ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 13
ROSH HASHANAH 12, 13, 14, 15 (3-6 Menachem Av) - dedicated by the wife and
daughters of the late Dr. Simcha Bekelnitzky (Simcha Gedalya ben Shraga
Feibush) of Queens N.Y. on his upcoming second Yarzeit (7 Av). Well known in
the community for his Chesed and Tzedakah, he will be remembered by all who
(a) When Rebbi Yirmiyah asked in surprise how the Rabbanan knew to determine
to so accurately that any produce that is cut on Sukos, must have grown to
one third of its growth - he replied that every Shiur that the Rabbanan gave
was exact to the minutest fraction.
(b) If a Kurtuv is missing from the forty Sa'ah that a Mikvah requires, it
is Pasul. A Kurtuv is one sixty-fourth of a Lug (less than a tenth of an
(c) The minimum Shiur of ...
- ... food that is subject to Tum'as Ochlin - is a k'Beitzah.
- ... a seat that is subject to Tum'as Medras - is three by three Tefachim.
(a) Although Yisrael crossed the Yarden on the tenth of Nisan - they only
ate from the produce of Eretz Yisrael six days later on the sixteenth (the
day that they brought the Omer).
(b) The problem with bringing the Omer that year - is that the new produce
appears to have ripened before Yisrael entered the Land, and the Omer can
only be brought from crops that grew at the hand of Jews, seeing as the
Torah writes in Emor (in connection with the Omer) "Ketzirchem" (*your*
harvest)? We know for certain that they brought the Omer that year, because
otherwise, they would have been forbidden to eat the Omer until the
*seventeenth* of Nisan - see Tosfos DH 'u'Meheichan').
(c) The produce must not have grown up to one third of its full growth in
the Reshus of Nochrim, in order to be Kosher for the Omer.
(d) Rebbi Yirmiyah infers from the above that Chazal must have known that
the crops had not grown one third in the possession of the Nochrim - in
which case there is no reason why they should not also know that whatever is
cut on Sukos must have grown at least one third by Rosh Hashanah.
(a) We repudiate Rebbi Yirmiyah's proof, on the grounds that the produce may
well not have grown at all before Yisrael entered the land - something that
is hardly a feat of knowledge to know. If that is so, Rebbi Yirmiyah's
proof will no longer stand (because it may well be that the Rabbanan do not
know how to distinguish between a quarter grown and a third, after all).
We based this entire explanation on the fact that "ve'Chag ha'*Asif*"
refers to the harvest. However, Rebbi Chanina puts a spoke in the wheel by
quoting the Pasuk in Re'ei "be'Ospecha mi'Gornecha u'mi'Yikvecha, from which
Mar in Sukah learns that it is the leftovers from the granary that are
Kasher for S'chach. Consequently, Chag ha'Asif is the name of the Chag, and
it refers to the materials connected with the *ingathering* season, and not
to the *harvest*.
(b) It would indeed have been impossible for the produce to grow in five
days from scratch. However - it was hardly less of a miracle for it to have
grown to completion from less than a third of its full growth in such a
short time. So, since a miracle must anyway have taken place, it may just as
well have been a bigger one. Maybe the produce did indeed grow from scratch,
and Rebbi Yirmiyah's proof falls away.
(c) We learn from the Pasuk "Eretz Tzvi" - that just like a deer is the
swiftest of all the animals, so too, is Eretz Yisrael the swiftest of all
the lands when it comes to the ripening of its fruit.
(a) We finally learn that regarding Shemitah, we go after grain that is one
third grown, from the Tana, who quotes the Pasuk in Behar "ve'Asas es
ha'Tevu'ah li'Shelosh Shanim" - which he interprets 'Al Tikri li'*Shelosh*
Ela li'*Shelish*' (a broad hint that produce is considered ready when it a
(b) We do not need that Pasuk for its simple interpretation (i.e. to inform
us that, in the sixth year, enough will grow to last for three years -
assuming that we observe the Sh'mitah properly) - because, for that, we have
another Pasuk ("u'Zera'atem es ha'Shanah ha'Shaminis, va'Achaltem ... ad
(a) What determines the year of rice, millet and poppy-seeds - is whether
they *take root* before or after Rosh Hashanah.
