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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 11

ROSH HASHANAH 11 (2 Av) - dedicated l'Iluy Nishmas Lipa ben Aryeh ha'Kohen on his Yahrzeit



(a) Rebbi Yehoshua agrees with Rebbi Eliezer in most points. He disagrees with him in the following three points: in his opinion - the world was created in Nisan; the Avos were born and died in Nisan, and just as the redemption in Egypt took place in Nisan, so too, will the redemption from the current Galus.

(b) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the Pesukim in Bereishis "Tadshei ha'Aretz Deshe" (with reference to the vegetation) and "ve'Eid Ya'aleh min ha'Aretz, ve'Hishkah ... " (with reference to watering the earth) that the world was created in Tishri - because that is the season when the ground is full of vegetation, as well as the season when the rain is needed.

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua learn from the Pasuk "va'*Totzei* ha'Aretz Deshe Eisev Mazri'a Zera ve'Eitz Oseh P'ri" that the world was created in Nisan - because that is the season when the earth *produces* vegetation, and the trees, fruit.

1. ... Rebbi Eliezer explains "ve'Eitz *Oseh* P'ri", when, in his opinion, the fruit that Hashem created was fully grown - to refer to the future (i.e. it was a B'rachah that the trees would continue to produce fruit.
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua explains the term "Eitz P'ri", when, in his opinion, the trees had yet to produce it - to mean that the trees were created ready to produce fruit immediately, in accordance with the Derashah of Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi.
(b) When Rebbi Yehoshua ben Levi said that all the creations were created ...
1. ... 'be'Komasan' - he meant that they were created fully grown and ready to produce fruit (i.e. they were not saplings).
2. ... 'le'Da'atan' - he meant that Hashem only created them after they had replied to the question whether or not, they wanted to be created in the affirmative.
3. ... 'le'Tzivyonam' - that each one was created with its own distinct taste and with its own distinct shape.
(c) He learns this from the Pasuk in Bereishis "Vayechulu ha'Shamayim ve'ha'Aretz ve'Chol *Tzeva'am*" - which is similar to 'Tzivyonam', and which also incorporates beauty, strength, knowledge and growth.
(a) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the Pasuk in Melachim "va'Yikahalu el ha'Melech Shlomoh ... be'Yerach ha'Eisanim be'Chag" - that the Avos (who are called mountains - which are also known as 'Eisanim', as we shall soon see) were born in Tishri (the month in which 'Chag' - Sukos - falls).

(b) The Avos are called 'Eisanim' - from the Pasuk "Eisan Moshavecha" (said by Bil'am), referring to the merits of the Avos. This we know from the Pasuk "Shim'u *Harim* es Riv Hashem *ve'ha'Eisanim* Mosdei Aretz", which teaches us that 'Eisanim' is synonymous with 'Harim', to which the Avos are compared.

(c) The Pasuk "Kol Dodi Hineh Zeh Ba Medaleg al he'Harim ... " comes to hint (and even to elaborate on) what we have just learned - that Hashem took Yisrael out of Egypt before the due time, on the merits of the Avos (i.e. "*Medaleg* al he'Harim - *jumping* - ahead time - because of the Avos).

(a) "Vayehi bi'Shemonim ve'Arba Me'os Shanah ... ba'Shanah ha'Revi'is *be'Yerach Ziv"* - refers to the month of Iyar.

(b) Rebbi Yehoshua learns from here that the Avos were born in Nisan - either because, he explains, by the month of Iyar all the Avos had been born; or because sometimes the season that usually coincides with Nisan is late, extending into Iyar.

(c) Rebbi Yehoshua explains the Pasuk "be'Yerach ha'Eisanim" - to mean 'strong in Mitzvos' (because it contains the Mitzvos of Shofar, Yom Kipur, Sukah, Lulav, Aravah and Nisuch ha'Mayim).

(d) Iyar is called 'Chodesh Ziv' according to Rebbi Eliezer - because it is then that the trees blossom and look beautiful, which is why Chazal instituted the recital of a Berachah over the blossoming trees in Nisan.

(a) We learn from ...
1. ... "ben Me'ah ve'Esrim Shanah Anochi *ha'Yom*" - that that day (the day of his death) was Moshe's birthday, from which we see that Hashem fills in the years of Tzadikim, so that they live full years, and die on the same day that they are born.
2. ... the Pasuk "es Mispar Yamecha Amalei" - the same as the latter part of the previous answer (that Hashem fills in the years of Tzadikim, so that they live full years, and die on the same day that they are born).
3. ... the Pasuk in Vayeira "la'Mo'eid Ashuv Eilecha ka'Eis Chayah u'le'Sarah Vein" - that Yitzchak was born on Pesach. The Angel must have been speaking on a Chag - in order to allow the longest period of time (until the next Chag) for the pregnancy (as we shall now see).
(b) He could not possibly have been speaking on Pesach and referring to Shavu'os, or on Shavu'os and referring to Sukos - because neither of these would allow sufficient time for the seven month pregnancy (that we currently think a pregnancy requires).

