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Sanhedrin 39

1a) [line 1] "AVOS (YOCHLU) [ACHLU] VOSER V'SHINEI VANIM TIKHENA" - "the fathers ate sour (unripe) grapes and the teeth of the sons are set on edge" (Yirmeyahu 31:28, according to the Girsa of the EIN YAKOV, as opposed to the verse in Yechezkel 18:2 -- RASHASH)
b) [line 2] "MOZNEI TZEDEK AVNEI TZEDEK, [EIFAS TZEDEK V'HIN TZEDEK YIHEYEH LACHEM...]" - "Just balances, just weights, [a just Efah, and a just Hin, shall you have; I am HaSh-m, your G-d, Who brought you out of the land of Mitzrayim.]" (Vayikra 19:36)
c) [line 2] "TZADIK MI'TZARAH NECHELATZ, VA'YAVO RASHA TACHTAV" - "The righteous one is removed from trouble, and the wicked one comes in his place." (Mishlei 11:8) (For a discussion of the parable brought by RASHI, see Insights)

2) [line 3] (KOFER) [KEISAR] - (In the five debates mentioned on this Amud between Raban Gamliel and *Kofer*, the Girsa in all of the manuscripts and early printings is *Keisar*. The Censor changed the Girsa in the Basilia printing -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #10.)

3) [line 6] SHAVKEI D'ANA MEHADRANA LEI - leave him alone, for I (the emperor's daughter) will answer him

4) [line 7] DUKOS - officer, judge
5) [line 7] LISTIN - bandits
6) [line 8] KITON - a pitcher
7) [line 11] TZELA - side, rib
8) [line 13] LISHKELEI B'HEDYA - He should have taken it out openly
9) [line 13] AISU LI UMTZA D'VISRA - bring me raw meat
10) [line 14] OSVAH TUSEI BACHASHA - (a) she laid it under the hot ashes (It. caline) (RASHI); (b) according to the Girsa *OSIVSEI KAMEI B'VICHUSHEI* - she brought it in front of him while it was being prepared (lit. mixed) [for roasting] (ARUCH)

11) [line 14] APIKTEI - she took it out
12) [line 16] ISNAGAD V'ISNACH - he (Raban Gamliel) became faint and sighed
13) [line 17] KERAKEI HA'YAM - overseas (lit. the cities of the sea)
14) [line 17] GI'AGU'IM - longings
15) [line 18] BA'INA D'MECHAVIS LEI NIHALI - I want you to show him to me, i.e. I want you to tell me where he is

16) [line 20] AISI CHAVUSHEI - he brought quince fruits (O.F. codoinz) [before him]
17) [line 20] SHADINHU B'ARBILA - he threw them into a sieve (Pr.F. cruvel)
18) [line 21] V'KA MEHADER LEHU - and he spun them around [in the sieve]
19) [line 21] UKMINHU! - Stop them [from spinning]!
20) [line 22] EIMA LI KAKEICH V'SHINEICH KAMAH HU - tell me how many teeth (lit. molars and front teeth) you have

21) [line 27] "HA'NOTA OZEN HA'LO YISHMA? (V')IM YOTZER AYIN HALO YABIT?" - "He Who creates (lit. implants) the ear, [will He] not hear? Will the One Who fashions the eye, [will He] not see?" (Tehilim 94:9)

22) [line 29] AMGUSHA - (a) a wizard, magician; (b) a missionary who entices others to sin

23a) [line 29] HURMIZ - (a) the name of a demon (RASHI) (allegorically referring to the fact that the Jews are in exile, subject to the influences of foreign kings -- YA'AVETZ); (b) the Shechinah of HaSh-m (the organs of the upper body, the lungs, heart, brain etc. reflect spiritual pursuits) (TOSFOS)
b) [line 29] AHURMIZ - (a) HaSh-m (RASHI) (the lower half of the body contains the Milah, the seal and the heritage of HaSh-m -- YA'AVETZ); (b) according to the Girsa *HURMIN* - the name of a demon (the organs of the lower body, the stomach, bowels, liver, etc. reflect physical pursuits) (TOSFOS)

24) [line 31] LECHAYEI! - Very well! (Excellent suggestion!)
25) [line 33] KOL D'ZACHI L'MALKA LISHADYUHA L'BEIVAR - all those who triumph over the king (silencing and embarrassing him in an argument) will be thrown to the cage [of the royal wild animals]

26) [line 34] LO KAFIN - they are not hungry

27) [line 36] KARYEI L'SHAM'EI - he (Raban Gamliel) called to his (the Keisar's) attendant

28) [line 36] MACHA BEI B'AFTEKA - he (Raban Gamliel) hit him (the attendant) on his neck (alt. *B'APUSEI* - on his forehead)

29) [line 36] AMAR LEI, "AMAI AL SHIMSHA B'VEISEI (D'CHOFER) [D'KEISAR]?" - he (Raban Gamliel) said to him (the attendant), Why did [you let] the sun come into the house of the Keisar?"

