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Sanhedrin 38

1) [line 1] V'HI NIS'ABRAH - and she (his wife -- see MIDRASH RABAH to Metzora 19:6) became pregnant

2) [line 2] SHE'NISH'AL AL ALASO, KEIL - that He (HaSh-m), kev'Yachol, asked to have his curse annulled (and the Palmalya Shel Ma'alah annulled the curse that Yechonyah would not have any children -- Yirmeyahu 22:30)

3a) [line 2] ZERUBAVEL - Zerubavel, son of [Pedayah, son of] She'alti'el (Divrei ha'Yamim I 3:19)
b) [line 3] U'MAH SHEMO? - And what was his (Zerubavel's) real name? (see Insights)

4) [line 6] AGBERU CHAMRA A'DARDEKEI! - Serve the sons of Rebbi Chiya plenty of wine (lit. make wine overpower the young men)!

5) [line 7] KEIVAN D'IVSUM - when they became merry
6a) [line 9] ROSH GOLAH SHEB'VAVEL - the Exilarch, the leader of the Jews in Babylon
b) [line 10] NASI SHEB'ERETZ YISRAEL - the Prince, the leader of the Jews in Eretz Yisrael, who was of Davidic descent

7) [line 10] "V'HAYAH L'MIKDASH, UL'EVEN NEGEF UL'TZUR MICHSHOL LI'SHENEI VATEI YISRAEL" - "And He shall be a sanctuary, but also a battering-stone and a stumbling-rock to both the houses of Yisrael" (Yeshayah 8:14)

8) [line 12] KOTZIM ATEM MATILIN LI B'EINAI - (lit. are you trying to stick thorns into my eyes) are you trying to cause me anguish (since according to you, this verse is predicting the downfall of the house of the Nasi, i.e. my household)

9a) [line 14] YAYIN NITAN B'SHIV'IM OSIYOS - the Gematriya, or numeric value of "Yayin" is 70

Yud = 10
Yud = 10
Nun = 50
Total = 70
b) [line 15] SOD NITAN B'SHIV'IM OSIYOS - the Gematriya, or numeric value of "Sod" is 70
Samech = 60
Vav = 6
Dales = 4
Total = 70
10) [line 18] "VA'YISHKOD HASH-M AL HA'RA'AH VA'YE'VI'EHA ALEINU, KI TZADIK HASH-M ELOKEINU." - "And HaSh-m quickened the evil and brought it upon us, because HaSh-m, our G-d, is righteous." (Daniel 9:14)

11) [line 21] GALUS TZIDKIYAHU / GALUS YECHONYAH - The Judean kings from Chizkiyahu until Tzidkiyahu and their years of reign

(a) 3199 Chizkiyahu (29 years)
(b) 3228 Menashe (55 years)
(c) 3283 Amon (2 years)
(d) 3285 Yoshiyahu (31 years)
(e) 3316 Yeho'achaz ben Yoshiyahu (3 months)
(f) 3316 Yehoyakim (Elyakim) ben Yoshiyahu (11 years)
(g) 3320 The fisrt Exile of Yehudah
Nevuchadnetzar took part of the vessels of the Beis ha'Mikdash and youths of the Royal Family and brought them to Bavel
(h) 3327 Nevuchadnetzar returned and banished Yehoyakim to Bavel, but he died during the journey
(i) 3327 Yehoyachin (Yechonyah) ben Yehoyakim (3 months)
(j) 3327 The second Exile of Yehudah
After 3 months Nevuchadnetzar exiled Yehoyachin to Bavel. There were ten thousand men with him, among them the Charash and the Masger (Galus Yechonyah)
(k) 3327 Tzidkiyahu (Matanyah) ben Yoshiyahu (11 years)
(l) 3338 Churban of the First Beis ha'Mikdash and the Third Exile of Yehudah (Galus Tzidkiyahu)
12) [line 22] "HE'CHARASH VEHA'MASGER ELEF..." - "the Charash (craftsman) and the Masger (those who guard and close the gates), one thousand [of them]..." (Melachim II 24:16) - The Gemara interprets "Charash" and Masger" to be referring to the Torah scholars who were brought to Bavel to teach Torah when the Jews were exiled there.

