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Rosh Hashanah 27

ROSH HASHANAH 26, 27 - sponsored by Reb Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, in honor of Rav Moshe Soloveitchik Zt'l and the dedicated students of the Yeshiva he established in Moscow.


1) Abaye restricts the concession granted to the Tana of our Mishnah, who permits overlaying the mouthpiece of the Shofar - to those areas where the Ba'al Tokei'a does not put his mouth, just like the Beraisa says.


(a) The Beraisa comments that Hashem said "Zachor" and "Shamor" simultaneously, something that a human mouth cannot speak, and a human ear cannot hear.

(b) Initially, we reconcile this with our Mishnah, which *permits* blowing the Shofros and the trumpets simultaneously, by giving that as the reason for extending the blowing of the Shofar (so that everyone would at least hear the end of the note, even if they could not hear the beginning).

(c) We cannot learn from the Mishnah later (which states that if the Ba'al Tokei'a blew a double-length note at the end of one set of Teki'os, he cannot count it as two notes), that one is obligated to hear the entire note, and not just the beginning - because the reason *there* could be that wit is not possible to divide one note into two.

(d) We learn that one cannot be Yotze with just the beginning of the note without the end, from the Mishnah later, which renders Pasul a note that is blown into a pit, because of the echo, despite the fact that the first part of the note is heard clearly.

(a) We reject the contention that our Mishnah permits the two notes because they are blown by *two* people, whereas "Zachor" and "Shamor" were both said by Hashem - on the basis of the Beraisa in Megilah, which forbids *two* people together to translate the Torah for the community.

(b) We ultimately ascribe our Mishnah, which permits blowing the Shofros and the trumpets simultaneously - to the fact that, not only is it two people who are blowing, but in addition, the Shofar is something that everyone is keen to hear, and which one therefore makes a special effort to hear properly.

(c) We have a precedent for this in the Seifa of the Beraisa in Megilah - which permits being Yotze Hallel or the Megilah, from even ten people who are reading it together, because these are things that people are eager to hear.

(d) The reason that they extended the blowing of the Shofar beyond that of the trumpets - is to stress the fact that the Mitzvah of the day is the Shofar.

(a) With regard to overlaying the Shofros' mouthpieces on a Ta'anis, we learn from the Pasuk ...
1. ... in Beha'aloscha "Asei Lecha Sh'tei Chatzotz'ros Kesef" - that every gathering (such as on a Ta'anis) requires silver (and not gold).
2. ... in Metzora "ve'Tzivah ha'Kohen u'Finu es ha'Bayis" - that the Torah has pity on the property of a Jew (and tries to spare him unnecessary loss), from which Chazal took their cue to overlay the trumpets with silver rather than gold.
(b) Nevertheless, they overlaid the Shofros with gold - because Kavod Yom- Tov overrides monetary considerations.

(c) When Rav Papa bar Shmuel tried to introduce the custom of blowing trumpets together with the Shofar - Rava told him that they only did that in the Beis Hamikdash.

(d) We learn this from the Pasuk in Tehilim "ba'Chatzotz'ros ve'Kol Shofar Hari'u Lifnei ha'Melech Hashem" - 'trumpets accompany the Shofros when it is before Hashem (in the Beis Hamikdash), but not otherwise'.

(a) We say in Musaf of Rosh Hashanah 'Zeh ha'Yom Techilas Ma'asecha' - conforming with the opinion of Rebbi Eliezer, who maintains that the world was created in Tishri (see Tosfos DH 'ke'Ma'an').

(b) Our Mishnah, which says that the B'rachos are the same in the Yovel as on Rosh Hashanah - refers to all the other Berachos (and even to the rest of *this* Berachah, whose beginning and end are the same in Yovel as on Rosh Hashanah.




(a) A Shofar which splits and is glued together is Pasul - because it is like two Shofros.

(b) A Shofar is ...

1. ... not Kasher - if it is made of pieces of broken Shofar stuck together? 2. ... Kasher, if it had a hole which has now been stopped up - provided it does not interfere with the tone of the Shofar (we shall see more details of this Halachah in the Gemara).
(c) One is Yotze if one hears the Shofar ...
1. ... inside a pit or an enclosure - provided he hears the tone of the *Shofar*, and not that of the *echo*.
2. ... blown into a barrel - if the same condition is met.
(d) Someone who is walking behind the Shul and who hears the Shofar being blown, is Yotze - provided he had in mind to do so.
(a) A Shofar is Kasher ...
1. ... if it has been shortened - provided it conforms with the minimum length of a Shofar (which will be discussed later).
2. ... if its wall has been scraped away until it is extremely thin - irrespective of which side it was scraped (on the outside or on the inside), or as to how thin it was scraped.
(b) A Shofar is Kasher if it is overlaid with gold ...
1. ... on the inside - provided it is not overlaid at the spot where the Ba'al Tokei'a places his mouth (as we learned earlier).
2. ... on the outside - provided it does not interfere with the tone of the Shofar.
(c) A Shofar inside a Shofar is Kasher - provided one hears the inner Shofar, but not if it is the outer Shofar that one hears.
(a) If one 'turned' the Shofar, it is Pasul - meaning either that one turned it onside out, or that one widened the thin end and made the wide end thin.

(b) A Shofar is Pasul if one stuck another kind of material on to one of the ends - irrespective whether of whether it was a different material as the Shofar or the same.

(c) The Tana Kama of the Beraisa invalidates any hole that has been stopped- up (irrespective of which kind of material was used). Besides the condition stated by the Tana of our Mishnah (that it does not interfere with the tone), Rebbi Nasan says - that if they stopped it up with the same material as the Shofar, it is Kasher. Rebbi Yochanan adds - that the majority of the Shofar (from the hole towards the mouth) must remain complete.

(d) In the second Lashon, Rebbi Yochanan restricts the Seifa, which invalidates a Shofar that has been stopped-up with a *different* material, to when the holed area comprised most of the Shofar. According to this Lashon - a holed Shofar that has been stopped-up with the *same* material only becomes Pasul if it interferes with the tone of the Shofar.

(a) A Shofar that has split lengthwise is always Pasul. A Shofar that has split widthwise is Kasher - only if the minimum size Shofar between the split and the mouthpiece remains (i.e. if it is sufficiently long to hold it in one's hand and still for some of the Shofar to be visible at both ends.

(b) The (natural) tone or pitch of the tone make no difference to its Kashrus.

(c) When they sent to Shmuel's father that if the Shofar has been hollowed, it is Kasher - they meant that instead of removing the entire Shofar from the bone of the animal (that grows inside it), they cut a hole into the bone, into which they would now blow.

(d) The Chidush is - that the same kind is not considered a Chatzitzah.

(a) The Beraisa, which validates blowing into a pit - refers to those who are actually standing *inside* the pit (who always hear the actual tone of the Shofar; whereas our Mishnah, which (sometimes invalidates it) refers to those who are standing *outside*, who sometimes hear the echo.

(b) This a proof for Rav Huna - who says that those who are standing inside the pit are always Yotze.

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