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Sanhedrin 26

1) [line 1] MIGANZU KULEI ALMA - everyone [of the townspeople] hid
2) [line 1] KI ASI, AMAR LEI "MI'MAN NIV'EI?" - when he (the Reish Nahara -- see Background to Sanhedrin 25:40) came, he said to him, "From whom shall I collect the tax?" (lit. "From whom should I ask?")

3) [line 2] KI NEYACHA NAFSHEI AMAR LEHU - when he was on his deathbed, he said to them (those present at the time)

4) [line 2] SHEKULU TELEISAR MA'EI DI'TZAYEREI LI B'SADINAI - take out thirteen coins that are wrapped in my coin pouch

5) [line 3] V'HADRU LEI LI'PELANYA - and return them to so-and -so
6) [line 4] D'SHAKALTINHU MINEI V'LO ITZERICHU LI - because I collected them from him [as taxes] and I do not need them (since after I die the Reish Nahara cannot make me pass on the money that I collected)

7) [line 9] V'AZLEI ANIYIM V'ASFEI LEHU U'MAISU - and the poor people go and collect [the produce of Shevi'is] for them (the merchants who are offering the poor people money for their services) and bring [it to them]

8) [line 10] KASHU BAH BENEI RACHBAH - Benei Rachbah (probably Eifah and Avimei, the "Charifei d'Pumbedisa" -- Daf 17b) questioned this

9) [line 11] TAGARIN - merchants
10) [line 13] ARNONA - property tax (a yearly share of crops or animals given to the king)

11) [line 14] KED'MACHRIZ REBBI YANAI - as Rebbi Yanai [taught and] proclaimed [the following Halachah in public]

12) [line 17] ASYA - (a) Tosfos to Yevamos 115a DH Amar brings the Gemara in Bava Basra 56a that identifies Asya with Keini mentioned in Bereishis 15:19. It seems that the Keini people lived near Moav, to the west of the Dead Sea. They lived in Ir ha'Temarim (Palm City), which may be Chatzatzon Tamar, to the west of the Dead Sea. The Targum translates Keni as Shalamite, an Arabic tribe (RABBI ARYEH KAPLAN); (b) possibly Callirhoe and its surroundings, on the east side of the Jordan River, near the Dead Sea; (c) Asia Minor, or rather the Roman province embracing the Western part of the peninsula of Asia Minor, bequeathed by King Attalus to the Roman republic (this opinion agrees with TOSFOS DH l'Aber, who states that Asya is in Chutz la'Aretz); (d) a town called Essa, east of Lake Kineres

13) [line 18] ITPAL BAHADAIHU - he accompanied them, went alongside them
14) [line 20] KA KARIV - was plowing (during the Shemitah year)
15) [line 21] AGISTON ANI B'SOCHO - I am a *sharecropper* in it (this field) [and it belongs to a Nochri] (RASHI); (b) I am working to pay off the *forced labor tax* in it (this field) (ARUCH)

16) [line 22] HAVAH KASACH B'CHARMEI - he was pruning a vineyard
17) [line 23] KOHEN V'ZAMAR? - [Can this be that] a Kohen is pruning [a vineyard]?

18) [line 23] EKEL BEIS HA'BAD - a box-like, flexible woven basket made of thin branches or palm leaves, used as a receptacle in an oil-press

19) [line 25] AKALKALOS - crookedness, deceit
20) [line 25] HAI AMAR LEI B'REISHA? - (lit. Which one did he say first?) Which one of the previous two incidents, and the ensuing exchange between the Chachamim and Reish Lakish, occurred first?

21) [line 31] TE'ALEH - it (one Se'ah of produce) shall be taken out (MEDUMA)
(a) If Terumah is mixed into Chulin, the entire mixture becomes prohibited. The Terumah only becomes Batel (canceled) if one part of Terumah falls into at least 100 parts of Chulin. Even if the Terumah is Batel, it is forbidden for non-Kohanim to eat the entire mixture; the equivalent of the amount of Terumah that fell in must first be removed from the mixture ("Ta'aleh" - lit. it shall be picked up [out of the mixture]).
(b) If the percentage of Terumah that fell into the Chulin was greater than one in one hundred, the mixture is known as *Meduma* (lit. mixed) and is forbidden to be eaten by non-Kohanim. It can only be sold at a loss, since the owner cannot charge the Kohanim more than the price of Terumah for Meduma.
(c) According to Tosfos in Chulin 99a DH Ein, this law applies only if the Terumah was the same type of food as the Chulin; otherwise Terumah is Batel just like any other Isur (Shishim, one sixtieth).