30) [line 37] SHIMSHA A'KULEI ALMA NEYACHA - the sun shines down (lit. rests) on the whole world

31) [line 37] U'MAH SHIMSHA D'CHAD MIN ELEF ALFEI RIBO SHAMASHEI D'KAMEI KUDSHA BERICH HU - and considering that the sun is one of the millions of servants that administer before the Holy One, Blessed be He

32) [line 39] GACHECHAN - a practical joker

33) [line 41] SHEVI'ASA - the seventh, [Sabbatical year] (SHEVI'IS)
(a) The Torah requires that farmers desist from working the land every seventh year, as described in Vayikra 25:1-7. The fruits that grow during the seventh (Shevi'is) year are holy to the extent that 1. they must be considered ownerless; anyone may come into any field and pick the fruit that he intends to eat. 2. The fruits may not be bought and sold in a normal fashion (see Insights to Sukah 39:2). 3. The Torah requires that the fruits of Shevi'is be used only for eating or drinking (in the normal manner of eating for that type of fruit) or for burning to provide light (in the case of oil). They may not be wasted or used for medicinal purposes or animal fodder, etc.
(b) One may not do any work with the land or with trees growing from the land that makes improvements.
(c) The Shemitah year is meant to teach the Jewish people to rely on HaSh-m for their sustenance, a fact that is not always clear to them during the six years in which they work their own fields.

34) [line 41] MILSA D'SHAVYA LI'TERAVAICHU - one answer that will satisfy (lit. be equal for) both of you

35) [line 43] SHE'SARCHAH ALAV MEDINAH - against whom a country of his dominion rebelled

36) [line 46] L'MAREK - to cleanse from sin (through the suffering of Yechezkel)

37) [line 48] "MI MADAD B'SHA'ALO MAYIM..." - "Who has measured the waters in his palm, and meted out heaven with a span, and measured the dust of the earth in a large vessel, and weighed the mountains with a scale, and the hills with a balance?" (Yeshayah 40:12)

38) [line 48] NURA - fire
39) [line 49] U'MI SALKA TEVILUSA B'NURA? - But is immersion in fire effective?

40) [line 50] "... V'CHOL ASHER LO YAVO BA'ESH TA'AVIRU VA'MAYIM." - "[Every thing that can stand fire, you shall make it go through fire, and it shall be Tahor. Nevertheless, it shall be purified with the water of sprinkling.] And all that cannot stand fire you shall make go through water." (Bamidbar 31:23) - This verse actually refers to Hechsher Kelim, purifying utensils from the forbidden matter that has entered into their walls. However, Rebbi Avahu used it to dismiss or "push aside" the heretic by showing that that Torah commands that anything that cannot withstand fire should be made to go through water.

41) [line 51] ATUN NAMI ARVISU BAHADAN - you, too, (the Jews) are reckoned (lit. are mixed) with us (i.e. you are considered worthless, along with us, as the following verse states)

42) [last line] "KOL HA'GOYIM K'AYIN NEGDO..." - "All of the nations are like nothing before Him..." (Yeshayah 40:17)

43) [last line] MI'DIDCHU AS'HIDU ALAN - from yours (i.e. your prophet, Bil'am ben Be'or) you have testified about us [as follows:]


44) [line 1] "... UVA'GOYIM LO YISCHASHAV" - "... and he (Yisrael) will not be reckoned among the nations." (Bamidbar 23:9)

45) [line 4] ODER - weeds (thins out plants so that they will grow better)
46) [line 5] "VA'YA'AVOR HA'RINAH BA'MACHANEH..." - "The proclamation went out in the camp [around sunset, saying, 'Every man to his city, and every man to his own country.']" (Melachim I 22:36) - The joined forces of Achav the king of the ten tribes of Yisrael and Yehoshafat the king of Yehudah went to war against Aram to reclaim Ramos Gil'ad (Melachim I 22:1-40). Only Achav was killed in the battle, and at sundown the armies agreed to end the fighting. The word for proclamation, "Rinah," is also the translation of "joyous song." The Tzadikim of the generation were joyous at the death of the wicked king.

