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Rosh Hashanah 7

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 have been sponsored by a generous grant from the Darchey Noam Foundation.


(a) Our Mishnah listed four Roshei Shanim. The Beraisa quotes three more (according to some, four) . The first of these is 'le'Chodashim'.
What does this mean?

(b) We attempt to learn this from the Pasuk in Bo "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem Rosh Chodashim". We initially think that this refers to the month of Nisan from another Pasuk in Re'ei.
Which Pasuk?

(c) Why can "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem ... " not refer to Iyar?

(a) On what grounds do we suggest that it might be Adar?

(b) We try to reject that contention on the grounds that we need the majority of the Aviv, and most of the Aviv has not yet ripened by Adar. Why do we refute this contention?

(c) So we try to learn it from the Pasuk in Emor "Ach ba'Chamishah-Asar Yom la'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i be'Aspechem es Tevu'as ha'Aretz" (an attempt which follows the same pattern as the previous Derashah).
What is the basis of this Derashah? Why should the seventh month be Tishri?

(d) What is the one fact in this Sugya that we know for sure?

(a) We conclude that in fact, there is no proof from the Chumash that the first month is Nisan (and not Adar). We do however, bring many proofs from T'nach.
From which Sefer in T'nach do we quote no less than *four* such proofs?

(b) Is there a Pasuk which specifically refers to *Nisan* as the first month?

(c) Then why did the other Amora'im not quote it?

(d) Why did the Tana of our Mishnah not include 'le'Chodashim' in our Mishnah?

(a) The second Rosh Hashanah added by the Beraisa is 'le'Iburin'.
What problem do we have with explaining this to mean that Beis-Din may sit to discuss whether the following year should be a leap-year already from Rosh Chodesh Nisan?

(b) What then, does 'le'Iburin' mean? According to which pair of Tana'im does this go?

(c) When, under normal circumstances, would Beis-Din determine whether, or not, to make the forthcoming year a leap-year?

(d) What is the reason of ...

  1. ... the Chachamim, who said that this had to be decided by Purim?
  2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas, in whose opinion, the decision could wait until Rosh Chodesh Nisan?
5) Why does the Tana of our Mishnah not include 'Iburin' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim'?


(a) What do we learn from one of the 'redundent' words 'Chodesh' in the Pasuk in Pinchas "Zos Olas Chodesh le'Chodsho, le'Chodshei ha'Shanah"?

(b) And how do we know that this is Nisan?

(c) Why do we learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (of "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah") from "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" (in Bo - which refers to Nisan), and not from "me'Reishis ha'Shanah" (in Eikev - which refers to Tishri)?

(d) What does Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rule in connection with a Korban which they purchased after Rosh Chodesh Nisan with funds from the previous year? Is it Kasher?

Answers to questions



(a) The Beraisa corroborates Shmuel's ruling.
What does the Tana add (in connection with someone who donates a Korban Tzibur from his own pocket)?

(b) Why is this not obvious?

(c) Why does the Tana of our Mishnah not include 'Terumas Shekalim' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim'?

(a) Yesh Omrim (which is usually Rebbi Nasan) add 'S'chirus Batim' (the renting of houses) to the list of things of which Rosh Chodesh Nisan is the New Year.
What does this mean? Is there any difference whether the renter says 'for *a* year' or 'for *this* year'?

(b) The year ends on the first of Nisan only if he rented the house not later than the first of Adar.
In that case, does this preclude Rebbi Meir (who, we shall see later, is the one who holds 'Yom Echad ba'Shanah Chashuv Shanah') from agreeing with 'Yesh Omrim'?

(c) On what grounds did Chazal fix Nisan as the Rosh Hashanah for S'chirus Batim, and not Tishri (e.g. someone who rented a house in Elul for that year, should have to leave already on Rosh Hashanah)?

(d) How long may a person who rents a house in Sivan (for example) for that year?

9) Why did the Tana of our Mishnah (as well as the Tana Kama of the Beraisa) not include 'S'chirus Batim' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim'?


(a) Who is the author of the statement in our Mishnah ...
  1. ... 'be'Echad be'Elul Rosh Hashanah le'Ma'aser Beheimah'? And who argues with him?
  2. ... 'be'Echad be'Nisan Rosh Hashanah li'Regalim'?
(b) What problem does this create?

(c) Rav Yosef answers that the author of the Mishnah is Rebbi, who follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon regarding Regalim, and Rebbi Meir regarding Ma'aser Beheimah.
Why does this seem to be a case of 'out of the frying- pan into the fire'? What Kashya does this answer present us with?

(a) Rava answers that, according to Rebbi, there are indeed five Roshei Shanim. Only that this comprises four according to Rebbi Meir's opinion, and four, according to Rebbi Shimon's.
What does Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak mean when he answers that there are four months in which there are many Roshei Shanim? How does that answer our Kashya?

(b) Another Beraisa lists the sixteenth of Nisan as Rosh Hashanah for the Omer.
What does this mean?

(c) Which other date does the Tana add to the list of Roshei Shanim?

(d) According to this Beraisa, how many Roshei Shanim ought the Tana of our Mishnah to have listed ...

  1. ... according to Rava (in a.)?
  2. ... according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (ibid.)?
(a) According to Rav Papa, the Tana of our Mishnah does not include the Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem because they do not come into effect at the beginning of the day, like the cases in our Mishnah do. Rav Shisha Brei de'Rav Ika gives a similar explanation.
What does he say?

(b) We pose the same Kashya on both answers.
Why do we initially assume that Regalim too, does not apply at the beginning of the day (i.e. with the advent of Yom-Tov with nightfall), and that it requires an act?

(c) On what grounds do we refute that contention? How come that Bal Te'acher *does* begin with nightfall?

(d) And we also pose the same Kashya on 'Yovlos', which we normally assume begins with the blowing of the Shofar on Yom Kipur.
How do we answer that?

(a) Rav Ashi answers both why Rebbi says *four* Roshei Shanim (and not five), and the Kashya why he omits the sixteenth of Nisan and the sixth of Sivan from the list, with one stroke.
How does he do this?

(b) How does he explain the fact that the first of Sh'vat is Rosh Hashanah only according to Beis Shamai?

Answers to questions
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