22) [line 31] YERAKVU - it must be left to rot
23) [line 31] V'HAVINAN BAH - and we ask about it
24) [line 35] TARODA HU DEIN - this one (i.e. Reish Lakish) is a troublesome person

25) [line 35] SELIKU L'IGRA - they went up to the roof
26) [line 36] SHALFUHA L'DARGA MI'TUSEI - he (either Rebbi Chiya bar Zarnokei or Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak) pulled up the ladder from under him

27) [line 39] MIDI D'HAVAH A'SHELOSHAH RO'EI VAKAR, V'RABANAN A'CHUSHBENAIHU SAMUCH - similar to the incident of the three cattle shepherds (where the information that they provided proved to the Rabanan that the year needed a leap month -- Daf 18b), but the Rabanan [did not rely on their statements; they] relied on their calculations

28) [line 41] HADUR IMNU RABANAN V'IBRUHA LEHA'HU SHATA - in that case, the seven judges then voted and made the year a leap year

29) [line 42] KESHER RESHA'IM EINO MIN HA'MINYAN - wicked members of a group are not counted

30) [line 43] DA AKA - that is the trouble [that you call them wicked, when they are actually extremely righteous and worthy of sitting on a Beis Din to declare a leap year] (see MARGOLIYOS HA'YAM)

31) [line 45] V'IY KARI LECHU RO'EI TZON, MAI AMINA LEI - and if he called you shepherds of sheep, what should I have said to him? (i.e. you were much too generous in your Limud Zechus of the two people who were seen transgressing the prohibitions of the Shemitah year. If they were great righteous people, then you indeed had an obligation to be Melamed Zechus even with an implausible excuse. However, from the information at hand, it seems that they were not.)

32) [line 46] SHEVNA - a minister of Chizkiyahu ha'Melech who was a great Talmid Chacham. He later turned to evil ways and led a rebellion against the king during the war against Sancheriv. As our Gemara relates (on Amud Beis), Sancheriv had him killed. (However, according to Tosfos in Yoma 38b and elsewhere, there were two different people by the name of Shevna.)

33) [line 46] SHEVNA HAVAH DARISH BI'TLEISAR RIVEVASA - Shevna taught in a Yeshiva with 130,000 students

34) [line 47] KASAV SHEVNA PISKA - Shevna wrote a note
35) [line 48] SHADA B'GIRA - he shot the note on an arrow [into the camp of Sancheriv]

36) [line 48] "SHEVNA V'SIYATO HISHLIMU ..." - [the text of the message was] "Shevna and his entourage have made peace with you"

37) [line 49] "KI HINEH HA'RESHA'IM YIDRECHUN KESHES, KONENU CHITZAM AL YESER..." - "For, behold, the wicked bend their bow, they make ready their arrow on the string, [that they may shoot in darkness at the upright in heart.]" (Tehilim 11:2)

38) [line 49] HAVAH KA MISTEFI CHIZKIYAH - Chizkiyah was unsure
39) [line 50] KEIVAN D'RUBA MIMSEREI - since the majority [of the people, who are wicked followers of Shevna] will be handed over [to Sancheriv]

40) [line 51] "LO SOMRUN, 'KESHER!' L'CHOL ASHER YOMAR HA'AM HA'ZEH KESHER..." - "Do not say, 'It is a conspiracy!' to all that this people shall call a conspiracy; [neither fear their fear, nor be afraid.]" (Yeshayah 8:12)

41) [line 53] LACHTZOV LO KEVER - to hew for himself a grave. The graves at the time were hewn in stone. A Me'arah is the term for a collective burial cave. In it there were Kuchin, small burial caves for individual corpses, dug into the walls of the Me'arah. (See Bava Basra 100b et seq. and Background to the Daf there)

42) [line 53] "MAH LECHA FOH, U'MI LECHA FOH KI CHATZAVTA LECHA POH KAVER... METALTELCHA TALTELAH GAVER V'OTECHA ATO." - "What have you here, and whom have you here, that you have cut out for yourself a sepulcher here, [as he who cuts out for himself a sepulcher on the height, carving a habitation for himself in a rock? Behold, HaSh-m] will cause you to wander an intense wandering and He will make you go around to far-away places." (Yeshayah 22:16-17) - The Gemara learns from the words "v'Otecha Ato" that Shevna contracted Tzara'as.

