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Sanhedrin, 100

SANHEDRIN 96-100 - Two weeks of study material have been dedicated by Mrs. Estanne Abraham Fawer to honor the third Yahrzeit of her father, Reb Mordechai ben Eliezer Zvi (Weiner), who passed away 18 Teves 5760. May the merit of supporting and advancing Talmud study serve as an Iluy for his Neshamah


OPINIONS: The Gemara quotes Rav Nachman who defines an Apikorus as a person who calls his Rebbi by his name. The Gemara then quotes Rebbi Yochanan who says that Geichazi was punished for calling his Rebbi, Elisha, by his name. RASHI explains that when Rav Nachman says that an Apikorus is one who calls his Rebbi by name, he means that he says "Ploni" instead of "Mori Rabi Ploni" ("my teacher, my master Ploni"). How does Rashi know that it is permitted to say even "Mori Rabi Ploni," mentioning one's Rebbi's name? Perhaps it is permitted to mention only "Mori Rabi" without mentioning his Rebbi's name?

A similar Gemara (Kidushin 30b) teaches that one is not permitted to call his father by name. Presumably, Rashi's teaching here applies there as well, and it is permitted for one to call his father by name when he mentions his father's name with a title.

(a) The SHACH (YD 242:24) writes that Rashi is referring to a situation when the Rebbi is not present, and therefore one will not know to whom the person is referring if he just says "my Rebbi," and thus he must say "my Rebbi Ploni." However, when his Rebbi is present then it is not permitted to call his Rebbi by name, even if he prefaces his name with "Mori Rabi."

The Acharonim cite the Gemara in Berachos (62a) as a source that it is permitted to mention the name of one's Rebbi at least when his Rebbi is not present. In the Gemara there, Rebbi Akiva refers to his Rebbi as "Rebbi Yehoshua," calling him by his name.

The source for the Shach's ruling and the logical basis for his reasoning appears to be what the YAM SHEL SHLOMO writes (in Chidushim 1:65). He writes that the Rosh often quotes his Rebbi, the Maharam, calling him "Rabeinu Meir," even though one is not supposed to mention the name of one's Rebbi. The Rosh had many teachers and it would not be clear to which one he was referring if he did not mention his Rebbi's name. However, when the Rebbi is present and there is no need to mention his name, it is prohibited.

The Yam Shel Shlomo points out that according to this, a son should not be permitted to refer to his father by name, even when his father is not present, since he has only one father and there is no doubt to whom he is referring. Why, then, does the Tur often quote his father as the "Rosh" (which stands for "Rabeinu Asher," his name)? The Yam Shel Shlomo answers that the name "Rosh" is an appellation of respect, which alludes to the fact that he was the "Rosh" -- head -- of the Jewish people. That is why the Tur refers to his father by that word. Instead of alluding to the proper name of his father, he was giving him honor by referring to him as the head of the Jewish people.

The Yam Shel Shlomo adds that when a student refers to his teacher, it does not suffice to say "*Rebbi* Ploni," but he must show him more respect than others show him by adding another appelation of respect such as "Mori." However, from the statement of Rebbi Akiva, who referred to his Rebbi as "Rebbi Yehoshua," it seems that it suffices to refer to one's Rebbi as "Rebbi Ploni," the same way that everyone else refers to him.

We may ask, though, why did Rivkah refer to her father by name when she said, "I am the daughter of Besu'el" (Bereishis 24:24). The answer might be that since she was talking to someone who did not know her, she needed to identify herself by mentioning her father's name.

(b) However, the KESEF MISHNEH (Hilchos Talmud Torah 5:5) writes that the source for Rashi's statement that it is permitted to mention the name of one's Rebbi when he adds "Mori Rabi" is the verse in which Yehoshua tells Moshe Rabeinu, "Adoni Moshe Kela'em" (Bamidbar 11:28). The PRI CHADASH and BIRKEI YOSEF (YD 242:15) point out that from this source it is clear that, in earlier generations, disciples referred to their teachers as "Mori Rabi Ploni" even when speaking in the presence of their Rebbi. Similarly, it should be permitted for a son to refer to his father as "my father, Reb Ploni," even though everyone knows who his father is. The mere use of a title of honor will permit one to mention his father's or Rebbi's proper name.

This will explain several Beraisos in which we see that the Tana'im did refer to their fathers by name (as REBBI AKIVA EIGER asks in Yoreh De'ah 240:1). We find that Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai referred to his father as "Yochai Aba" (Me'ilah 17b, Pesachim 112a); Rebbi Dusta'i ben Rebbi Yanai referred to his father as "Yanai Aba" (Gitin 14a); Rebbi Yosi ben Chalafta referred to his father as "Aba Chalafta" (Bava Kama 70a, Sanhedrin 80a, Bechoros 26a, Me'ilah 17b). Why did they mention the names of their fathers? The answer is that "Aba" is a title of honor (see Berachos 16b, RASHI in Yevamos 57b), and it is permitted to mention one's father's name when one uses a title of honor. The BIRKEI YOSEF (YD 242:15) adds that from here it is clear that one does not need to *preface* the name with the title of honor ("my Rebbi, Ploni") but may say the title after the name ("Ploni, my Rebbi").