(b) The fourth thing listed by the Mishnah in Shevi'is - is sunflower-seeds.
(c) What these four have in common - is that they all fall under the
category of legumes.
(d) We have already learned that the year of trees is determined by their
budding, that of vegetables, by the picking, and that of grain and olives,
when they are one third grown. The reason that Rabah gives for the Chachamim
having fixed the year of legumes by the time that they take root - is
because they do not all ripen at the same time. They come out 'P'rachin
P'rachin' - meaning that one rolls them in the hand (a Lashon that is
confined to legumes) in batches (and not all simultaneously).
(a) According to Rebbi Yossi ben Kipar quoting Rebbi Shimon Shezuri, the
year of Egyptian (haricot) beans that one planted ...
1. ... to eat the seeds - is determined by whether they took root before
Rosh Hashanah or afterwards.
(b) Should some of them have taken root *before* Rosh Hashanah, and some
*after* - Rebbi Yossi ben Kipar quoting Rebbi Shimon Shezuri suggests that
one mixes them together and separates one lot of Ma'asros.
2. ... to eat the beans - by when they are picked.
(c) His reason for this is - because he holds 'Yesh Bilah' i.e. the two mix
together, even by solids (provided they are very small pieces), so that with
each batch that one separates, one is taking from the old on to the old and
from the new on to the new.
(d) The Mishnah in Shevi'is, which rules that we go after the time that they
take root, and does not concede that mixing them is permitted - holds like
the Rabbanan of Rebbi Shimon Shezuri, who hold 'Ein Bilah'.
(a) The Sevara of the Rabbanan, who say 'Ein Bilah' - is that we cannot rely
that the two are properly mixed, and we must suspect that the majority of
the Ma'aser that he took is either from the old crops or from the new.
(b) Shmuel rules 'Ein Bilah - except for wine and oil (because liquids mix
better than solids.
(c) We reconcile this with Shmuel's other ruling 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Shimon
Shezuri' - inasmuch as with regard to Bilah, he holds 'Ein Bilah', like the
Rabbanan, and the reason that he rules like Rebbi Shimon Shezuri, is not
because of Bilah, but because he maintains (unlike Rebbi Shimon Shezuri)
that by fruit, the year is not determined by the time that it takes root,
but by the time that it is fully-grown (which, in our case, is *after* Rosh
Hashanah - which is why mixing them together is effective [perhaps mixing
them is not even necessary]) Note: See also Tosfos DH 'Achar' that the stage
of fully-grown is close to the time that they are picked. They are also
puzzled by the fact that Shmuel appears to argue with the Tana'im on the
Amud (Rashi points out that Shmuel found a Tana who ruled that way -
conforming with Tosfos elsewhere who inform us that Shmuel had his own set
of Beraisos, as did a number of other Amora'im).
(d) Having ruled ...
1. ... 'Halachah ke'Rebbi Shimon Shezuri, Shmuel nevertheless needed to
issue the ruling 'la'Kol Ein Bilah Chutz ... ' - because, otherwise, we
might have thought that he holds 'Yesh Bilah'.
2. ... 'la'Kol Ein Bilah Chutz ... ', he nevertheless needed to rule like
Rebbi Shimon Shezuri - because otherwise, we might have thought that he
rules completely like the Rabbanan (in whose opinion mixing does not even
3. ... the above two rulings, he nevertheless needed to rule 'ha'Kol Holech
Achar G'mar P'ri' - because otherwise, we would have remained with a
contradiction in Shmuel's rulings, without knowing how to resolve it.
4. ... 'ha'Kol Holech Achar G'mar P'ri', he nevertheless needed to rule like
Rebbi Shimon Shezuri - because otherwise, we would have thought that
'ha'Kol' includes produce and olives. Therefore he needed to add 'Halachah
ke'Rebbi Shimon Shezuri' (restricting his ruling to legumes, the issue over
which he argues with the Rabbanan), but as far as produce and olives are
concerned, Shmuel will agree that their year is determined by when they are
one third grown.