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Rosh Hashanah 34

ROSH HASHANAH 31-35 (Siyum!) - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) We have just learned the obligation of blowing on a *Shofar*, as well as that of blowing a Teki'ah before and a Teki'ah after each Teru'ah, from Yom Kipur of the Yovel with a Hekesh. We know to blow three Teru'os on Rosh Hashanah - from the three Pesukim "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah" (Yovel), "Shabbason Zichron Teru'ah" (Rosh Hashanah) and "Yom Teru'ah Yihyeh Lachem" (Rosh Hashanah).

(b) We combine Pesukim written by Rosh Hashanah together with Pesukim written by Yovel - be means of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "Shevi'i" "Shevi'i".

(c) Initially, we learned one from the other with a Hekesh. But that was before we knew about the 'Gezeirah-Shavah'. However, once we discovered the 'Gezeirah-Shavah', we discard the Hekesh in favor of the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (which is stronger than a Hekesh, because it is Halachah le'Moshe mi'Sinai).

(a) We learn from the Pasuk ...
  1. ... "u've'Hakheil es ha'Kahal, Tiske'u ve'Lo Sari'u" - that a Teki'ah is an independent note.
  2. ... "u'Seka'atem Teru'ah" - that a Teki'ah must always precede a Teru'ah.
  3. ... "Teru'ah Yiske'u" - that a Teru'ah is always followed by a Teki'ah.
(b) Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah learns from ...
  1. ... "u'Seka'atem Teru'ah Sheinis" (written by the departure of the second camp) - that a Teru'ah is always followed by a Teki'ah.
  2. ... the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of "Teru'ah" "Teru'ah" (from the trumpets) - that this principle extends to the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah.
(c) Even though we have just learned the three Teru'os from the Pesukim "Shabbason Zichron Teru'ah", "Yom Teru'ah" and "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah", the middle Pasuk is really needed - for the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' of ("Yom) Teru'ah" "Teru'ah" to learn Rosh Hashanah from Yovel (as we saw in b.).

(d) The third Teru'ah, in fact - is only mi'de'Rabbanan, in order not to differentiate between Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros.

(a) Rebbi Shmuel bar Nachmeini Amar Rebbi Yonasan goes even further than the Tana Kama. In his opinion, only *one* Teru'ah is min ha'Torah. The 'Gezeirah-Shavah' is learned from "Shabbason Zichron Teru'ah". From "Yom Teru'ah" - he learns that the Shofar must be blown by day (leaving only the Pasuk of "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah" for a Teru'ah d'Oraysa).

(b) The Tana Kama cannot learn the Teki'ah before and after the Teru'ah on Rosh Hashanah from the Yovel - because, in his opinion, "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar" and "Ta'aviru Shofar" do not imply a Teki'ah (even by Yovel), so there is nothing to learn from.

(c) In fact, he learns from ...

  1. ... "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar" Rav Masna's Din - that the Shofar must be blown through the narrow end, just as it grows on the head of the animal ("ve'Ha'avarta" - 'Derech Ha'avaraso').
  2. ... "Ta'aviru Shofar" - that the blower must hold the Shofar in his hands whilst blowing.
(a) The Tana of the first Beraisa learns Rav Masna's Din - from the unusual Lashon of "ve'Ha'avarta" (instead of "va'Harei'osa").

(b) He learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "*ve'Ha'avarta* Shofar" "va'Yetzav Moshe, *va'Ya'aviru* Kol ba'Machaneh" - that the main thing is that the Shofar is heard, and it does not therefore need to be held in the blower's hand.

(c) The Tana who learns the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' from the trumpets, learns that on Rosh Hashanah, we blow on a Shofar - from the Pasuk in Tehilim "Tik'u va'Chodesh Shofar ... ", which can only refer to Rosh Hashanah, because of the continuation of the Pasuk "ba'Kese le'Yom Chageinu", and the only Chag on which the moon is hidden is that of Rosh Hashanah.

(a) Rebbi Avahu instituted in Caesaria the blowing of Ta*sh*ra*t* - because of the Safek mentioned on the previous Amud. They were uncertain whether the "Yebava" of Targum Unkelus means longer notes, shorter ones or both. So he incorporated both in this way.

(b) The problem with doing that is that - if the correct version of Teru'ah is the Shevarim, then the Teru'ah will interrupt between the Teru'ah and the Teki'ah, and vice-versa.

(c) The full version of his Takanah must therefore have been - to blow three times Ta*sh*ra*t*, three times Ta*sha*t*, and three times Ta*ra*t*.

