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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 26

ROSH HASHANAH 26, 27 - sponsored by Reb Wolf Rosengarten of Zurich, in honor of Rav Moshe Soloveitchik Zt'l and the dedicated students of the Yeshiva he established in Moscow.



(a) We know that Rosh Hashanah requires a Shofar (and not a trumpet) - from the fact that the Torah compares Rosh Hashanah to Yovel (as we shall see later), and by Yovel the Torah writes in Behar "ve'Ha'avarta Shofar Teru'ah".

(b) A cow's horn is not valid for blowing on Rosh Hashanah - because it is called a 'Keren', and not a 'Shofar'. Note: 'Shofar' is a derivative of Shefoferes (a hollow tube - which is what a ram's horn is); 'Keren' suggests something hard (a solid mass - which describes a cow's horn).

(c) Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Yehoshua "bi'Meshoch be'Keren ha'Yovel" - that the horn of a ram too, is referred to as 'Keren' (yet it is Kasher)!

(d) The Rabbanan counter Rebbi Yossi by arguing that, even though all Shofros are called horns, they are also referred to as Shofros; whereas those of a cow are referred to exclusively as horns - like the Pasuk in ve'Zos ha'Berachah (in the blessing of Yosef) "Bechor *Shoro* Hadar Lo, ve'Karnei *Re'eim* Karnav" (see Tosfos DH 'Chutz').

(a) Rebbi Yossi learns from the Pasuk in Tehilim "ve'Sitav la'Hashem mi'*Shor Par*" (the acronym of 'Shofar') that the horn of a bull is also called a Shofar.

(b) The Rabbanan explain "Shor Par" like Rav Masna, who says that the bull that Hashem created at Ma'aseh Bereishis was fully-grown - because a calf is born is called a 'Shor' from the day that it is born, whereas it is only called a 'Par' from when it enters its third year. Consequently, the Pasuk is coming to teach us that, as soon as the Shor of Ma'aseh Bereishis was born, it was fully-grown like a Par.

(a) Ula connects the Rabbanan's reasoning with Rav Chisda, who explains why the Kohen Gadol was forbidden to enter the Kodesh Kodashim with the 'Bigdei Zahav' - because of the principle 'Ein Kategor Na'aseh Sanegor' ('a prosecutor [i.e. gold that was used for the Golden Calf] cannot become a defense counsel'). For the same reason, he says, the Rabbanan forbade using a calf's horn to plead on our behalf before Hashem.

(b) The fact that the blood of the bull on Yom Kipur was taken inside the Kodesh Kodashim is not a problem - because it has changed (i.e. they worshipped the *bull*, not the *blood*, which was not visible at the time).

(c) The fact that ...

1. ... the Aron, the lid and the Cherub (all made of gold) were in the Kodesh Kodashim, does not present a problem either - because it is not the sinner who brought it in at the time of Kaparah (i.e. it was there already).
2. ... the Kohen Gadol entered the Kodesh Kodashim with the spoon and the fire-pan (also made of gold) on Yom Kipur is also no problem - because he did not adorn himself with it (or use it as a direct part of the Avodah).
(d) The Kohen Gadol wore gold for the Avodos in the Heichal on Yom Kipur (as well as the whole year round), because he did not wear them in the Kodesh Kodshim. In that case, argues Rebbi Yossi, the Shofar was not blown in the Kodesh Kodshim either, so why not use a cow's horn? The Rabbanan counter - that the Shofar, which brings our memories before the Throne of Hashem, is considered as if it was in the Kodesh Kodashim (and may therefore not be made of gold wherever it is).
(a) Ula and Abaye knew full-well that the Tana Kama himself said 'Mipnei she'Hu Keren' - and the reasons that they give are merely additional ones ('Chada ve'Od Ka'amar').

(b) Abaye gives the Tana Kama's reason as being the fact that the Torah writes "Shofar", and not "Shofros" - meaning that the horn of a cow is made up of sections (to which one new section is added each year) giving it the impression of being formed of one Shofar within another.

(c) Rebbi Yossi replies however, that they are not really different sections at all, since they are all joined together.

(a) Rebbi Akiva discovered the meaning of various words on his travels (presumably to nullify evil decrees against the Jews). In Arabia - they called a ram's horn, 'Yovel'.

(b) When he went to ...

