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Sanhedrin 25

1) [line 7] HA'HI REBBI YEHUDAH MISHUM REBBI TARFON HI - that [Beraisa] is the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Tarfon. That is, Rebbi Yehudah in our Mishnah is explaining the view of the Rabanan (as Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi holds), who hold that one who is Mesachek b'Kuvya is disqualified from giving testimony only when he has no other occupation (because he is not involved in "Yishuvo Shel Olam"). When the Beraisa records an opinion that disqualifies one who is Mesachek b'Kuvya even if he has another occupation (because a gambler is considered to be stealing, due to "Asmachta"), that Beraisa is the opinion of Rebbi Yehudah in the name of Rebbi Tarfon.

2) [line 9] L'OLAM EIN ECHAD MEHEM NAZIR - [If a person passes by two people and one of the two says, "I shall be a Nazir if that person passing by is a Nazir" while the other one says, "I shall be a Nazir if that person passing by is *not* a Nazir,"] neither one of them is a Nazir

3) [line 10] SHE'LO NITNAH NEZIRUS ELA L'HAFLA'AH - Nezirus can only take effect through an unequivocal acceptance of Nezirus (NEZIRUS: THE OPINION OF REBBI TARFON)
Rebbi Yehudah, in the name of Rebbi Tarfon, rules that the statement with which a person makes himself a Nazir may not be conditional. He must realize, from the moment he utters it, that this statement is making him a Nazir. He learns this from the word "Ki *Yafli*" (Bamidbar 6:2), which implies that the statement of Nezirus requires "Hafla'ah" (certainty and clarity; lack of ambiguity). This requirement applies not only to Nezirus, but to Nedarim and Shevu'os as well (see Insights to Nedarim 19:1).

4) [line 13] MILVEH HA'BA'AH B'RIBIS - [Rava answers that the Mishnah can be read differently, as referring to] *a loan* that comes about through an agreement to pay interest (implying that both parties, the borrower and the lender, are guilty, and, as a result, are disqulified)

5) [line 14] AS'HIDU BEI TREI SAHADEI - two witnesses testified against him
6) [line 15] OZIF B'RIBISA - he lent money with interest

7) [line 18] ] "AL TASHES [YADCHA IM] RASHA [LIHEYOS] ED [CHAMAS]" - "Do not become involved with a wicked person to be a false witness." (Shemos 23:1)

8a) [line 19] ADAM KAROV ETZEL ATZMO - a person is considered to be a relative to himself [and is thus disqualified from testifying about anything that involves himself]
b) [line 20] V'EIN ADAM MESIM ATZMO RASHA - and a person is not able to make himself a Rasha; in capital cases or matters pertaining to verifying one's lineage, a person is not permitted to testify against himself in court

9a) [line 21] HA'HU TABACHA - a certain ritual slaughterer
b) [line 21] D'ISHTAKACH D'NAFKA TREIFASA MI'TUSEI YADEI - about whom it was found that he was selling non-kosher meat (lit. non-kosher meat was coming out from under his hands)

10) [line 23] ABREI - he removed him [from his position]
11) [line 23] AZAL, RABI MAZYEI V'TUFREI - he went, and he grew [long] his hair and his fingernails

12) [line 24] DILMA I'ARUMEI KA MA'ARIM - perhaps he is merely acting deceptively (and trying to trick us into thinking that he has repented)

13) [line 25] MAI TAKANTEI? - What can he do to amend [for selling non-kosher meat]?

14) [line 29] YOTZI TREIFAH MI'TACHAS YADO B'DAVAR CHASHUV MI'SHELO - he should dispose of valuable non-kosher meat from within his possession (lit. from under his hand) at his own expense

15) [line 31] IY TEKADMEI YONACH L'YON - if your dove precedes my dove [in a race]

16) [line 32] ARA - (O.F. estalon) a bird used to lure other birds (RASHI) (see Insights)

17) [line 34] MIPNEI DARCHEI SHALOM - [it is not actual robbery to lure the birds of another's dovecote into one's own dovecote, but rather the Rabanan prohibited it] because of Darchei Shalom (lit. the ways of peace), i.e. to maintain social justice


18) [line 3] B'NAKSHA TALYA MILSA - the matter [of which bird wins] depends on knocking [the wooden boards together to make the bird fly faster]

19) [line 6] PISPASIM - (O.F. mereles) small pieces of wood used for gambling games (such as dice)

20a) [line 7] KELIPEI EGOZIM - the shells of nuts
b) [line 7] KELIPEI RIMONIM - the shells of pomegranates

21) [line 8] EIMASAI CHAZARASAN? - When is their repentance (i.e. in what way can they repent)?

