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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 33

ROSH HASHANAH 31-35 (Siyum!) - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) Our Mishnah refers to cutting the Shofar in a way that is Asur mi'de'Rabbanan, and in a way that Asur mi'd'Oraysa - the former, refers to cutting it with a scythe, which is an unusual way of doing it (and therefore Asur only mi'de'Rabbanan), the latter, with a knife.

(b) The author of our Mishnah, which permits pouring water or wine *exclusively* into the Shofar, is Aba Shaul - who forbids the use of urine for the same purpose, because it is not respectable to use place urine inside a Shofar.

(a) Our Mishnah permits children to blow the Shofar but not women - because, since women are exempt from the Mitzvah of Shofar, to blow for the sake of the Mitzvah constitutes 'Bal Tosif' (or because the Rabbanan forbade blowing the Shofar on Yom-Tov unnecessarily - see Maharsha).

(b) The author of the Beraisa which permits women to blow the Shofar, must be Rebbi Shimon - who permits women to make Semichah on their sacrifices, should they so wish, (despite the prohibition of making personal use Kodshim (in this case by being supported by the animal).

(c) The co-authors of our Mishnah (which forbids it) are Rebbi Yehudah and Rebbi Yossi (who also disagree with Rebbi Shimon with regard to Semichah).

(a) The Tana of our Mishnah permits blowing with children - even on Shabbos - to encourage them to learn how to blow.

(b) The Reisha of our Mishnah (which permits actually *blowing with them*) - speaks of children who have reached the age of 'Chinuch' (i.e. they understand the basics of Shofar, at which stage their father is obligated to educate them in this particular Mitzvah); whereas the Seifa (which only speaks about *allowing them* to blow, but no more) - speaks about children who have not yet reached the age of Chinuch.




(a) 'ha'Mis'asek Lo Yatza'. Initially, we interpret 'Mis'asek' to mean that he simply did not mean to blow at all.

(b) In that case, we could deduce that someone who (deliberately) blew for the musical experience, would be Yotze - a proof for Rava who said above 'ha'Tokei's le'Shir Yatza'.

(c) We refute this proof on the grounds that 'Mis'asek' may well incorporate anyone who blows for any reason other than the Mitzvah, including 'Tokei'a le'Shir'.

(a) From our Mishnah 'ha'Shomei'a min ha'Mis'asek Lo Yazta' - we can infer that, if someone hears from someone who is not a Mis'asek, but who is blowing with the Kavanah to render himself Yotze, he will be Yotze (even though the blower did not have him in mind), a Kashya on Rebbi Zeira, who maintains that the blower must have the listener in mind for him to be Yotze.

(b) We refute this proof - on the grounds that the Seifa of the Mishnah may well use an expression of 'Mis'asek' (not to preclude the need for the blower to have Kavanah as well, but) because the Reisha said 'Mis'asek.

(a) 'The order of blowing is three consisting of three by three'. The meaning of ...
  1. ... three - is three sets, one for Malchuyos, one for Zichronos and one for Shofros.
  2. ... three by three - is three notes (for each set), Teki'ah, Teru'ah, Teki'ah.
(b) The minimum length of ...
  1. ... a Teki'ah - is the same as that of a Teru'ah.
  2. ... a Teru'ah - is three minimal blasts. (Note: this is Rashi's opinion.
According to Tosfos and many other Rishonim, who describe a Yebava as, not just one minimal blast, but a set of three minimal blasts, both a Teru'ah and a Teki'ah will comprise at least *nine minimal notes - see Tosfos).

(c) Someone who blew a double-length Teki'ah at the end of one set of notes, intending the prolonged note to serve as the first Teki'ah of the next set as well as the last Teki'ah of the last one - will be Yotze the latter, but not the former.

(d) According to the our Mishnah, if a Shofar became available only after one had Davened Musaf - then one would blow the nine notes of Chiyuv then.

7) According to the Tana Kama, every individual is obligated to Daven himself (because it is logical, explains the Ran, that Tefilah must be a personal experience, and not that one relies on someone else to render one Yotze). Raban Gamliel says that the Shatz may nevertheless render everyone Yotze.


(a) We explain our Mishnah (which gives the Shiur Teki'ah as being the equivalent of three Teru'os) - to really mean that the Shiur of three (out of the six) Teki'os in one set is the equivalent of the three Teru'os of that set. In effect, that is what the Beraisa says 'Shiur Teki'ah ke'Shiur Teru'ah'.

(b) Our Mishnah gives the Shiur Teru'ah as being three Yebavos. The Beraisa says that it is the same as the length of three Shevarim (which are slightly longer than the three minimal Teru'os.

(c) Their Machlokes is based on the Targum Unklus' translarion of the Pasuk "Yom Teru'ah Yiheyeh Lachem" - "Yom Yebava Yehei Lachem".

(d) The interpretation of the Targum is based, in turn, on the Pasuk in Shoftim "be'Ad ha'Chalon Nishkefah *va'Teyabev* Eim Sisra" - meaning either slightly longer sighs (Shevarim), or slightly shorter 'staccato-like' sobs (Teru'ah) (See also next Amud, answer to question 5.).

(a) The Torah writes in Behar "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" - in connection with Yom Kipur of the Yovel?

(b) Initially, we learn from there that one must also blow the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah - from the Hekesh of "ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i" (which implies that all blowing of the seventh month is done in the same way).

(c) We learn that a Teru'ah must be ...

1. ... preceded by a Teki'ah on Yom Kipur of the Yovel - from the Pasuk there "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah" (ve'Ha'avarta" implies a long note).
2. ... *followed* by a Teki'ah - from the Pasuk "Ta'aviru Shofar".
(d) We know that both of these apply to the blowing on Rosh Hashanah too - from the same Hekesh (of "ba'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i).
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