13a) [line 22] KEIVAN SHE'POSCHIN, NA'ASU HA'KOL K'CHERSHIN - as soon as they open [a discussion of Torah], all [of those assembled] become like those of very limited intelligence (lit. deaf-mutes)
b) [line 23] KEIVAN SHE'SOGRIN B'HALACHAH, SHUV EIN POSCHIN - as soon as they decide to close [a Halachic matter (having not found an answer -- RASHI)], none can open it afterwards

14a) [line 24] SHE'HIKDIM SHTEI SHANIM L'"V'NOSHANTEM" - HaSh-m brought the evil upon Yisrael [850 years after they entered the land, which was] two years before the intended time of "v'Noshantem" (the Gematriya of which is 852), [so that the verse "Ki Avod Toveidun" would not be fulfilled]
b) [line 24] "[KI SOLID BANIM U'VENEI VANIM] V'NOSHANTEM [BA'ARETZ, VE'HISHCHATEM VA'ASISEM PESEL TEMUNAS KOL, VA'ASISEM HA'RA B'EINI HASH-M ELOKECHA LE'HACH'ISO]." - "[When you bear children and grandchildren,] and have been long [in the land, and you become destructive and you make a graven statue of some image, and you do evil in the eyes of HaSh-m, your G-d, making Him angry.]" (Devarim 4:25)

15a) [line 25] "MEHERAH" D'MAREI ALMA - "quickness" of HaSh-m (the word in the verse is actually "Maher." Just as the onset of the exile was hastened for the benefit of Benei Yisrael, the final redemption, which is also described by the word "Meherah" (Yeshayah 58:8 et al.) can be expected to come quickly -- MAHARSHA)
b) [line 25] "[HA'IDOSI VACHEM HA'YOM ES HA'SHAMAYIM V'ES HA'ARETZ KI AVOD TOVEIDUN] MAHER [ME'AL HA'ARETZ ASHER ATEM OVERIM...]" - "[I call heaven and earth to witness against you this day, that you shall completely perish] quickly [from the land which you are going over the Yarden, to possess; you shall not prolong your days upon it, but shall be completely destroyed.]" (Devarim 4:26)

16) [line 29] MISGAROS - arguing, fighting

17a) [line 31] GAZLANIN - robbers who brazenly burglarize and take the possessions of others by force
b) [line 31] CHAMSANIN - extortionists, who snatch items from their owners and force the owners to accept money for them

18) [line 35] "TIS'HAPECH K'CHOMER CHOSAM, V'YISYATZVU KEMO LEVUSH." - "The molded form will change to clay, and they will stand up [and become] like raiment." (Iyov 38:14) - The Gemara interprets this verse to be referring to the "molded form" of Adam ha'Rishon, which is the paradigm for the formation of all other people. This form will become clay after the person dies, but it will arise again at Techiyas ha'Mesim.

19) [line 37] "V'YIMANA ME'RESHA'IM ORAM, U'ZERO'A RAMAH YISHAVER." - "And he withholds from the wicked their light, and the strong arm is broken." (Iyov 38:15) - The Gemara interprets this verse to be referring to the "light" of a person's countenance, which HaSh-m altered for each person so that the wicked would not be able to steal the property of others (thereby "breaking" their "strong arm"), as the Gemara describes.

20) [line 41] IM TAZU'ACH DA'ATO ALAV - if he becomes haughty
21) [line 42] YETUSH - mosquito
22) [line 43] PALTERIN - palaces
23) [line 44] SHICHLELAN - he decorated them

24) [line 44] "CHOCHMOS BANSAH VEISAH, CHATZVAH AMUDEHA SHIV'AH. TAVCHAH TIVCHAH, MASCHAH YEINAH, AF ARCHAH SHULCHANAH. SHALCHAH NA'AROSEHA SIKRA, AL GAPEI MEROMEI KARES: 'MI FESI YASUR HENAH.' CHASAR LEV AMRAH LO:..." - "She has built her house with [forms of] wisdom, she has hewn out her seven pillars. She slaughtered her meat, mixed her wine, and also set her table. She sent out her maidens to call out on the heights of the city: 'Whoever is a simpleton shall turn towards here.' The one who is lacking a heart [to comprehend], she says to him:..." (Mishlei 9:1-4)

25) [line 50] "[V'YASHVAH L'FESACH BEISAH,] AL KISEI [MEROMEI KARES.]" - "[And she sits at the entrance of her house,] on a chair [at the heights of the city.]" (Mishlei 9:14)

