learn like this Beraisa! Rav Acha bar Yakov now
gives a new explanation of the Tana'im who seemed to
expound the way a verse is written.)
(h) Chachamim (that argue with Rebbi) also expound the way we
1. Rebbi says, this teaches two judges in addition to
those mentioned above; likewise, "ha'Elohim" above
also refers to two, making four (we add a fifth to
make an odd number of judges);
(i) No one argued against R. Yehudah ben Ro'atz;
2. Chachamim explain, "Yarshi'un" refers to the two
judges learned, one above and one here.
(j) Beis Hillel also expound the way we read a verse;
1. (Beraisa): It says "V'Chiper" three times, so we
will not learn from a Kal va'Chomer that all
sprinklings are Me'akev.
(k) Chachamim (that argue with R. Shimon) also expound the
way we read (Sukos);
2. Question: A Kal va'Chomer teaches that only one is
i. The Torah mentions blood (e.g. of Asham and
Shelamim) which is thrown on the bottom half of
the Altar, and blood (of a Chatas) put on top
of the Altar:
3. Answer: Since we might have learned from the inner
Chata'os, it says "V'Chiper" three times:
ii. Just as one throwing of blood below atones,
also of blood above.
iii. Suggestion: Perhaps we should instead learn
from blood (of certain Chata'os of the
congregation) brought on the inner Altar;
iv. Regarding the inner Altar, if any sprinkling
was omitted, there is no atonement - we should
say the same regarding (Chata'os of) the outer
v. Answer: It is better to learn Chata'os of the
outer Altar from sacrifices of the outer Altar,
and not from those of the inner Altar.
vi. Question: Perhaps it is better to learn
Chata'os, whose blood (l'Chatchilah) is put on
the four corners (of the Altar) from Chata'os
whose blood is put on the four corners, and not
from other sacrifices, whose blood is not put
on the four corners!
i. The first teaches, even if one of the four
corners was omitted, it atoned; the second
teaches, even if two were omitted; the third
teaches, even if blood was only put on one
corner, it atoned.
1. They also learn four walls, like R. Shimon; they use
one of them to teach that we need Schach (a
ceiling), R. Shimon does not need a verse for this.
(l) Chachamim (that argue with R. Akiva) also expound the way
we read (Nafshos);
1. They say that this refers to souls in general, R.
Akiva explains, souls from which this blood came.
(m) Objection: Not all agree that we expound the way we read
1. (Beraisa - R. Yishmael): Two occurrences of
'Totafos' are written missing the 'Vov' (as if it
says 'Totafas', singular) - we only learn one from
each of those, and two from "Totafos" written with a
'Vov', making four in all, teaching that there are
four compartments in the head Tefilin;
2. R. Akiva says, we do not need to expound that way --
in Katfi (a place) 'Tat' means two; in Afriki, "Fos'
(a) Answer #1 (to Rav Acha's Objection 2:a): Tana'im argue
whether we expound the way we read or the way we write a
verse only when it is not read like it is written;
1. Chalav and Chelev are both written the same way,
therefore all expound the way we read it.
(b) Objection: Yireh (will see) and Ye'ra'eh (will be seen)
are both written the same, and a Tana argues (and
1. (Beraisa - Yochanan ben Dehavai): Someone blind in
one eye is exempt from entering the Mikdash on the
festivals - "Ye'ra'eh...Yireh" - Hash-m sees those
who come, and His Presence is seen by them (Rashi;
Tosfos - those who come see His Presence, and they
are seen by Him);
(c) Answer #2 (to Objection 2:a): "Lo *Sevashel* Gedi
Ba'Chalev Imo" - the Torah forbade the way of cooking
(i.e. in milk, which is watery - Chelev is fat, one does
not cook in it, one fries in it).
i. Just as there is no flaw in Hash-m's vision,
there us no flaw in the vision of those
obligated to come.