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prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

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Rosh Hashanah 10

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


1) We learn that until Tu bi'Sh'vat, the fruit ...

1. ... that still grows after the third year is still Orlah - from the 'Vav' in "Uva'Shanah ha'Revi'is" (implying that the Din Orlah extends to the fruit of the fourth year, too).
2. ... that still grows after the fourth year is still Revai - from the 'Vav' in "u'va'Shanah ha'Chamishis" - implying that the Din Revai extends to the fruit of the fifth year, too.


(a) When the Torah writes ...
  1. ... "Eigel" - it means a calf in its first year.
  2. ... "ben Bakar" - a bull in its second year.
  3. ... "Par" - a bull in its third year (even if it is referred to as "Par ben Bakar".
(b) We learn that a ben Bakar refers to a calf in its second year - from the Torah's Hekesh of a ben Bakar to an Ayil, which we know to be a ram in its second year.

(c) According to Rebbi Meir, a ben Bakar becomes a Par after twenty-four months and one day - according to Rebbi Elazar, twenty-four months and thirty days.

(d) On the previous Amud, we learned a Beraisa which considers thirty days to be a year. We initially establish that Beraisa even according to Rebbi Meir - by differentiating between the end of the year (i.e. the end of the Cheshbon), where Rebbi Meir says this, and the beginning (such as the beginning of the years of Orlah - the Beraisa currently under discussion), where he does *not*.

(a) Rava disagrees with this contention, due to the Dinim of Nidah (as we shall now see). We learn from the Pasuk "Shiv'as Yamim *Tiheyeh* be'Nidasah" - that a Nidah requires seven *full* days before she becomes Tehorah, and cannot consider *part* of the seventh day as a whole day.

(b) On the other hand - if a woman initially sees blood just before sunset, she can count that day as the first of her seven days of Nidus.

(c) This does not apply to the seven clean days of a Zavah (which every woman is obligated to count nowadays) - *she* requires seven *full* clean days.

(d) The common misunderstanding based on this Gemara - is the very point that we just mentioned. Many people apply the leniency of counting the last part of the first day of Nidus as one of her days of Nidus, to the first of the clean days of a Zavah, and subsequently rule that if she stopped seeing blood just before sunset, she may count the remaining part of that day as the first of her clean days.

4) We just suggested that according to Rebbi Meir, one day in the year is considered a year only at the end of the year, but not at the beginning. But we see from the Dinim of Nidah, that the opposite it true - that the beginning of the period of Nidus tends to be more lenient than the end.




(a) In a Mishnah in Shevi'is, the Tana'im dispute the period before Sh'mitah during which one is permitted to plant, graft or re-plant (the branch of) a tree. According to the Tana Kama - the period is thirty days.

(b) Rebbi Yehudah gives the period as at least three days. According to Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon - it is fifteen days.

(c) The basis of their Machlokes is - how long it takes for a newly planted tree to take root (and a tree which takes root in the Shmitah is forbidden).

(a) We currently maintain that the author of the Beraisa (which requires thirty days before Rosh Hashanah to be considered a year) must be Rebbi Elazar. Based on the previous Machlokes Tana'im - the Beraisa ought to have said thirty days plus thirty, fifteen or three days - (for the tree to take root), and not just thirty.

(b) We therefore establish the author of that Beraisa as being Rebbi Meir (and not Rebbi Elazar). The significance of the thirty day period - is now for the tree to take root (because Rebbi Meir holds like the Tana Kama - in all likelihood, he *is* the Tana Kama).

(c) The reason that Rebbi Meir does not require thirty-*one* days, thirty for the tree to take root, and one to be considered a year - is because the thirtieth day, in his opinion, also serves as the first year (and as Tosfos Shevi'is).

(d) According to Rebbi Meir, Tosfos Shevi'is is only *one* day.

(a) Both Rebbi Meir and Rebbi Elazar derive their respective opinions from the Pasuk in No'ach (which refers to the water of the flood beginning to subside) "Vayehi be'Achas ve'Sheish Mei'os Shanah be'Echad *la'Chodesh*", referring, according to ...
  1. ... Rebbi Eliezer (in whose opinion the world was created in Tishri) - to the month of Mar-Cheshvan.
  2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua (who maintains that it was created in Nisan) - to the month of Iyar.
(b) Rebbi Meir learns from this Pasuk that one day in the year is considered a year - from the fact that the Torah refers to six hundred and one years, even though only one day had passed (a proof incidentally, for Rava, who said earlier that Rebbi Meir speaks even at the beginning of the year).

(c) Rebbi Elazar counters Rebbi Meir's proof - on the grounds that the Torah writes "be'Achas ve'Sheish Mei'os Shanah" and not be'Sheish Mei'os ve'Achas Shanah" (in which case, he would have agreed with him). Consequently, "ve'Achas" refers to the beginning of the year.

(d) Rebbi Elazar says that from the Lashon "be'Echad la'Chodesh" we see that the Torah calls it a month, even though only one day has passed - and if one day in the month is called a month, he extrapolates, then one month in the year is called a year (see 5a, where the Gemara brings a similar Sevara).

(a) According to Rebbi Eliezer, the world was created in Tishri, and the Avos were born (and died) then. By Avos, he means Avraham and Ya'akov.

(b) Yitzchak was born - on Pesach (even according to Rebbi Eliezer).

(c) The three women that Hashem remembered on Rosh Hashanah - were Sarah, Rachel and Chanah.

(d) On Rosh Hashanah ...

  1. ... Yosef - was set free from jail.
  2. ... our fathers in Egypt - stopped working.
9) Our fathers were redeemed from Egypt in the month of Nisan. The final redemption will take place, according to Rebbi Eliezer - in Tishri.

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