43) [line 54] TILTULA D'GAVRA KASHI MID'ITESA - displacement is more taxing on a man than on a woman (see IYUN YAKOV)

44) [line 56] "V'AL SAFAM YA'ATEH" - "[And the clothes of the Metzora who has the affliction shall be torn and his head shall be uncut,] and until his lips he shall cover [his head, and he shall call out 'Tamei, Tamei.']" (Vayikra 13:45)

45) [line 56] "TZANOF YITZNOFCHA TZENEFAH KADUR EL ERETZ RACHAVAS YADAYIM, [SHAMAH TAMUS V'SHAMAH MARKEVOS KEVODECHA, KELON BEIS ADONECHA.]" - "He will violently turn and toss you like a ball into a wide land; [there you shall die, and there the chariots of your glory [shall disintegrate, you, who are] the shame of your master's house!]" (Yeshaya 22:18)

46) [last line] ACHDEI L'DASHA B'APEI MASHIRYASEI - he (Gavriel) closed [and locked] the door in the face of his (Shevna's) legion


47) [line 1] HADRU VI - they have [apparently] retracted [their promises of support for] me

48) [line 2] ACHUCHEI KA MECHAICHAS BAN - you are making fun of us!
49a) [line 4] KOTZIM - thorns
b) [line 4] BARKANIN - thistles

50) [line 6] "... 'LECH BO EL HA'SOCHEN HA'ZEH, [AL SHEVNA ASHER AL HA'BAYIS.']" - "[Thus said HaSh-m Tzevakos,] 'Go to this steward, to Shevna, who is over the house, [and say,]" (Yeshayah 22:15)

51) [line 7] "KI HA'SHASOS YEHARESUN, TZADIK MAH PA'AL?" - "If the foundations are destroyed, what can the righteous one do?" (Tehilim 11:3)

52) [line 15] EVEN HAYESAH SHAM MI'YEMOS NEVI'IM HA'RISHONIM - a certain rock (the Even ha'Shesiyah) was there from the days of the early prophets (when it was discovered)

53) [line 18] "... KI LA'SH-M METZUKEI ERETZ, VA'YASHES ALEIHEM TEVEL." - "[He raises up the poor from the dust, and lifts up the beggar from the dunghill, to set them among princes, and to make them inherit the throne of glory.] For the pillars of the earth are HaSh-m's, and He has set the world upon them." (Shmuel I 2:8) - The righteous are called the pillars of the earth.

54) [line 19] V'IYBA'IS EIMA ME'HACHA - and it is possible to learn it (that Tzadikim are called Shasos, i.e. are known as the foundation of the world) from this [verse]

55) [line 20] "... HIFLI ETZAH, HIGDIL TUSHIYAH" - "[This also comes forth from HaSh-m Tzevakos,] Who is wonderful in counsel, and excellent in wisdom." (Yeshayah 28:29) - "Tushiyah" refers to the Torah and those who learn it, and is similar to the word "Tashtis" - "foundation."

56) [line 21] MATESHES KOCHO SHEL ADAM - it weakens the strength of a man
57) [line 22] SHE'NITNAH B'CHASAI - that were given in secrecy (specifically, the second Luchos)

58) [line 23] DEVARIM SHEL TOHU SHEHA'OLAM MESHUTAS ALEIHEM - things without substance (the speech, Kevayachol, of HaSh-m, e.g. "Yehi Or" - "Let there be light") upon which the world was founded

59) [line 25] MACHSHAVAH MO'ELES AFILU L'DIVREI TORAH - (a) thoughts, worries [about one's livelihood] are successful [in causing one to forget whatever one has learned,] even with regard to one's Torah learning (RASHI, 1st explanation); (b) thoughts, plans [to accomplish a specific amount] are successful [in counteracting those plans,] even with regard to one's Torah learning

60) [line 25] "MEFER MACHSHEVOS ARUMIM V'LO SA'ASENAH YEDEIHEM TUSHIYAH." - "He abolishes the thoughts of the cunning and their hands do not carry out their plans." (Iyov 5:12) - As above, the word "Tushiyah" refers to the Torah.