22) [line 9] D'AFILU B'CHINAM LO AVDEI - that they do not do it (play such games) even without waging (this is the Gemara's addition to the Beraisa, and not the words of the Beraisa itself)

23) [line 14] SHE'MAMRIN ES HA'YONIM - who rouse the doves (either to fight against each other (RASHI) or to race against each other (ARUCH); see Insights

24) [line 16] PIGMEIHEN - their wooden boards (which they use to rouse the birds); see Insights

25) [line 20] V'YIBADLU - and they refrain (lit. separate themselves) [from engaging in commerce with produce of Shemitah)

26) [line 22] KINASTI MASAYIM ZUZ B'FEIROS SHEVI'IS - I have brought in produce of Shevi'is worth 200 Zuz

27) [line 27] SHOR HA'BAR - wild ox, bison

(a) Rebbi Yosi and the Tana Kama in the Mishnah in Kil'ayim (8:6) argue whether a Shor ha'Bar has the status of a domesticated animal or the status of a wild animal.
(b) The argument has two important practical ramfications: whether there is a Mitzvah of Kisuy ha'Dam, and whether the Chelev is prohibited.
(c) KISUY HA'DAM - There is a Mitzvah to cover the blood of all birds and wild animals (Chayos) that are slaughtered, as it states in Vayikra (17:13) "v'Ish Ish ... Asher Yatzud Tzeid Chayah O Of Asher Ye'achel, v'Shafach Es Damo v'Chisahu b'Afar." The blood must be covered from above and below with earth or any similar granular substance. If a Shor ha'Bar is considered a Behemah (domesticated animal), then there is no obligation to cover its blood.
(d) CHELEV - Chelev refers to the fat of an animal that is offered on the Mizbe'ach. It consists of the layer of fat covering the stomachs, all the other fat attached to the stomachs, and the fat on the kidneys along the flanks (Vayikra 3:4). The verse states, "Chukas Olam l'Doroseichem b'Chol Moshevoseichem, Kol Chelev v'Chol Dam Lo Socheilu." - "It shall be an everlasting statute for your generations throughout all your settlements, that you eat neither [forbidden] fat nor blood." (Vayikra 3:17). It is forbidden to eat the Chelev of a Kosher Behemah (farm animal), but it may be used for any other purpose. The Chelev of a Chayah (a Kosher non-farm animal), however, may even be eaten. If a Shor ha'Bar is considered a Behemah, then it is prohibited to eat its Chelev.

29a) [line 30] GAZLANIN - robbers, who brazenly burglarize and take the possessions of others by force
b) [line 30] CHAMSANIN - extortionists, who snatch items from their owners and force the owners to accept money for them

30) [line 31] METZI'AS CHERESH SHOTEH V'KATAN - a lost object that was found by a deaf mute, a fool, or a minor (DARCHEI SHALOM: KINYAN KATAN)
(a) According to the Torah, a person who does not have intelligence cannot effect a Kinyan (a formal Halachically-binding act denoting his acquisition of an object). Therefore, a Cheresh (deaf mute), a Shoteh (see Background to Bava Metzia 80:14a) and a Katan (minor), who have no intelligence with regard to Halachic matters, cannot effect Kinyanim.
(b) Nevertheless, Chazal instituted a Kinyan mid'Rabanan for a Cheresh, Shoteh and Katan because of Darchei Shalom, i.e. to maintain social justice (Gitin 59b).

31) [line 35] DEMEI KA YAHIV - he is giving money [as payment for the object that he is snatching]

32) [line 36] AKRAI B'ALMA HU - it is an isolated occurrence (and the person does not have intention to steal the object)

33a) [line 37] RO'IM - shepherds (see below, entry #38)
b) [line 37] GABA'IN - treasurers of the charity funds
c) [line 37] MOCHSIN - tax collectors (see RABEINU CHANANEL in the name of GA'ON)

34) [line 38] KA MECHAVNEI V'SHADU L'CHATCHILAH - they purposefully intend and send [the animals to graze in the pastures of others] to begin with

35) [line 39] MAI D'KITZ LEHU KA SHAKLEI - they take [only] that which was apportioned to them

36a) [line 40] BEHEMAH DAKAH - small, domesticated (farm) animals (such as sheep)
b) [line 41] BEHEMAH GASAH - large, domesticated (farm) animals (such as cows)

37) [line 42] MEGADLIM - those who raise animals in their homes

38) [line 46] SETAM RO'EH PASUL - a normal shepherd is disqualified from being a judge, testifying or swearing in court (RO'EH)
(a) A Gazlan (robber) is not fit to swear or testify in Beis Din, since we suspect that he will lie for monetary gain.
(b) The Rabanan decreed that a shepherd who grazes flocks of his own personal animals is presumed to be a Gazlan, since he is suspected of grazing his animals in the private fields of others without permission. Accordingly, they disqualified shepherds from taking oaths or testifying.

39) [line 47] AVAD GAVYUSA TELEISAR SHENIN - he served as the [municipal tax] collector for thirteen years

40) [line 47] KI HAVAH ASI REISH NAHARA L'MASA - when the head of the region (around that river) would come to town

41) [line 48] KI HAVAH CHAZI RABANAN - [and] when he (Avuha d'Rebbi Zeira) would see the Torah scholars

42) [line 48] "LECH AMI BO VA'CHADERECHA [U'SEGOR DELASECHA BA'ADECHA; CHAVI CHI'ME'AT REGA AD YA'AVOR ZA'AM.]" - "Go, my people, and come into your private rooms, [and close your doors behind you; hide for a small moment until the wrath passes.]" (Yeshayah 26:20)

43) [line 48] KI HAVAH CHAZI INSHEI D'MASA, AMAR - when he would see the people of the town, he would say...

44) [last line] V'HA'IDNA NACHIS ABA L'FUM BERA U'VERA L'FUM ABA - and now he is going to slaughter the father in front of the son, and the son in front of the father (a) i.e. the regional mayor is going to take your money, so you should go and hide (RASHI); (b) i.e. the regional mayor is going to collect taxes and "slaughter" the father if he does not find the son, and vice versa -- therefore, be on the alert, for since the Talmidei Chachamim are hiding, their relatives will have to pay! (MARGOLIYOS HA'YAM)

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