(d) Even though they anyway blew three sets of Ta*sha*t*, and three of Ta*ra*t* (as we just explained), he nevertheless needed to add Ta*sh*ra*t* because of the possibility that "Yebava" might incorporate first longer notes and then shorter ones.

(a) He did not also institute a set of Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Shevarim, Teki'ah - because that is certainly not how people cry (which is the basic meaning to the word "Yebava"); one first tends to emit long sighs, and then to break out into short sobs.

(b) Prior to Rebbi Avahu's Takanah, each community would follow the ruling of its Rav, as we saw above by the Machlokes between the Tana of our Mishnah and the Tana of the Beraisa.




(a) Rebbi Yochanan says - that someone who hears the nine Shofar-blasts over a period of nine hours is nevertheless Yotze.

(b) He said in the name of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak - that someone who stops in the middle of Hallel or the Megilah and waits long enough to read the whole of Hallel of the whole Megilah, must start again from the beginning.

(c) His previous statement was his own opinion - whereas this one, that of his Rebbe (Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak).

(d) Rashi erases the statement in the Beraisa, that someone who hears the nine blasts of the Shofar from nine people all blowing at the same time, is not Yotze - on the basis of what we learned earlier, that it is possible to hear two voices simultaneously, from two different people (particularly the Shofar, which people make every effort to hear) - See Tosfos DH 'mi'Tish'ah', who disagrees with Rashi.

(a) Rebbi Avahu was reciting the Shema, when he and Rebbi Yochanan entered unclean alleyways. As soon as they entered - he stopped reciting the Shema, and as soon as they left them - he asked his Rebbe whether he may conclude the Shema (or whether he needs to start again from the beginning).

(b) Rebbi Yochanan replied - that if he waited long enough to recite the entire Shema, then he must start again from the beginning.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan himself maintained that Rebbi Avahu was permitted to continue the Shema from where he left off. It was clear from Rebbi Avahu's She'eilah however, that Rebbi Avahu followed the opinion of Rebbi Shimon ben Yehotzadak. Consequently, he answered him according to that opinion.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan would not even have required Rebbi Avahu to stop reciting the Shema whilst walking through the alleyways - in his opinion, he could have placed his hand over his mouth and continued reciting.

(a) On a Ta'anis (for rain etc.), one recites six extra Berachos in the Amidah, after each of which one blows the trumpets (See Rosh, Si'man 14). Someone who is unable to blow some of the notes, or who is not acquainted with some of the Berachos - may nevertheless blow the notes that he is able and recite the Berachos with which he is acquainted.

(b) On Rosh Hashanah, this is not the case, because the Beraisa says that the Teki'os (the Teki'ah and the Teru'ah) and the Berachos (Malchuyos, Zichronos and Shofros) are Me'akev each other (one is not Yotze one without the other).

(a) One Rosh Hashanah, before he began his silent Tefilas Musaf - Rav Papa bar Shmuel instructed his Shames to cough before blowing the Shofar (to give him a chance to stop Davenning and to concentrate on the Teki'ios).

(b) Rava objected to that - on the grounds that it is only the *community* that follows this procedure; individuals should conclude their Tefilah and blow afterwards.

(c) One is permitted to blow Shofar for one's friend - but not to render him Yotze the Amidah, even if his friend answers 'Amein' to all the Berachos. Note: Even Raban Gamliel in our Mishnah only permits the *Shatz* to be Motzi any individual who wants to be Yotze, but not another *individual*.

(a) Bearing in mind that there were no Sidurim in the days of the Gemara, the Beraisa rules that a person who has no Shofar and who is unable to Daven by heart - should rather go to a community where they will blow Shofar (even if they do not know how to Daven), rather than to one where they know how to Daven (but who have no Shofar).

(b) The Tana needs to tell us this - in a case where the Shofar is only a Safek (he may arrive too late to catch them in Shul), and the Tefilah is certain (to teach us that a Safek d'Oraysa overrides a Vaday de'Rabbanan).

(a) According to Raban Gamliel (who permits the Shatz to render Yotze even those who are able to Daven), we Daven the silent Amidah - in order to give the Shatz a chance to go over the Tefilah before Chazaras ha'Shatz (which is the main Tefilah).

(b) According to the Rabbanan, on the other hand (who obligate someone who is able to Daven himself, to do so), the Shatz repeats the Amidah - only for the benefit of those who are unable to Daven on their own.

(c) When the Rabbanan answered him that, Raban Gamliel countered that - just as he is Motzi those who *cannot* Daven on their own, so too, is he Motzi those who *can*.

(d) Rebbi Yochanan maintains that the Rabbanan later conceded that point to Raban Gamliel. According to Rav, however - they still retain their viewpoint, and Resh Lakish agrees with him.

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