(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Rosh Hashanah 17

ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).



1. When Chanah said "Hashem Meimis u'Mechayeh, *Morid She'ol va'Ya'al*" - she was referring to the Beinonim, whom Hashem sends down to Gehinom and then, almost immediately, takes out.
2. According to Beis Hillel, when David said "Ahavti Ki Yishma Hashem es Koli Tachanunai" - he was referring to the (better) Beinonim (as we shall soon see), whom Hashem tips to the scale of merit, to stop them from going down to Gehinom.
1. ... 'Posh'ei Yisrael be'Gufan' - means Jews who do not lay Tefilin (according to Rabeinu Chananel, even just once).
2. ... 'Posh'ei Umos ha'Olam be'Gufan' - gentiles who are guilty of adultery.
  1. ... Minim - are people who twist the words of Torah (such as the Tzedokim, who rejected the oral Torah).
  2. ... Mesoros - are people who hand Jewish money over to non-Jews.
  3. ... Apikorsim - who despise Talmidei-Chachamim.
(b) The epitome of those who sinned and who caused others to sin, too - is Yerav'am ben Nevat.

(c) This entire category of people - go down to Gehinom, and remain there forever.

(d) Besides those who deny the Torah and Techi'as ha'Meisim - this category also comprises people who keep separate from the community (even though they may well not have actually sinned) and community-leaders who use their position to bully the people and cast fear into their hearts.

(a) When the Gemara says that this group of people are so severely punished because 'Pashtu Yedeihem bi'Z'vul' - it means to say that, through their sins, they caused the Beis-Hamikdash (also known as 'Z'vul' - Hashem's dwelling) to be destroyed.

(b) Rav Yitzchak bar Avin describes their faces as being as black as the base of a pot. Rava is more specific - according to him, it refers to the wealthy men of his town, Mechuza (who were extremely over-indulgent - the sin which caused the ten tribes to go into exile).

(a) The Pasuk in Zecharyah writes "ve'Heveisi es ha'Shelishis ba'Eish ... ". We reconcile this with Beis Hillel, who maintain that Hashem tips the scales of the Beinonim to spare them the anguish of Gehinom - by differentiating between Beinonim whose sins include 'Posh'ei Yisrael be'Gufan' (who go down to Gehinom but immediately come up again).

(b) Posh'ei Yisrael be'Gufan who are Beinonim are released from Gehinom immediately; whereas those who are Resha'im burn there for twelve months.

(c) Rava interprets the Pasuk in Tehilim ...

1. ... "Ahavti, Ki Yishma Hashem, es Koli Tachanunai" - to mean that it is only when Hashem listens to our Tefilos that we can truly declare that we are loved by Him.
2. ... "Dalosi ve'Li Yehoshi'a" - even though we are poor in Mitzvos, we are worthy of being saved (because of our resilience - we always do Teshuvah and come back).
(d) We learn from the Pasuk "Lachein Yere'uhu Anashim Lo Yir'eh Kol Chachmei Leiv" - that a community leader who causes the people to be afraid of him, will not have a son who is a Talmid-Chacham.
(a) According to Beis Hillel, Hashem tips the scales in favor of the Benonim. He does this, either by raising the scales of merit, or by pushing down the scales of demerit, or by removing the first sin from the scale of demerits.

(b) This does not mean that, according to Tana de'Bei Rebbi Yishmael (the author of the third reason), that sin is immediately obliterated - in fact, Hashem puts the sin aside, and, if there are more sins than Mitzvos, He makes sure that it is re-placed).

(c) Rava learns from the Pasuk "Nosei Avon ve'Over al Pesha" - that Hashem forgives the sins of those who overlook the transgressions of others.

(a) Rav Papa was embarrassed to see his colleague Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Yehoshua up and about - because he had all but pronounced him dead, when, but a short time earlier, he had called the Chevra Kadisha to arrange his burial.

(b) Rav Huna B'rei de'Rav Yehoshua reassured him however, that he had not been mistaken - by informing him that the Heavenly court had indeed sentenced him to death, but that, at the last moment, he received a reprieve, based on his tendency to overlook the transgressions of others. So they decided to treat him in the same way.

(c) The literal meaning of 'Alyah ve'Kotz Bah' - is a fat-tail from a sheep, with a thorn in it.

