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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 18

ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).


(a) Two people who were equally sick or who were accused of committing exactly the same crime, prayed to Hashem.
Why is it that the prayers of one of them are answered and the prayers of the other, are not, according to Rebbi Meir?

(b) Rebbi Elazar answers that the former must have prayed *before* the decree was sealed, whilst the later prayed *afterwards*, when it was too late.
What does Rebbi Yitzchak say about this?

(c) How will Rebbi Elazar (like whom Rebbi Yochanan holds) explain the Pasuk in Yirmiyah, where the Navi writes that even with regard to a community, Teshuvah (and Tefilah) cannot alter the final decree?

(d) What does Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini Amar Rebbi Yonasan learn from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Lachein Nishba'ati le'Veis Eli Im Yiskaper Avon Beis Eli be'Zevach u've'Minchah"?

(a) What did Rabah infer from the words "be'Zevach u've'Minchah" (in the Pasuk in Shmuel)?

(b) What does Abaye say?

(c) How did the respective opinions of Rabah and Abaye (who were both descendants of Eli ha'Kohen) reflect their own respective destinies?

(d) What did Rebbi Yochanan ben Zakai advise the family who were all dying by the age of eighteen to do?

(a) How do we reconcile the Pasuk in va'Eschanan "ka'Hashem Elokeinu be'Chol Kor'einu Eilav" with the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Dirshu Hashem be'Himatz'o"?

(b) When is "be'Himatz'o"?

(c) Why was Naval (who was guilty, not only of gross ingratitude towards David, but also of insulting him) given ten days grace before he succumbed to his illness, according to Rav?

(d) How does Rabah explain those ten days grace (in the context of our Sugya)?

(a) We learned in our Mishnah, that on Rosh Hashanah, all the creatures in the world pass before Hashem like 'B'nei Meron'. Some interpret this to mean like sheep.
What does that mean?

(b) According to Resh Lakish, 'B'nei Meron' means like the narrow steps of Beis Meron (or Choron).
How does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel explain it?

(c) What do all these explanations have in common? What does Rabah bar bar Chanah comment on this?

(d) How do we prove Rebbi Yochanan's comment from the Pasuk quoted in our Mishnah "ha'Yotzer Yachad Libam ... "?

(a) What was the function of the Sheluchim? Did they travel on Shabbos?

(b) They did not go out at all in the months of Iyar, Sivan, Tamuz, Mar- Cheshvan, Teves and Sh'vat.
Why *did* they go out in each of the other six months?

(c) Then why did they not go out in the month of Sivan?

(d) When did the B'nei Golah observe Rosh Hashanah?

6) When would the Sheluchim go out in the month of Iyar, too?

Answers to questions



(a) Initially, we interpreted the Pasuk in Zecharyah "Tzom ha'Revi'i ... Yiheyeh ... le'Sason u'le'Simchah" to mean that when there is peace, the fast-days become days of celebration, and when there is not, they remain full fast-days.
How does Rav Papa create three levels from this Pasuk?

(b) How do we then use Rav Papa's explanation to answer the Kashya why the Sheluchim do not go out in Tamuz and Teives (for the respective fast-days that occur then)?

(c) So why did they go out in the month of Av (see Tosfos DH 'Ho'il')?

(a) Zecharyah refers to "Tzom ha'Revi'i, ve'Tzom ha'Chamishi, Tzom ha'Shevi'i and Tzom ha'Asiri".
According to the Beraisa, what happened on ...
  1. ... "Tzom ha'Revi'i"?
  2. ... "Tzom ha'Chamishi"?
  3. ... "Tzom ha'Shevi'i"?
(b) Who killed Gedalyah ben Achikam?

(c) What do we learn from the fact that Chazal fixed a fast-day to commemorate his death?

(a) According to Rebbi Akiva, "Tzom ha'Asiri" refers to Asarah be'Teives. What does "Tzom ha'Asiri refer to, according to Rebbi Shimon?

(b) Why does Rebbi Shimon prefer *his* own explanation to that of his Rebbe, Rebbi Akiva?

(c) Why, according to Rebbi Akiva, *does* it put "Tzom ha'Asiri" last, seeing as chronologically, it happened first?

(a) What is Megilas Ta'anis?

(b) Rav and Rebbi Chanina hold that Megilas Ta'anis became Batel.
What is their source for this? When did that happen?

(c) On what grounds do Rebbi Yochanan and Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi (who hold that it did *not* become Batel) reject the proof from 'Ein Shalom, Tzom'?

(a) When the Rabbanan decreed a fast-day on Chanukah, Rebbi Eliezer took a bath and Rebbi Yehoshua had a haircut.
What did they both say to the Rabbanan?

(b) How did Rav Yosef initially resolve Rav and Rebbi Chanina, who hold that Megilas Ta'anis is Batel (and it should therefore be permitted to fast on all the days listed in Megilas Ta'anis)?

(c) On what grounds does Abaye object to Rav Yosef's answer?

(d) So how *does* Rav Yosef resolve Rav and Rebbi Chanina? What makes Chanukah different?

(a) What did the Malchus Chashmona'im decree regarding documents when they overcame the Greeks?

(b) What subsequently happened on the third of Tishri that resulted in that day being included in Megilas Ta'anis?

(c) What Kashya do we ask on Rav and Rebbi Chanina from here (based on the assumption that this Beraisa speaks *after* the Churban)?

(d) We ask that, if the Beraisa speaks in the time of the Beis Hamikdash, then it would anyway have been forbidden to fast on the third of Tishri.

Answers to questions
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