The YAD AVRAHAM (YD 242:15) cites an additional proof from the Gemara in Berachos (5a and elsewhere) as a source for mentioning the name of one's father with an appelation of honor. In the Gemara there, Rebbi Aba, the son of Rebbi Chiya bar Aba, quotes a statement of his father saying, "Amar Rebbi Chiya bar Aba," quoting his father by name.

Why, though, according to the Yam Shel Shlomo and the Shach, was Yehoshua permitted to say, "Adoni Moshe?" In addition, why did the Tana'im mention their fathers by name? (See TORAH TEMIMAH to Bamidbar 11:24.)

1. The answer might be that, unless otherwise stated, we assume that one's father foregoes (Mochel) his honor, and thus it is permitted for the son to mention the father's name (as long as he mentions a title of honor). A Rebbi, though, is not presumed to forego his honor to a student, unless he specifically states so (see MISHNAH BERURAH to OC 472:14-16). Moshe Rabeinu was an exception. Since he was "Anav mi'Kol Adam," Yehoshua knew that Moshe was certainly Mochel his honor, like a father is assumed to Mochel his honor.

2. RAV MOSHE SHAPIRO shlit'a explains as follows. The Mishnah in Nedarim (10a) says that one way of making a Shevu'ah is by saying, "I want this object to be Asur to me like the Shevu'ah of Mohi." The RAN there explains that "Mohi" is a reference to Moshe Rabeinu. We see from there that Moshe Rabeinu's name alone can be used to make a Shevu'ah. This is because all of the Torah is directly related to Moshe Rabeinu, as the verse says, "Zichru Toras Moshe" (Mal'achi 3:22). When Yehoshua said, "Adoni Moshe Kela'em," he was not using the word "Moshe" as a proper name, but rather he was referring to Toras Moshe, the Torah of Moshe. His intention was to say that it is required by the Torah of Moshe to punish Eldad and Meidad for what they were doing.

3. The Yam Shel Shlomo seems to have been bothered by this question himself. He writes that perhaps there were other leaders, such as Aharon and the Zekeinim, standing together with Moshe Rabeinu at the time that Yehoshua came before him. If Yehoshua would have said merely, "Adoni," "my master," then Moshe -- in his profound humility -- would have assumed that Yehoshua was referring to one of the others and not to him. Therefore, Yehoshua had to use his name to make sure that he was being addressed.

The last two answers do not explain why Rebbi Aba was permitted to mention his father's name when quoting him, and why Rebbi Shimon bar Yochai and the others mentioned their fathers by their names.

The answer to this might be that in those cases there was a particular reason for mentioning the father's name. In the case of Rebbi Aba, he needed to mention his father's name in order to ensure that those present would accept his teaching. The other cases involved situations in which the son needed to be mention his father's name in order for those present to feel proper respect and esteem for the father. Since the people present did not know the identity of the speaker's father, the son had to mention his father by name, for simply saying "my father" would not have sufficed.

OPINIONS: The Gemara relates that in the future, Hashem will give every Tzadik 310 worlds, as it says, "l'Hanchil Ohavai *Yesh*" (Mishlei 8:21). What is the significance of the number 310?

Many approaches have been suggested to explain the significance of this number, some of which will be presented here.

(a) The RAMBAM (end of Uktzin writes) that the number 310 is an allusion to the word "Yesh," referring to permanence and eternal existence. This is the reward for the Tzadikim in Olam ha'Ba -- becoming attached to Hashem, as it were, and meriting eternal existence.

(b) The TOSFOS YOM TOV (end of Uktzin) writes that when the Jewish people were given Eretz Yisrael, they conquered 31 kings. He writes that in this world, the Jewish people were given a land of only seven nations, but in the World to Come, the entire world -- all seventy nations -- will be subservient to Mashi'ach, or ten times the number of nations which the Jewish people inherited in this world. If -- in this world, where we received the land of seven nations and we conquered 31 kings, then in the World to Come when all seventy nations become subservient to the Jewish people, we will conquer 310 kings, or ten times as much. This is why the verse uses the term "l'Hanchil," "to inherit" -- referring to inheriting the land.

(This concept -- that the Jewish people were granted in this world only one-tenth of what they will ultimately receive -- is alluded to by the fact that the redemption in this world is referred to as "Shirah," in the feminine form, while in the World to Come we will sing a "Shir," in the masculine form (see TOSFOS in Pesachim 116b, DH v'Ne'emar). The redemption in this world is referred to by a feminine term in order to indicate that we have only one-tenth of what we will ultimately receive -- because a daughter's Yerushah is one-tenth of the possession of the father, in comparison to the Yerushah of a son.)

