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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 20

ROSH HASHANAH 19 & 20 (10, 11 Av) - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's grandmother, Mrs. G. Turkel, to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael Shimon (Isi) ha'Levi Turkel, who loved Torah and worked to support Torah until his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av 5780.


(a) In the second Lashon, we connect the witnesses' desecration of the Shabbos with the obligation to sanctify Rosh Chodesh through the sighting of the witnesses.
How do we then attempt to prove that the second Adar must be short, from the fact that the witnesses desecrated Shabbos for Rosh Chodesh Nisan? What would we otherwise say if Adar Sheini could be full?

(b) How do we establish the Mishnah to refute this proof?

(a) The Seifa of the next Mishnah states that, when the Beis Hamikdash stood, the witnesses would desecrate the Shabbos 'because of Takanas ha'Korban'.
What does that mean?

(b) What can we deduce from there regarding desecrating the Shabbos for Rosh Chodesh Nisan and Tishri?

(c) How do we go on from there to disprove Rav (who says that Adar Sheini is always short)?

(a) It was extremely rare for Elul to be a full month. When it did, according to Ula it was because of 'Yarkaya', and according to Rebbi Achah bar Chanina, because of 'Meisaya'.
What is the meaning of ...
  1. ... 'Yarkaya'?
  2. ... 'Meisaya'?
(b) Initially, we contend that the difference between the two reasons will manifest itself in a year when Yom Kipur falls after Shabbos.
Why would 'Yarkaya' not apply?

(c) On what grounds do we reject the previous contention?

(d) We conclude that the difference between them is when Yom-Tov falls immediately before or after Shabbos.
Which of the two reasons will not apply?

(a) Why will Rebbi Acha bar Chanina not agree that even when Yom-Tov falls next to Shabbos, one should declare Elul a full month because of 'Yarkaya'?

(b) And why did Ula consider this a favor for the B'nei Bavel more than for the B'nei Eretz Yisrael?

(a) The Beraisa of Rabah bar Shmuel states that, although one is permitted to declare a leap-*year* when necessary, it is forbidden to postpone Rosh- Chodesh and declare a full *month*, under any circumstances.
How do we amend the Beraisa to accommodate Ula and Rebbi Acha bar Chanina (who say that one *may*)?

(b) We corroborate this amendment with Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi's statement about frightening the witnesses.
What did Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi say?

(c) And how does Abaye reconcile this with Rebbi Yochanan, who would frighten the witnesses to say that they had seen the new moon, even when they hadn't?

(a) Rava leaves the original wording of Rabah bar Shmuel's Beraisa intact, by establishing it like Acheirim.
To which Acheirim is he referring?

(b) Rav Dimi from Neherda'a answers the Kashya (inferred in 5b.) by switching the statements. According to him, the Tana holds that one frightens the witnesses, if necessary, in order to make it a short month, but not, to make it a full one.
What is now the Tana's reasoning?

Answers to questions



(a) What did Shmuel claim that he was able to do?

(b) On what basis did Aba the father of Rebbi Simla'i dismiss that claim?

(a) What did Rebbi Zeira mean when he said that the night and day must be from the new moon?

(b) Why did he put 'night' first?

(c) For how long is the moon invisible at the time of the Molad?

(d) Then what is the point in telling us that if the old moon is seen on the night of the thirtieth, that day will not be Rosh Chodesh? Is that not obvious?

(a) And how did Rebbi Zeira explain the Beraisa of 'Sod ha'Ibur' (referred to above by Aba the father of Rebbi Simla'i) 'Nolad Kodem Chatzos, be'Yadua she'Nir'eh Samuch li'Sheki'as ha'Chamah ... '?

(b) Whereabouts in the sky is the new moon always seen for the first time after the Molad?

(a) We have already learned that at the time of the Molad, the moon cannot be seen for twenty-four hours.
Why is that?

(b) In Bavel, the old moon disappears eighteen hours before the Molad, and the new one can be seen six hours after it.
What is the proportion in Eretz Yisrael?

(c) Why is the new moon visible to the B'nei Eretz Yisrael so much sooner than it is to the B'nei Bavel?

(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns that the night precedes the day (as we saw above in Rebbi Zeira's first Halachah) from "me'Erev ad Erev" (of Yom Kipur).
From which Pasuk in Emor does Resh Lakish learn it?

(b) Abaye maintains that there is no practical difference between the two reasons.
What does Rava say?

(a) What did Rebbi Zeira Amar Rav Nachman mean when he said that the Safek of Yom-Tov is postponed (but not brought forward)?

(b) What is the reason for that?

Answers to questions
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