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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 19

ROSH HASHANAH 19 & 20 (10, 11 Av) - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's grandmother, Mrs. G. Turkel, to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael Shimon (Isi) ha'Levi Turkel, who loved Torah and worked to support Torah until his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av 5780.


(a) The day before and the day after one of the days listed in Megilas Ta'anis was included in the prohibition.
Did this also apply to ...
  1. ... Shabbos or a Yom-Tov d'Oraysa (such as Rosh Chodesh)?
  2. ... one of the fast-day in the times of the Beis-Hamikdash (such as Tzom Gedalyah)?
(b) Yehudah ben Shamu'a and his colleagues went to ask advice from an aristocratic Roman woman who was familiar with all the great men of Rome. Which three decrees had the Romans issued that prompted them to do that?

(c) What did she advise them to do?

(d) What did they subsequently cry out at night?

(a) What good news did they receive on the twenty-eighth of Adar?

(b) We ask the same Kashya on Rav as we asked above (if the old dates in Megilas Ta'anis became obsolete, how could they now add new days to the list?). Why can we can not answer that this Beraisa speaks in the time of the Beis Hamikdash (like we answered there)?

(c) Raban Gamliel quotes Yehudah ben Shamu'a in the name of Rebbi Meir, who renders glass vessels which became holed, and which were stopped-up with lead, Tamei.
What is his reason?

(a) What exactly does he mean ...
  1. ... if he is speaking about Tum'ah Yeshanah?
  2. ... if he is speaking about the original Din of Tum'ah?
(b) What do the Chachamim say in both cases? What is *their* reason?
Answers to questions



(a) How do we resolve the Kashya against Rav from the Tana of the Beraisa that we just learned, who added a new day to the list after Megilas Ta'anis had become obsolete?

(b) What is Rebbi Yossi's reason for maintaining that Megilas Ta'anis became Batel?

(c) How do we explain the Gemara's final ruling 've'Hilchesa Batlu, ve'Hilchesa Lo Batlu'? How can that be?

(a) The Gemara asks why it was necessary for the Sh'luchim to go out in Tishri.
What is the basis of this Kashya? Why should they *not* need to go out?

(b) Why then *did* they go out in Tishri?

(c) How do we deal with the question that, now that if they did make Elul a full month, Rosh Hashanah of the Galus will not be properly observed? What would be the point of declaring Ellul a full month to protect the proper observance of the other Yamim-Tovim at the expense of Rosh Hashanah?

(d) How do we prove this answer from our Mishnah?

(a) The author of our Mishnah (which does not mention anything about going out in Adar Sheini) cannot be Rebbi.
What does Rebbi say in this regard?

(b) How do we initially establish the Machlokes between Rebbi and the Chachamim?

(a) We conclude that, in fact, even the Chachamim agree that in a leap-year, someone who observes Purim in Adar Rishon is not Yotze, and we connect their Machlokes to that of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel and the Tana Kama. The Tana Kama says there that, in a leap-year, the extra Adar (i.e. Rishon) is thirty days.
What does Raban Shimon ben Gamliel say?

(b) If we take the Tana Kama's opinion at surface value, it will be impossible to connect that Machlokes with that of Rebbi and the Chachamim. Why is that?

(c) Then what *does* the Tana Kama mean when he says 'Chodesh'?

(d) So how does Rav Papa finally establish Rebbi's statement? How does the Machlokes between Rebbi and the Chachamim connect with that of Raban Shimon ben Gamliel and the Tana Kama?

(a) Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi testified in the name of the Holy Kehilah of Yerushalayim that one sanctifies both Adarim on the day of their 'Ibur'. What did he mean by that?

(b) Rebbi Sima'i in the name of Chagai, Zecharyah and Mal'achi, is quoted as saying that any combination of the two Adarim is possible. In Bavel however, Rav Nachman bar Chisda adds, the Minhag was to treat the *first* Adar as a full month, and the *second* one, as a short one.
What is Rav quoted as saying one should do in Bavel (unless they knew that the Beis-Din in Eretz Yisrael also fixed the *first* Adar as a short month)?

(c) The same ruling was sent to Mar Ukva.
How did Rav Nachman query this from the Mishnah later (which rules that the witnesses were even permitted to desecrate the Shabbos, if necessary, on the months of Nisan and Tishri? (See Tosfos DH 'Adar', who point out that he could equally well have asked from *our* Mishnah).

(d) How do we answer this Kashya?

Answers to questions
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