47) [line 6] "[... U]VA'AVOD RESHA'IM RINAH." - "[At the good fortune of the righteous the city will be elated, and] at the loss of the wicked [there will be] joyful song." (Mishlei 11:10)

48) [line 7] ACHAV BEN OMRI - the wicked king of the ten tribes of Yisrael (Melachim I 16:29 - 22:40, Divrei ha'Yamim II 18:1-34). Although he united the people and was successful in battle, he filled the land with idol worship and sins that angered HaSh-m like no one before him had done (ibid. 16:30-33).

49) [line 7] CHADI - is happy
50) [line 9] "... B'TZEIS LIFNEI HE'CHALUTZ V'OMERIM 'HODU LA'SH-M KI L'OLAM CHASDO!'" - "as they (the men sent to sing to HaSh-m) went out among the front-line troops, they were saying, 'Praise HaSh-m, for his loving-kindness endures forever!'" (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:21) - This verse describes the people of Yehudah as they prepared to witness the salvation of HaSh-m, Who killed the vast multitudes of the armies of Moav and Amon as they came to do battle with Yehudah during the reign of Yehoshafat (Divrei ha'Yamim II 20:1-29). The verse does not state "*Ki Tov* Ki l'Olam Chasdo," to show that HaSh-m was not fully happy with the destruction of the vast multitudes of people.

51) [line 14] "... V'LO KARAV ZEH EL ZEH KOL HA'LAILAH." - "... and one [camp] did not get close to the other one all of that night." (Shemos 14:20) - This verse refers to the camp of the Mitzrim, which was prevented from getting close to the camp of Benei Yisrael, on the night of the splitting of Yam Suf. The words "Zeh El Zeh" are also mentioned with regard to the Ministering Angels, in the verse "v'Kara Zeh El Zeh v'Amar, 'Kadosh Kadosh Kadosh HaSh-m...'" - "and one [group of Angels] called to the other one and said, 'Holy Holy Holy is HaSh-m...'" (Yeshayah 6:3). In this verse, Yeshayah describes the Ministering Angels praising HaSh-m. From the similarity in the words, our Gemara learns that those who call "Zeh El Zeh" did not do so on the night of the drowning of the Mitzrim (Shemos Rabah 23:7).

52a) [line 19] SAS - glad
b) [line 19] MESIS - He makes others glad

53a) [line 20] YASIS - He will make [the nations into whose land you will be exiled] glad
b) [line 20] YASUS - He will be glad

54) [line 21] L'MAREK SHTEI CHEZYONOS - to bring to light the two visions [of the downfall of Achav]

55) [line 22] MICHAIHU - the true prophet of HaSh-m who informed Achav that he will be killed in the battle of Ramos Gil'ad

56) [line 24] "BI'MEKOM ASHER LAKEKU HA'KELAVIM ES DAM NAVOS..." - "In the place where the dogs licked the blood of Navos shall the dogs lick your blood." (Melachim I 21:19) - Eliyahu was told to inform Achav, the wicked king of the ten tribes of Yisrael, that he will be punished for the murder of Navos ha'Yizre'eli, his relative. Achav had an uncontrollable desire for the vineyard of Navos. Izevel, the wife of the king, devised a sinister plot in which Navos was executed and Achav inherited the vineyard. HaSh-m held Achav responsible for the murder, sending word through Eliyahu the prophet that "in the place where the dogs licked the blood of Navos shall the dogs lick your blood." Divine retribution was to be meted out upon Achav for this and his many other sins. In Chapter 22, all of the King's advisors and (false) prophets advocated a war with Aram, predicting Achav's victory. Concurrently, Michayhu, a true prophet, saw a vision in which the spirit of Navos offered to entice Achav into the battle that would lead to his doom. This spirit was responsible for all of the false prophecies of victory. Nevertheless, Achav took the advice of the false prophets and he alone was slain in the battle. Although he was later buried, much of his blood was indeed lapped up by dogs in the same place where Navos was executed.

57) [line 26] "V'ISH MASHACH BA'KESHES L'SUMO VA'YAKEH..." - "And a certain man drew a bow randomly, and struck [the king of Yisrael between the joints of the armor; so he said to the driver of his chariot, 'Turn your hand, and carry me from the camp; for I am wounded.']" (Melachim I 22:34)

58) [line 26] LEFI TUMO - unwittingly, unintentionally
59) [line 26] L'TAMEM - to fulfill
60) [line 27] (SIMAN KaR"A V'ZaCHa"H B'EDO"M) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the three statements of Rebbi Yitzchak that follow:

  1. *Kara* refers to "*va'Yikra* Achav El Ovadyahu..." (line 27)
  2. *v'Zachah* refers to "Mipnei Mah *Zachah* Ovadyahu l'Nevi'us..." (line 32)
  3. *b'Edom* refers to "Mai Shena Ovadyah *l'Edom*?" (line 35)
61) [line 27] OVADYAHU - an Edomite convert, the steward in the house of King Achav of Yisrael, who perfected himself to the extent that he became a prophet. His prophecy is recorded as Sefer Ovadyah, one of the books of the Trei Asar, which deals with the downfall and destruction of Edom (Esav)