(d) The 'strings' to which Rebbi Acha bar Chanina was referring is - the stipulation that he humbles himself before Hashem ('Meisim Atzmo ke'Shirayim').




(a) We resolve the apparent contradiction in all the following Pesukim in the same way:
1. Tzadik Hashem be'Chol Derachav, ve'Chasid be'Chol Ma'asav";
2. "u'Lecha Hashem ha'Chesed, Ki Ata Teshalem ke'Ish ke'Ma'aseihu";
3. "ve'Rav Chesed ve'Emes"; - Initially, when Hashem judges, He judges the world righteously (according to what they deserved); but later, when He sees that they will not survive, He judges them leniently, beyond the letter of the law.
(b) "*va'Ya'avor Hashem* al Panav va'Yikra" - Chazal Darshan from "va'Ya'avor" (an expression that is used to describe a Chazan - 'Yoreid Lifnei ha'Teivah') to mean that Hashem (Kevayachol) put on a Talis and went before the Amud like a Sheli'ach Tzibur, to show Moshe His thirteen attributes.

(c) He then told Moshe - that whenever Yisrael sin, they should do before Him this order (say before Him the thirteen attributes of Hashem), and He will forgive them. (The Sh'lah points out that Hashem did not say '*say* before Me', but *'do* before Me ... ', insinuating that the main thing is to emulate Hashem in these traits, and not just say them).

(a) The Name 'Hashem' appears twice in the thirteen attributes - because the first one refers to *before* we have sinned, to say that Hashem is kindly disposed towards us *before* we have sinned (in spite of our potential to sin - and in spite of our intentions to do so), and the second one, to *after* we have sinned, to say that, even then, He remains kindly disposed towards us (provided we do Teshuvah).

(b) The words "Hinei Anochi Kores B'ris" immediately following the thirteen Attributes of Hashem - signify that Hashem made a covenant with them, that whenever we recite them, Hashem will forgive us our sins.

(a) Rebbi Yochanan learns from the Pasuk in Yeshayah "Hashmein Leiv ha'Am ha'Zeh ... *ve'Shav ve'Rafa Lo"* - that Teshuvah has the power to tear up the evil decree. We know that the Navi is referring to *after* the decree has been sealed - because of the words "ve'Rafa Lo", and it is only a decree that has been sealed that requires a cure.

(b) The Beraisa which emphatically states that even if someone who did not do Teshuvah between Rosh Hashanah and Yom Kipur brings numerous offerings, he will not be forgiven (i.e. Hashem's decree will not be altered) - refers to an individual, whereas Rebbi Yochanan is referring to a community.

(c) And the Beraisa which describes how, on the one hand, if the people were wicked on Rosh Hashanah, but did Teshuvah after the final decree has been sealed, then Hashem will direct all of the little rain that He decreed they would receive, just where it is needed; on the other hand, if they were righteous on Rosh Hashanah, but retracted from their righteousness after the decree had been sealed, then He will direct the bountiful rain to fall in the wrong season and in places where it is not needed - speaks where Hashem has another alternative; where when He does not, then He will tear up the evil decree of a community, if they do Teshuvah.

(a) The significance of the back to front 'Nunin' in the Pasuk in Tehilim (which describes how the sailors implore Hashem to save them from the tempestuous sea, and how their prayers are answered) serve as brackets - to say that He will only save them before the final decree has been sealed, but not afterwards.

(b) The Beraisa compares these 'Nunin' to 'Achin' and 'Rakin' - which always come to exclude something (i.e. to limit the issue under discussion).

(c) Rebbi Yochanan (who holds that *communal* prayers are effective even *after* the decree has been sealed) explains this Pasuk - by differentiating between a single community (comprising a collection of individuals) and many individuals who Daven individually, but all at the same time (such as may sailors at sea in many boats). The latter are not called a community.

(a) Bluris the convert asked Raban Gamliel how he would reconcile the Pasuk in Eikev "Asher *Lo Yisa* Fanim" with the Pasuk in Naso "*Yisa* Hashem Panav Eilecha". Rebbi Yossi ha'Kohen answered that the *first* Pasuk speaks about sins between man and man, and the *second*, about sins between man and Hashem.

(b) Rebbi Akiva answered - that the first Pasuk speaks *after* the final decree has been sealed, and the second, *before*.

(c) Rebbi Yochanan establishes this Beraisa too, by an individual.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,