(c) In the end of BIRKAS YITZCHAK (Al ha'Torah), the author points out that 310 is equal to two times 155. This can be explained as follows. The two times 155 correspond to the two words "Keneh" in the verse in Mishlei (4:5), "Kenei Chochmah, Kenei Vinah" -- "acquire wisdom, acquire knowledge." The word "Keneh" alone itself implies Chochmah, because, as the Gemara in nedarim (41a) teaches, one who has acquired (Kanah) knowledge is lacking nothing, and any acquisitioin that does not acquire knowledge for the recipient is not an acquisition. The word "Kanah" therefore already implies an acquisition of knowledge.

The VILNA GA'ON explains, based on this, the words of Rashi in Kidushin (32b), who says that the word "Zaken" is an acronyum for the words, "Zeh Kanah Chochmah." Similarly, the Gemara in Berachos (56b-57a) says that a person who sees a "Kanah," a reed, in a dream should expect to become wise, or to become a Rosh Yeshivah. This is also the intention of the Mishnah in Avos (4:7) when it says, "Kanah Shem Tov, Kanah l'Atzmo," one who has acquired a good reputation -- through the wisdom of Torah -- has acquired a great thing for himself.

Accordingly, the 310 worlds correspond to two acquisitions, that of Chochmah and that of Binah, the two acquisitions that a person acquires through Torah and Mitzvos.

(d) The TORAS CHAIM explains that there are 613 Mitzvos in the Torah, plus seven Mitzvos of Benei Noach, making a total of 620 Mitzvos. There is an entire world corresponding to each Mitzvah. However, one person cannot take all 620 worlds for himself, because man was created as a pair, as the verse says that Hashem created "Zachar and Nekeivah" and called them "Adam" (Bereishis 1:27; Yevamos 63b, see Insights to Berachos 61:1). When a man and woman join together and keep all of the Mitzvos, they then merit all of the 620 worlds and they divide the worlds among them, so that each one of them receives 310 worlds. This is why the Gemara says that "each Tzadik and Tzadik" receives 310 worlds, alluding to the fact that there are two different Tzadikim, the man and the woman, who each receive 310 worlds.

Another way to view why the 620 worlds of the Mitzvos are split into two sets of 310 is based on the words of the Gemara in a number of places (see Berachos 47b and 63b, Pesachim 88a, and Ta'anis 7a) that emphasize that the best way of studying Torah is for two Talmidei Chachamim to study together. A person is not supposed to study alone, because it leads to arrogance. When two people study together, the conclusions that they reach are more accurate and are attributed to both of them. Therefore, each of the partners receives half of the 620 worlds, or 310. These are the two Tzadikim to which the Gemara alludes.

This will explain the end of the verse as well, which says, "v'Otzroseihem Amalei" -- "and I will fill up their storehouses." The Gemara in Shabbos (31a) says that even if a person learns all of the Torah, the only way that the Torah will remain with him is if he has Yir'as Shamayim, the fear of Hashem. The Gemara says, "Yir'as Hashem Hi Otzaro," the fear of Hashem is his storehouse (in which the Torah he learns is protected). A person who learns Torah but does not have Yir'as Shamayim is like one who has a gate but does not have the storeroom which the gate is intented to protect. When a person learns with a Chavrusa, he will not become arrogant, and his Yir'as Shamayim will grow. His Torah will remain with him, since he will be learning with Yir'as Shamayim, and thus he will receive 310 worlds because his "storehouse" is full of Yir'as Shamayim. (M. Kornfeld)


QUESTION: Rebbi Akiva says that one who reads Sefarim Chitzonim does not have a share in Olam ha'Ba. The Gemara explains that this refers to "Sifrei Tzedukim" (or "Sifrei Minim" according to all of the old, uncensored manuscripts). The RIF explains that this refers to the books written by those who do not accept the Chachamim's explanations of the verses, and who explain the verses according to their own interpretations. Since there certainly will be heresy in their words, it is forbidden to read their books.

The Gemara says with regard to Sefer Ben Sira -- which is not included in the category of Sefarim Chitzonim -- that it is permitted to learn the positive teachings contained therein. The RIF and ROSH infer from here that it is *prohibited* to read even the positive teachings (those which do not espouse heretical ideas) in the books of Sifrei Minim.

The BE'ER SHEVA cites the Yerushalmi that includes the books of Homer in the category of Sefarim Chitzonim. This is also how the BARTENURA interprets our Mishnah, saying that "Sefarim Chitzonim" refers to the books of Aristotle and the other Greek philosophers, as well as to the books of other heretics. It is clear from the Yerushalmi that the category of Sefarim Chitzonim includes any philosophical work written by a person who does not accept Malc hus Shamayim, the sovereignty of Hashem.

The Be'er Sheva asks that according to this, how did the RAMBAM and numerous others learn the works of Aristotle and Plato, and of other philosophers of the nations?

ANSWER: The Be'er Sheva answers that the Rambam held that not all opinions agree with this Yerushalmi.

The Mishnah in Avos (2:14) extorts, "Know how to respond to an Apikorus." The Rambam (in Perush ha'Mishnayos there) explains that this Mishnah permits one to study the works of the non-Jewish Apikorsim in order to know how to refute their claims, as long as one does not allow their views to enter his heart. It seems that the Rambam understood that this Mishnah argues with the Yerushalmi.

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