61) [line 31] HACHRAZAH - proclamation [in Beis Din, that the person is disqualified from testifying]

62a) [line 36] GAZLAN D'RABANAN - a robber according to the decrees of the Rabanan, such as those listed in our Mishnah
b) [line 36] GAZLAN D'ORAISA - a robber, who brazenly burglarizes and takes the possessions of others by force

63) [line 36] SIMAN DeVe"R V'ARaYO"S GaNa"V - this is a mnemonic device for remembering the following three statements of Rav Nachman, with regard to additional people who are qualified or disqualified to testify:

  1. *Devar* refers to "Ochlei *Davar* Acher..." (line 37)
  2. *v'Arayos* refers to "he'Chashud Al *ha'Arayos*..." (line 39)
  3. *Ganav* refers to "*Ganav* Nisan v'Ganav Tishrei..." (line 44)
64) [line 37] OCHLEI DAVAR ACHER - (lit. those who eat "that other thing," which usually refers to pork) those who accept charity from Nochrim

65a) [line 37] B'FARHESYA - in public
b) [line 38] B'TZIN'A - in private
66) [line 40] ANEI MORI! - Answer [me,] my master!

67) [line 40] ARBE'IN B'CHASFEI, V'CHASHER?! - [as a punishment for the rumor that has been spreading about him, he receives] forty [lashes] on his shoulder (Makas Mardus -- see Background to Kidushin 70:32 -- which are not necessarily forty in number), and his is still qualified [to testify]? (The Gemara -- Kidushin 81a -- rules that a person is whipped for a bad rumor about illicit relations that spreads about him)

68a) [line 42] L'AFUKAH - (lit. to cause her to go out [of the status of marriage]) to testify about a woman that she is not married
b) [line 42] L'AYULAH - (lit. to cause her to go up or in [to the status of marriage]) to testify about a woman that she is married

69) [line 43] "MAYIM GENUVIM YIMTAKU [V'LECHEM SETARIM YIN'AM.]" - "Stolen waters are sweet, [and bread eaten in secret is pleasant.]" (Mishlei 9:17)

70) [line 44] ARISA - a sharecropper, a hired field laborer who receives a percentage (1/2, 1/3 or 1/4) of the produce of the field

71) [line 45] (IKAREI) [IKAROHI] D'RAV ZEVID - the laborers of Rav Zevid (who do not work for a percentage of the crops, and are not meant to take any produce)

72) [line 45] KAVA D'SA'AREI - a Kav measure of barley
73) [line 46] KIBORA D'AHINEI - a cluster of dates
74) [line 46] KEVURA'EI - gravediggers
75) [line 47] ATZERES - Shavuos

76) [line 47] SHAMTINHU (SHAMTA / NIDUY - excommunication)
(a) The minimum period of Niduy is thirty days in Eretz Yisrael or seven days in Bavel and elsewhere. If the Menudeh does not repent from his ways he is put into Niduy for a second thirty-day period. If he still does not repent, he is then put into Cherem. The laws of Cherem are much more stringent.
(b) No one may come within four Amos of the Menudeh, except for his wife and family. He is not permitted to eat or drink with other people, nor is he included in a Zimun or any other Mitzvah that requires a quorum of ten men. He may not wash his clothes, shave or take a haircut or wear shoes. Learning and teaching Torah, however, are permitted, as well as engaging in work. The last two are not permitted to a Muchram, who must learn by himself and engage in work to the minimum that will provide him daily sustenance. People may speak with the Menudeh or the Muchram unless Beis Din specifically prohibits it.
(c) Even if the period of Cherem or Niduy has ended, a person remains in Niduy or Cherem until he is permitted by three commoners or by an expert sage (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 334:27 and REMA ibid. 334:24)

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