62) [line 28] NICHASHTI - I divined
63) [line 31] MEZUMAN - prepared
64) [line 33] B'HACHRIS - when she destroyed
65) [line 33] "VA'YACHBI'EM CHAMISHIM ISH B'ME'ARAH" - "he hid them, fifty men to a cave" (Melachim I 18:4)

66) [line 34] MI'YA'AKOV LAMAD - he learned from Yakov, who, when he was about to meet Esav after returning from Lavan's house, prepared for war by splitting his family and possessions into two camps. If Esav managed to do battle with one camp and defeat them, the other camp could escape in the interim. So, too, did Ovadyahu split the Nevi'im into two groups, just in case Izevel and Achav would find one cave of Nevi'im, the other cave would survive.

67) [line 34] "... V'HAYAH HA'MACHANEH HA'NISH'AR LI'FELEITAH" - "... and the remaining camp will be saved" (Bereishis 32:9)

68) [line 35] L'EDOM - about Edom
69) [line 37] EFRAYIM MIKSHA'AH - Efrayim, the one in charge of starting the question session in the Beis ha'Midrash

70) [line 38] MINEI U'VEI IBA, NEIZIL BEI NARGA - from it and by it (i.e. from the forest itself), a piece of wood is taken as a handle for the axe that will chop down the trees

71) [line 39] "VA'YACH ES MOAV VA'YIMDEDEM B'CHEVEL HASHKEV OSAM ARTZAH" - "And he (David ha'Melech, who descended from Ruth the Moavi'ah) defeated Moav, and measured them with a line, making them lie down in the ground; [with two lines he measured to put to death, and with one full line to keep alive. And so the Moavim became David's servants, and brought tribute." (Shmuel II 8:2)

72) [line 40] YARECH MI'TOCHAH MASRACHAS - a thigh starts to rot from the inside

73) [line 41] "VA'YIKACH ES BENO HA'BECHOR ASHER YIMLOCH TACHTAV, VA'YA'ALEHU OLAH AL HA'CHOMAH VA'YEHI KETZEF GADOL AL YISRAEL..." - "And he (Meisha, the king of Moav at the time of Yehoshafat, king of Yehudah and Yehoram son of Achav, king of Yisrael, circa. 3050) took his firstborn son who was in line to reign after him. And he offered him up as a burnt offering on the wall; and this evoked intense wrath [of HaSh-m] against Yisrael..." (Melachim II 3:27) - There are two opinions as to whose firstborn son was sacrificed. RAV YOSEF KIMCHI (the father of the RADAK) and RAV MOSHE KIMCHI (the brother of the RADAK) state that Meisha burned to death the kidnapped son of the king of Edom, as revenge for his father having joined forces with Yehoshafat and Yehoram to fight Moav. Meisha burned him *like* one would burn a Korban Olah, and this is the incident mentioned in the verse, "Al Sarfo Atzmos Melech Edom la'Sid" - "for their (Moav's) burning the bones of the [son of the] king of Edom into lime" (Amos 2:1). According to the Midrash (Tanchuma Ki Sisa 5, et al.) and the plain interpretation of our Gemara, Meisha immolated his own son when he realized that he was losing the war. His action indeed stopped the war, as this verse relates, but also brought intense wrath upon Benei Yisrael (see RADAK to Melachim II ibid.).

74) [line 45] "... VA'YIS'U ME'ALAV VA'YASHUVU LA'ARETZ." - "... and they (the three kings - Yehoshafat, Yehoram and the king of Edom) departed from him (Meisha, the king of Moav), and they returned to their own land (lit. the land)." (Melachim II 3:27) - The verse states that they returned to "the land," a hint that Benei Yisrael fell to the lowest spiritual level (a) since it does not state "l'Artzam" - to *their* land. As a result of this incident, HaSh-m decreed that misfortune was to befall Benei Yisrael (RASHI); (b) since the word "va'Yashuvu" is written without a Vav and the verse does not state "va'Yashuvu *El* ha'Aretz," it is reminiscent of the verse, "Yeshvu la'Aretz Yidmu, Ziknei Vas Tziyon" - "They sit on the ground, they are silent, the elders of the daughter of Tziyon" (Eichah 2:10), a verse that refers to the Churban.

75) [line 46] RISH'EIHEN (alt. SON'EIHEN) SHEL YISRAEL - a euphemism for Benei Yisrael (lit. the wicked ones of or the enemies of Yisrael)

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