(c) It is however possible, that he was speaking on Sukos with reference to Pesach, in spite of the fact that there are only *six* months from Sukos to Pesach, and not the required *seven* - because that is only in a regular year, but that particular year was a leap year, giving us an extra month.

(d) In spite of the days of Tum'ah, which detracted from the full seven month period, there could still have been a full pregnancy between Sukos and Pesach - because in fact, a pregnancy does not require a full seven months, as we believed until now, but a minimum of six months and two days. We learn this - from the Pasuk in Shmuel "Vayehi li'Tekufos ha'Yamim" (referring to the birth of Shmuel) - "Tekufos" (plural) = six months, and "Yamim" = two days.

(a) We learn from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... "Zechirah" (by Rachel) and "Zechirah" (by Chanah), both from "Shabason Zichron Teru'ah" (which refers to blowing the Shofar on Rosh Hashanah) - that Hashem remembered both Rachel and Chanah on Rosh Hashanah (Note: that 'remembered' here means that He made His decision then, but not that that was when they actually became pregnant).
2. ... "Pekidah" (by Chanah) "Pekidah" (by Sarah) - that He remembered *Sarah* on Rosh Hashanah, too.
(b) From the Pasuk "Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar ... Eidus bi'Yehosef Samo ... " - that Yosef was released from jail on Rosh Hashanah.



(a) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' ...
1. ... Hasirosi mi'*Seivel* Shichmo" and "ve'Hotzeisi Eschem mi'Tachas *Sivlos* Mitzrayim" - that our fathers in Egypt stopped work on Rosh Hashanah (a Derashah with which Rebbi Yehoshua agrees).
2. ... "Shofar" ("Tik'u ba'Chodesh Shofar" - ibid) "Shofar" (ba'Yom ha'Hu Yitaka be'Shofar Gadol" - in Yeshayah) - that the Redemption from our Galus will occur on Rosh Hashanah.
(b) Rebbi Yehoshua, on the other hand, learns from the Pasuk "Leil Shimurim" - (meaning a night guarded since the creation) that the ultimate Redemption, like that of Egypt, will occur in Nisan.

(c) Rebbi Eliezer interprets "Leil Shimurim" - to mean a night that is safe- guarded from demons.

(a) The Pasuk dates No'ach's boat resting on Mount Ararat as having occurred on the seventeenth of the seventh month - meaning the seventh month from the time the rain stopped in Kislev (i.e. the month of Sivan).

(b) And when a little later, the Torah writes "Vayehi be'Achas ve'Sheish Me'os Shanah ba'Rishon be'Echad la'Chodesh Charvu ha'Mayim ... " - it is referring to the month of Tishri.

(c) Rebbi Eliezer learns from the fact that the Torah refers to the six hundred and *first* year, only by the *second* of the two dates, but not by the first - that *Tishri* and not Nisan, is the Rosh Hashanah for years.

(d) The water began to subside on Rosh Chodesh Sivan, and the tops of the mountains appeared on Rosh Chodesh Av (the tenth month from the time that the flood began). Assuming that the water subsided at a fixed rate - it subsided at the speed of one Amah per four days (fifteen Amos [the height of the water above the tallest mountain] from the first of Sivan, when the water began to subside, until the first of Av - sixty days.

9) Four Amos of Noach's boat was visible above the tops of the mountain, before the water began to subside.


(a) The flood began - in the six hundreth year of No'ach's life.

(b) At any given time, six of the twelve Mazalos, are above the earth during the day (and six during the night).

(c) One Mazal ascends and one descend - every two hours.

(d) T'. Sh. Te. Sa. Ar. Be. rises as Moz. Ak. Ke. Ge. D'. Da. sets - means that T'le, Shor, Te'omim, Sartan, Aryeh and Besulah rise - as Moznayim, Akrav, Keshes, Gedi, D'li and Dagim set.

(a) Hashem used Mazel Kimah (by removing two stars from it, leaving a gap through which the water poured) to create the Flood. The quantity of water and its intensity aside, Hashem must have initiated some major change in Ma'aseh Bereishis - measure for measure because *they* changed the norms. (performing sodomy, and taking married women from under the Chupah).

(b) The fact that Hashem used Kimah to create the flood, fits better with Rebbi Yehoshua's explanation (that the Flood began on the seventeenth of Iyar) than with Rebbi Eliezer's (in whose opinion it began in Mar-Cheshvan) - because in Iyar, Kimah was due to rise only seven hours later (and the change of which we spoke earlier refers to the rising of Kimah seven hours before it was due to do so); but according to Rebbi Eliezer, Kimah was due to rise in Mar-Cheshvan anyway, so where is the change?

(c) The second change, according to Rebbi Yehoshua - lay in the fact that the Flood came out of season, in Iyar.

(d) The change that took place according to Rebbi Eliezer - is that the water of the flood was hot (a punishment, measure for measure, for sinning with hot semen, as we learned earlier).

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