ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 11
ROSH HASHANAH 11 (2 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Lipa ben Aryeh ha'Kohen
on his Yahrzeit
(a) Rebbi Yehoshua agrees with Rebbi Eliezer in most points. He disagrees
with him in the following three points: in his opinion - the world was
created in Nisan; the Avos were born and died in Nisan, and just as the
redemption in Egypt took place in Nisan, so too, will the redemption from
the current Galus.
(b) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the Pesukim in Bereishis "Tadshei ha'Aretz
Deshe" (with reference to the vegetation) and "ve'Eid Ya'aleh min ha'Aretz,
ve'Hishkah ... " (with reference to watering the earth) that the world was
created in Tishri - because that is the season when the ground is full of
vegetation, as well as the season when the rain is needed.
(c) Rebbi Yehoshua learn from the Pasuk "va'*Totzei* ha'Aretz Deshe Eisev
Mazri'a Zera ve'Eitz Oseh P'ri" that the world was created in Nisan -
because that is the season when the earth *produces* vegetation, and the
1. ... Rebbi Eliezer explains "ve'Eitz *Oseh* P'ri", when, in his opinion,
the fruit that Hashem created was fully grown - to refer to the future (i.e.
it was a B'rachah that the trees would continue to produce fruit.
(b) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that all the creations were created
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua explains the term "Eitz P'ri", when, in his opinion,
the trees had yet to produce it - to mean that the trees were created ready
to produce fruit immediately, in accordance with the Derashah of Rebbi
Yehoshua ben Levi.
1. ... 'be'Komasan' - he meant that they were created fully grown and ready
to produce fruit (i.e. they were not saplings).
(c) He learns this from the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayechulu ha'Shamayim
ve'ha'Aretz ve'Chol *Tzeva'am*" - which is similar to 'Tzivyonam', and which
also incorporates beauty, strength, knowledge and growth.
2. ... 'le'Da'atan' - he meant that Hashem only created them after they had
replied to the question whether or not, they wanted to be created in the
3. ... 'le'Tzivyonam' - that each one was created with its own distinct
taste and with its own distinct shape.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the Pasuk in Melachim "va'Yikahalu el
ha'Melech Shlomoh ... be'Yerach ha'Eisanim be'Chag" - that the Avos (who are
called mountains - which are also known as 'Eisanim', as we shall soon see)
were born in Tishri (the month in which 'Chag' - Sukos - falls).
(b) The Avos are called 'Eisanim' - from the Pasuk "Eisan Moshavecha" (said
by Bil'am), referring to the merits of the Avos. This we know from the Pasuk
"Shim'u *Harim* es Riv Hashem *ve'ha'Eisanim* Mosdei Aretz", which teaches
us that 'Eisanim' is synonymous with 'Harim', to which the Avos are
(c) The Pasuk "Kol Dodi Hineh Zeh Ba Medaleg al he'Harim ... " comes to hint
(and even to elaborate on) what we have just learned - that Hashem took
Yisrael out of Egypt before the due time, on the merits of the Avos (i.e.
"*Medaleg* al he'Harim - *jumping* - ahead time - because of the Avos).
(a) "Vayehi bi'Shemonim ve'Arba Me'os Shanah ... ba'Shanah ha'Revi'is
*be'Yerach Ziv"* - refers to the month of Iyar.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua learns from here that the Avos were born in Nisan -
either because, he explains, by the month of Iyar all the Avos had been
born; or because sometimes the season that usually coincides with Nisan is
late, extending into Iyar.
(c) Rebbi Yehoshua explains the Pasuk "be'Yerach ha'Eisanim" - to mean
'strong in Mitzvos' (because it contains the Mitzvos of Shofar, Yom Kipur,
Sukah, Lulav, Aravah and Nisuch ha'Mayim).
(d) Iyar is called 'Chodesh Ziv' according to Rebbi Eliezer - because it is
then that the trees blossom and look beautiful, which is why Chazal
instituted the recital of a Berachah over the blossoming trees in Nisan.
(a) We learn from ...
1. ... "ben Me'ah ve'Esrim Shanah Anochi *ha'Yom*" - that that day (the day
of his death) was Moshe's birthday, from which we see that Hashem fills in
the years of Tzadikim, so that they live full years, and die on the same day
that they are born.
(b) He could not possibly have been speaking on Pesach and referring to
Shavu'os, or on Shavu'os and referring to Sukos - because neither of these
would allow sufficient time for the seven month pregnancy (that we currently
think a pregnancy requires).
2. ... the Pasuk "es Mispar Yamecha Amalei" - the same as the latter part of
the previous answer (that Hashem fills in the years of Tzadikim, so that
they live full years, and die on the same day that they are born).
3. ... the Pasuk in Vayeira "la'Mo'eid Ashuv Eilecha ka'Eis Chayah
u'le'Sarah Vein" - that Yitzchak was born on Pesach. The Angel must have
been speaking on a Chag - in order to allow the longest period of time
(until the next Chag) for the pregnancy (as we shall now see).
