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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 8

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 have been sponsored by a generous grant from the Darchey Noam Foundation.


(a) The Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar, Yisro'u Af Yashiru".
What is the meaning of ...
  1. ... "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon"?
  2. ... "va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar"?
  3. ... "Yisro'u Af Yashiru"?
(b) What is the normal pregnancy period of small animals (such as sheep)?

(c) How does Rebbi Meir (according to our initial contention) learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim that Ma'aser Beheimah is in Elul? How will he then explain "Yisro'u Af Yashiru"?

(d) And how do Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon learn from the same Pasuk that it is in Tishri? How will they explain "va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar"?

(a) On what grounds do we reject the above explanation?

(b) From which basic contention do we retract with regard to our understanding of Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon? When do the sheep become pregnant, even according to them?

(c) In fact, the source for both opinions is the Pasuk in Re'ei "Aser Te'aser ... ".
In which basic point do Rebbi Meir on the one hand, and Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon on the other agree?

(d) What does each opinion now learn from that Hekesh?

(a) Regarding which Halachic issue is the first of *Tishri* the New Year for years (according to Rav Papa)?

(b) But did Rav Chisda not learn earlier that the first of *Nisan* is the New Year for years regarding documents (and not the first of *Tishri*?

(c) If Rav Chisda agrees with Rav Papa, then when he himself comments that the Reisha of the Mishnah 'be'Echad be'Nisan Rosh Hashanah li'Melachim' pertains to Jewish kings exclusively, but that the New Year for Nochri kings is the first of Tishri, is he not simply stating what we now see is an explicit Mishnah?

(d) How else might Rav Chisda explain the Seifa 'be'Echad be'Tishri Rosh Hashanah le'Shanim'? Who will then be the author of our Mishnah?

(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak has a *third* interpretation of our Mishnah ('be'Echad be'Tishri Rosh Hashanah le'Shanim').
What is it?

(b) How does he learn it from the Pasuk in Eikev "me'Reishis ha'Shanah ve'Ad Achris Shanah"?

(c) The Torah though, drops not the slightest hint as to which month it is referring.
How does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak learn from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Tik'u va'Chodesh Shofar, ba'Kese le'Yom Chageinu, Ki Chok le'Yisrael Hu Mishpat l'Elokei Ya'akov" that the world is judged on Rosh Hashanah?

Answers to questions



(a) What does the Tana of one Beraisa learn from "Ki Chok *le'Yisrael* Hu, Mishpat *l'Elokei Ya'akov*"?

(b) From the same Pasuk, the Tana of another Beraisa includes the other nations of the world in Hashem's judgment on Rosh Hashanah.
If so, why does the Pasuk mention Yisrael at all?

(c) In similar vein, what does Rav Chisda learn from the Pasuk in Melachim "La'asos Mishpat Avdo u'Mishpat Amo Yisrael ... "?

(d) *One* reason for this is because it is not respectful for a king to have to wait outside for his turn.
What is the *other*?

(a) We prefer to learn that Rosh Hashanah for Shmitin is the first of Tishri from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah': "u'*va'Shanah* ha'Shevi'is Shabas Shabason Yih'yeh la'Aretz" (in Behar) from "me'Reishis *ha'Shanah* ve'Ad Acharis Shanah" (in Eikev), rather than from the Pasuk "Rishon Hu Lachem le'Chodshei *ha'Shanah*" (in Bo).
Why is that?

(b) To resolve the fact that the Tana of our Mishnah gives the New Year for Yovel as the *first* of Tishri, when the Pasuk in Emor writes "*be'Yom ha'Kipurim* Ta'aviru Shofar be'Chol Artzechem", we establish the author of the Mishnah as being Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah. What do we achieve with this? Since when can a Tana argue with a Pasuk?

(c) From where does Rebbi Yishmael learn that Yovel begins on Rosh Hashanah (and not on Yom Kipur)?

(a) And what do the Rabbanan of Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah do with the Pasuk "ve'Kidashtem es Sh'nas ha'Chimishim Shanah"?

(b) In another Beraisa, what does Rebbi Yishmael learn from the Pasuk in Behar "Yovel Hi, Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah"? Why would we have thought otherwise?

(c) Why do the Rabbanan not require this Derashah?

(d) So what do *they* learn from "Yovel Hi, Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah"?

Answers to questions
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