1. ... France, they called a Nidah, 'Galmudah' - which is the acronym for - 'Gemulah Dah mi'Ba'alah' ('This woman is separated from her husband').
2. ... Africa, they called a Ma'ah (a small coin), 'Kesitah' - thus enabling us to explain the Pasuk in Vayishlach (describing Ya'akov's purchase of land from Sh'chem) "be'Mei'ah Kesitah".
(c) Rebbi and Resh Lakish traveled, too. When people spoke of ...
1. ... 'Kirah' - they meant 'Mechirah' (a purchase) - enabling us to explain the Pasuk in Vayechi (describing Ya'akov's purchase of the Me'aras ha'Machpeilah) "Asher Karisi Li" (although the simple explanation of the word is "which I dug" - see Rashi in Chumash 50:5).
2. ... 'Sechvi' - they meant a 'rooster'.
3. ... 'Ninfi' - a bride, similar to the pasuk in Tehilim (describing Yerushalayim) "Yefei *Nof* (a beautiful bride) Mesos Kol ha'Aretz").



(a) When the man approached Levi, and said 'Kav'an P'lanya'! - he did not have a clue as to what he meant, so he went to ask in the Beis ha'Medrash.

(b) Rava from Barnish would have asked him - 'How did he Kav'a you? With what did he 'Kav'a you? And why did he Kav'a you"? In this way, he would have easily discovered what he meant.

(c) Levi did not employ that method - because he thought that 'Kav'a' was something to do with Isur, and not a monetary issue at all.

(d) The Talmidei Chachamim in the Beis-Hamedrash quoted him the Pasuk in Tehilim "*ha'Yikba* Adam Elokim" - which means "Does a man steal from G-d"?, from which he should have understood that the man was telling him that someone stole from him.

(a) The maidservant of Rebbi appears to have been something of a linguist, from whom the Rabbanan learnt many words. She once taught them that Chaluglugos is the equivalent of what they knew as 'Parpachinin' (purslane- plant). When she asked the Rabbanan 'Till when will you enter the Beis- Hamedrash 'Sirugin Sirugin'? - she meant to ask them why they always enter the Beis-Hamedrash 'in dribs and drabs' (not all at the same time).

(b) The Pasuk ...

1. ... in Mishlei "Salselehah u'Seromemeka" means - "Turn it over (Go into it) (i.e. into Torah) in depth, and it will elevate you".
2. ... in Yeshayah (with reference to Bavel) "ve'Teiteisiha bi'*Meta'tei* Hashmeid" - "And I will sweep it with a broom and destroy it (Bavel).
3. ... in Tehilim "Hashleich al Hashem Yehavcha, ve'Hu Yechalkelecha" - "Throw your load onto Hashem, and He will feed you".
(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, the Shofar of Rosh Hashanah must be made from the straight horn of an ibex (a kind of wild-goat), with the mouthpiece of the ones that were blown in the Beis Hamikdash overlaid with gold. It has to be straight - because the order of the day is straightness - honesty - simplicity.

(b) In the Beis Hamikdash, they blew two Shofros and two trumpets.

(a) According to the Tana of our Mishnah, in the Beis Hamikdash on fast- days, they blew bent rams' horns.

(b) *Their* mouthpieces was overlaid with silver.

(c) Rebbi Yehudah disagrees with the Tana Kama. In his opinion ...

1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - one blows on bent rams' horns.
2. ... on Yom Kipur of Yovel - on the straight horn of an ibex.
(d) The Shofros ...
1. ... on Rosh Hashanah - were placed on the inside (because they were the main Mitzvah of the day), and the trumpets on the outside. For the same reason, those blowing the Shofros would blow a little longer than those blowing the trumpets.
2. ... on fast-days - were placed on the outside, and the trumpets on the inside, because it was the trumpets that comprised the main Mitzvah. And for the same reason, the trumpeters blew a little longer that those blowing the Shofros.
(a) By comparing the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah with regard to ...
1. ... the blowing - the Tana means that on Yom Kipur of the Yovel one blows on a straight horn of an ibex, just like on Rosh Hashanah.
2. ... the Berachos - he means that, just like on Rosh Hashanah, one recites Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros, so too, does one recite them on Yom Kipur of Yovel.
(b) The purpose of blowing the Shofar on Yom Kipur of the Yovel - a sign that all Jewish servants are now free, and that purchased fields must now revert to their original owners.
(a) In Levi's opinion, the Mitzvah on Rosh Hashanah and on Yom Kipur of Yovel is to blow on a ram's horn, and during the rest of the year, on a straight one. He does not simply rule like Rebbi Yehudah - because that would imply that he rules like him by the Yovel (where Rebbi Yehudah requires the straight horn of the ibex) as well as by Rosh Hashanah, when in fact, *there*, he holds like the Tana Kama (though it is unclear why he does not say that he rules like Rebbi Yehudah with regard to Rosh Hashanah).

(b) The basis of the Machlokes between the Tana Kama and Rebbi Yehudah is - that whereas the Tana Kama *learns* a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' to compare the Yovel to Rosh Hashanah (and vice-versa), Rebbi Yehudah does *not*.

(c) Levi declines to rule like Rebbi Yehudah regarding Yovel, too - because he rules follows the opinion of the Tana Kama, who learns the 'Gezeirah- Shavah'.

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