26) [line 53] HUTZBAR AFARO - his dirt was gathered
27) [line 53] "GOLMI RA'U EINECHA" - "Your eyes saw my raw form" (Tehilim 139:16)


28) [line 2] AGVOSAV - buttocks
29) [line 2] AKRA D'AGMA - the name of a town in Bavel
30a) [line 5] NA'ASEH GOLAM - it was made into a raw form
b) [line 5] NIMTECHU EIVARAV - his limbs were stretched (formed)
c) [line 7] KARA SHEMOS - he gave names [to all other creatures]
d) [line 9] SARACH - sinned
e) [line 10] NITRAD V'HALACH LO - he was confounded and he went

31) [line 10] "ADAM B'YKAR V'LO YAVIN, NIMSHAL KA'BEHEMOS NIDMU" - "Man is glorious but understands not, he is likened to the silenced animals." (Tehilim 49:21) - This verse is explained allegorically as follows: "Nimshal" -- if he is ruled (attacked) [by animals], "ka'Behemos Nidmu" -- it is because] he resembled (acted like) an animal

32) [line 12] (SHA'A"H B'SO"F ARAM"I SIMAN) - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the three statements of Rav Yehudah in the name of Rav that follow:

  1. *Sha'ah* refers to "*b'Sha'ah* she'Bikesh Ha'Kadosh Baruch Hu..." (line 12)
  2. *b'Sof* refers to "Adam ha'Rishon *mi'Sof* ha'Olam v'Ad Sofo Hayah..." (line 21)
  3. *Arami* refers to "Adam ha'Rishon b'Lashon *Arami* Siper..." (line 27)
33) [line 19] DOR HA'MABUL - the Generation of the Flood (Bereishis 6:1 - 7:23)

34) [line 19] DOR HA'PELAGAH - the Generation of the Dispersion, which build the Tower of Bavel (Bereishis 11:1-9)

35) [line 20] "V'AD ZIKNAH ANI HU, V'AD SEIVAH ANI ESBOL; [ANI ASISI VA'ANI ESA VA'ANI ESBOL VA'AMALET.]" - "And until [your] elderly age I am unchanged, and until [your] old age I will tolerate; [I made and I will bear [you], I will tolerate and I will rescue]." (Yeshayah 46:4)

36) [line 24] "ACHOR VA'KEDEM TZARTANI, VA'TASHES ALAI KAPECHA." - "You have beset (lit. laid siege to) me, and laid Your hand upon me." (Tehilim 139:5) - The word "Tzartani" is read as a form of the root for Yetzirah, formation.

37) [line 26] KASHU KERA'EI A'HADADEI - the verses contradict each other (the implication of the words "ul'Miktzeh ha'Shamayim v'Ad Ketzeh ha'Shamayim" - "from one edge of the heavens until the other edge of the heavens" (Devarim 4:32), which imply that Adam ha'Rishon's size spanned from one end of the world to the other, seem to contradict the implication of the words "Al ha'Aretz ul'Miktzeh ha'Shamayim" - "on the earth until the edge of the heavens" (ibid.), which imply that Adam ha'Rishon's size spanned from the earth until the heavens.

38) [line 27] B'LASHON ARAMI SIPER - he spoke in the Aramaic language
39) [line 27] "V'LI MAH YAKRU RE'ECHA KEL" - "How precious to me are Your friends, G-d..." (Tehilim 139:17) - The word "Yakru," from the root "Yakar," is Aramaic for "precious" (see Insights)

40) [line 30] MIN - a heretic
41) [line 31] MOSHECH B'ORLASO - he stretched his foreskin (so that the sign of the Bris Milah was no longer apparent)

42) [line 32] KOFER BA'IKAR - he denied the Source (the presence of HaSh-m in the world)

43) [line 33] HEVEI SHAKUD LILMOD TORAH - be eager (diligent) to learn Torah
44) [line 33] APIKORUS - a heretic
45) [line 34] PAKIR TEFEI - he will become even more of a heretic
46) [line 35] "HAVAH NERDAH V'NAVLAH SHAM SEFASAM" - "Let us descend and confuse their language there." (Bereishis 11:7)

47) [line 38] "AD DI CHARSAVAN REMIV V'ATIK YOMIN YESIV" - "[I was watching] until thrones were placed, and the Ancient of Days sat..." (Daniel 7:9)