(c) It is however possible, that he was speaking on Sukos with reference to
Pesach, in spite of the fact that there are only *six* months from Sukos to
Pesach, and not the required *seven* - because that is only in a regular
year, but that particular year was a leap year, giving us an extra month.
(d) In spite of the days of Tum'ah, which detracted from the full seven
month period, there could still have been a full pregnancy between Sukos and
Pesach - because in fact, a pregnancy does not require a full seven months,
as we believed until now, but a minimum of six months and two days. We learn
this - from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Vayehi li'Tekufos ha'Yamim" (referring to
the birth of Shmuel) - "Tekufos" (plural) = six months, and "Yamim" = two
(a) We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... "Zechirah" (by Rachel) and "Zechirah" (by Chanah), both from
"Shabason Zichron Teru'ah" (which refers to blowing the Shofar on Rosh
Hashanah) - that Hashem remembered both Rachel and Chanah on Rosh Hashanah
(Note: that 'remembered' here means that He made His decision then, but not
that that was when they actually became pregnant).
(b) From the Pasuk "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar ... Eidus bi'Yehosef Samo ... "
- that Yosef was released from jail on Rosh Hashanah.
2. ... "Pekidah" (by Chanah) "Pekidah" (by Sarah) - that He remembered
*Sarah* on Rosh Hashanah, too.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... Hasirosi mi'*Seivel* Shichmo" and "ve'Hotzeisi Eschem mi'Tachas
*Sivlos* Mitzrayim" - that our fathers in Egypt stopped work on Rosh
Hashanah (a Derashah with which Rebbi Yehoshua agrees).
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua, on the other hand, learns from the Pasuk "Leil Shimurim"
- (meaning a night guarded since the creation) that the ultimate Redemption,
like that of Egypt, will occur in Nisan.
2. ... "Shofar" ("Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar" - ibid) "Shofar" (ba'Yom ha'Hu
Yitaka be'Shofar Gadol" - in Yeshayah) - that the Redemption from our Galus
will occur on Rosh Hashanah.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer interprets "Leil Shimurim" - to mean a night that is safe-
guarded from demons.
(a) The Pasuk dates No'ach's boat resting on Mount Ararat as having occurred
on the seventeenth of the seventh month - meaning the seventh month from the
time the rain stopped in Kislev (i.e. the month of Sivan).
Four Amos of Noach's boat was visible above the tops of the mountain, before
the water began to subside.
(b) And when a little later, the Torah writes "Vayehi be'Achas ve'Sheish
Me'os Shanah ba'Rishon be'Echad la'Chodesh Charvu ha'Mayim ... " - it is
referring to the month of Tishri.
(c) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the fact that the Torah refers to the six
hundred and *first* year, only by the *second* of the two dates, but not by
the first - that *Tishri* and not Nisan, is the Rosh Hashanah for years.
(d) The water began to subside on Rosh Chodesh Sivan, and the tops of the
mountains appeared on Rosh Chodesh Av (the tenth month from the time that
the flood began). Assuming that the water subsided at a fixed rate - it
subsided at the speed of one Amah per four days (fifteen Amos [the height of
the water above the tallest mountain] from the first of Sivan, when the
water began to subside, until the first of Av - sixty days.
(a) The flood began - in the six hundreth year of No'ach's life.
(b) At any given time, six of the twelve Mazalos, are above the earth during
the day (and six during the night).
(c) One Mazal ascends and one descend - every two hours.
(d) T'. Sh. Te. Sa. Ar. Be. rises as Moz. Ak. Ke. Ge. D'. Da. sets - means
that T'le, Shor, Te'omim, Sartan, Aryeh and Besulah rise - as Moznayim,
Akrav, Keshes, Gedi, D'li and Dagim set.
(a) Hashem used Mazel Kimah (by removing two stars from it, leaving a gap
through which the water poured) to create the Flood. The quantity of water
and its intensity aside, Hashem must have initiated some major change in
Ma'aseh Bereishis - measure for measure because *they* changed the norms.
(performing sodomy, and taking married women from under the Chupah).
(b) The fact that Hashem used Kimah to create the flood, fits better with
Rebbi Yehoshua's explanation (that the Flood began on the seventeenth of
Iyar) than with Rebbi Eliezer's (in whose opinion it began in Mar-Cheshvan)
- because in Iyar, Kimah was due to rise only seven hours later (and the
change of which we spoke earlier refers to the rising of Kimah seven hours
before it was due to do so); but according to Rebbi Eliezer, Kimah was due
to rise in Mar-Cheshvan anyway, so where is the change?
(c) The second change, according to Rebbi Yehoshua - lay in the fact that
the Flood came out of season, in Iyar.
(d) The change that took place according to Rebbi Eliezer - is that the
water of the flood was hot (a punishment, measure for measure, for sinning
with hot semen, as we learned earlier).