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1) [line 1] "VA'TIKACH RITZPAH VAS AYAH ES HA'SAK..." - "And Rizpah the daughter of Ayah took a sackcloth, and spread it out for herself upon the rock, from the beginning of the harvest until the rain dropped upon them from the sky, and she did not let the birds of the air rest on them by day, nor the beasts of the field by night." (Shmuel II 21:10) - Ritzpah, the concubine of Shaul, protected the corpses of her two sons and five of Shaul's grandchildren throughout the months that they were hanging (see Background to Sanhedrin 34:60). The Gemara uses this verse to prove that Hoka'ah specifically refers to hanging on a gallows in the open air, unprotected from the elements.
2) [line 11] "MELE'ASI MISHPAT, TZEDEK YALIN BAH, V'ATAH MERATZECHIM." - "It was full of judgment; righteousness lodged in it; but now - murderers." (Yeshayah 1:21) - This verse hints at the concept of Halanas ha'Din, waiting overnight before convicting a defendant in a capital case.
3) [line 13] "ASHERU CHAMOTZ" - "vindicate the oppressed" (Yeshayah 1:17) - Rava interprets this verse homiletically as "vindicate the one who delays [sentencing in a capital case]," relating the word "Chamotz" to "Chametz."
4) [line 13] ASHERU DAYAN SHE'MECHAMETZ ES DINO - vindicate the judge who delays his case [and waits until the net day for sentencing in a capital case]
5) [line 14] ASHERU CHAMOTZ, V'LO CHOMETZ - vindicate the oppressed (passive tense), and not the one who delays (active tense)
6) [line 17] KOL TA'ANIS SHE'MALININ BO ES HA'TZEDAKAH - any fast day on which the congregation leaves overnight the charitable contributions that were collected [without distributing them to the poor right after the fast. The custom at the time of the Gemara was to collect money during a fast day for distribution to the poor immediately afterwards]
7a) [line 19] RIFTA - bread
11) [line 30] MINSHU TA'AMAIHU - they will forget their arguments [of Erev Shabbos]
12) [line 33] NEHI (DEB'FUMA) [D'FUMA] KASVIN - granted that they (the scribes of the court) write the [words that came our of their] mouths
13) [line 33] LIBA D'INSHEI INSHEI - but the heart of a person forgets (and a judge needs to know the exact reason for his decision before he condemns a person to death)
14) [line 35] MES MITZVAH
15) [line 36] AVODAH DOCHEH SHABBOS - the Divine service in the Beis ha'Mikdash "pushes aside" [certain prohibitions of] Shabbos. (The Kohanim perform various Melachos of Shabbos when they sacrifice the Korbanos that are prescribed for Shabbos.)
16) [line 37] "L'AVIV UL'IMO L'ACHIV UL'ACHOSO [LO YITAMA LAHEM B'MOSAM, KI NEZER ELOKAV AL ROSHO.]" - "[He shall not make himself Tamei] for his father, or for his mother, for his brother, or for his sister, [when they die; because the crown of HaSh-m is upon his head." (Bamidbar 6:7)
17) [line 38] HAREI SHE'HAYAH HOLECH - if it happened that he (a Kohen Gadol who is a Nazir) was going
18) [line 7] RETZICHAH - the death penalty (lit. murder) (ARBA MISOS BEIS DIN) (a) Arba Misos Beis Din, the four death penalties administered by Beis Din, in their order of stringency are:
(c) The four death penalties are not administered on Shabbos, as our Gemara proves on this Amud.
19) [line 7] DOCHEH ES HA'AVODAH - [the four death penalties] "push aside" the Divine service in the Beis ha'Mikdash (see next entry)
20) [line 10] "... ME'IM MIZBECHI TIKACHENU LA'MUS." - "[But if a man intentionally plots against his neighbor, to slay him treacherously,] from near My Mizbe'ach you shall take him to die." (Shemos 21:14) - This verse instructs the judges to take a Kohen from near the Mizbe'ach, when he is about to do the Avodah, to be tried for a capital offense. This is the intention of the Gemara when it states, "Retzichah Docheh Es ha'Avodah." (However, if he is actually on the Mizbe'ach doing the Avodah, he is not taken down -- Makos 12a.)
21) [line 14] "LO SEVA'ARU ESH [B'CHOL MOSHEVOSEICHEM B'YOM HA'SHABBOS.]" - "You shall not kindle a fire [in any of your settlements on the day of Shabbos.]" (Shemos 35:3)
22a) [line 15] IY L'REBBI YOSI, L'LAV YATZAS; IY L'REBBI NASAN, L'CHALEK
YATZAS (HAV'ARAH L'LAV YATZAS / L'CHALEK YATZAS)
23) [line 16] HAV'ARAH - kindling a fire