48) [line 39] NIMLACH B'FAMALYA SHEL MA'ALAH - He consults with the attendants of the King (Angels)

49) [line 39] "BI'GZEIRAS IRIN PISGAMA (UV'MA'AMAR) [U'MEIMAR] KADISHIN SHE'EILESA" - "This edict is by the decree of the angels, and this verdict is by the word of the holy ones." (Daniel 4:14)

50a) [line 41] DIN - HaSh-m's attribute of strict justice
b) [line 41] TZEDAKAH - HaSh-m's attribute of mercy

51) [line 42] MAH LECHA ETZEL HAGADAH? - What do you have to do with Agadah (homiletic, non-Halachic parts of Torah)?

52) [line 43] KALECH ETZEL NEGA'IM V'OHALOS - go to [the areas of study in which you excel,] Nega'im and Ohalos ("Kalech" is a contraction of "Kaleh" - "stop," and "Lech" - "go [away]" -- see RASHI to Chagigah 14a DH Kalech. According to the reading KELACH - "go, you," "Kelach" is contraction of "Lecha" - "go," and "Lach" - "you" -- see RASHI to Shabbos 145b DH Kelach.)

53a) [line 43] KISEI - chair (throne)
b) [line 43] SHERAFRAF - a footstool
54) [line 43] HADOM RAGLAV - his footstool
55) [line 44] L'AHADUREI - to respond

56) [line 45] MITATR*N (NOT TO BE PRONOUNCED) - one of the ministering Angels, whose name is like the name of his Master (i.e. the Gematriya of his name is 314, which is the same as the Gematriya of the name Shakai) (see also RASHI to Shemos 23:21)

57) [line 46] "AL TAMER BO" - "Do not rebel against him... [for he will not tolerate your disobedience, since My Name is with him.]" (Shemos 23:21)
b) [line 46] AL TEMIRENI BO - do not exchange Me with him

58) [line 46] "LO YISA L'FISH'ACHEM" LAMAH LI? - Why do we need [the words in that verse,] "He will not pardon your sins?" (i.e. what power does Mitatr*n have to pardon the Jewish people?)

59) [line 47] HEIMNUSA B'YADAN - it is our faith (lit. our faith is in our hands)
b) [line 47] D'AFILU B'PARVANKA NAMI LO KABILNEI - that we do not even accept him as a messenger

60) [line 47] "VA'YOMER ELAV IM EIN PANECHA HOLCHIM, [AL TA'ALENU MI'ZEH.]" - "He (Moshe) said to Him, 'If Your presence does not go [with us,] do not bring us up from this [place]." (Shemos 33:15)

61) [line 48] "VA'HASH-M HIMTIR AL SEDOM V'AL AMORAH GOFRIS VA'ESH, ME'ES HASH-M MIN HA'SHAMAYIM." - "HaSh-m made sulfur and fire rain down on Sedom and on Amorah, from HaSh-m [it came] from the sky." (Bereishis 19:24)

62) [line 49] HA'HU KOVES - a certain clothes-washer
63) [line 49] SHAVKEI - leave him
64) [line 49] "VA'YOMER LEMECH L'NASHAV, ADAH V'TZILAH SHEMA'AN KOLI, NESHEI LEMECH..." - "Lemech said to his wives, 'Adah and Tzilah, hear my voice, the wives of Lemech [listen to my speech]...'" (Bereishis 4:23)

65) [line 50] NESHAI - my wives
66) [line 50] MISHTA'I KERA HACHI - this is the style of the verse (lit. this is the way the verse speaks)

67) [line 51] MI'PIRKEI D'REBBI MEIR - from the lectures of Rebbi Meir

68a) [line 51] TILTA SHEMA'ATA - a third [of his lecture] was Shema'ata (Halachic discourse)
b) [last line] TILTA AGADETA - a third [of his lecture] was Agadah (homiletic, non-Halachic parts of Torah)
c) [last line] TILTA MASLEI - a third [of his lecture was] parables

69) [last line] MISHLOS SHU'ALIM - parables involving foxes

70) [last line] V'ANU EIN LANU ELA SHALOSH - and we only have [one surviving parable from his collection, based on] three [verses]; alt. according to the Girsa EIN LANU ELA *ACHAS* - and we only have one [surviving parable from his collection] (this is the Girsa of almost all of the manuscripts and early printings -- DIKDUKEI SOFRIM #9)

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