ANSWERS TO REVIEW QUESTIONS
prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 8
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
(a) The Pasuk in Tehilim writes "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, va'Amakim Ya'atfu
Bar, Yisro'u Af Yashiru".
1. "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon" - means that the sheep become dressed (i.e.
(b) The normal pregnancy period of small animals (such as sheep) - is five
2. "va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar" - at the time when the valleys become covered
with corn (i.e. it has grown to recognizable proportions - in Adar).
3. "Yisro'u Af Yashiru" - in Nisan, at the time of the time of harvest,
they trumpet and sing (i.e. when the corn is fully grown, the knocking of
the grains against one another when the wind blows, sounds as if they are
singing and playing the trumpet).
(c) Rebbi Meir (according to our initial contention) learns from the Pasuk
in Tehilim that Ma'aser Beheimah takes place in Elul - because if the sheep
become pregnant in Adar, when the corn has reached recognizable proportions,
then they will give birth in Av, and the time to Ma'aser the new-born
animals is in Elul. "Yisro'u Af Yashiru"- refers to the late animals which
become pregnant late only in Nisan.
(d) Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon learn from the same Pasuk that the time to
Ma'aser animals is in Tishri - because if the sheep become pregnant in Nisan
(when the corn trumpets and sings), then they will give birth in Elul, and
the time to Ma'aser them is Tishri. "va'Amakim Ya'atfu Bar" - refers to the
sheep which become pregnant early.
(a) We reject the above explanation on the grounds that - according to Rebbi
Elazar and Rebbi Shimon, the Pasuk ought to have inverted the second and
third phrase, to read "Lavshu Karim ha'Tzon, ve'Yisro'u Af Yashiru", Amakim
Ya'atfu Bar" (since most of the sheep become pregnant when the corn sings,
(b) We retract from the contention that, according to Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi
Shimon, sheep become pregnant in Nisan. In fact - they too agree that small
animals become pregnant in Adar.
(c) In fact, the source for both opinions is the Pasuk in Re'ei "Aser
Te'aser ... ". Rebbi Meir on the one hand, and Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon
on the other - agree that the Torah compares Ma'aser Beheimah to Ma'aser
Dagan, which takes place in Tishri.
(d) Rebbi Meir interprets the comparison like this - just as the time to
Ma'aser corn (Tishri) is immediately following its completion in the fields,
so too, is the time to Ma'aser sheep etc. immediately following their birth
(Elul). Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon interpret the comparison to read that
the Ma'asering of sheep, like that of corn, takes place in Tishri.
(a) According to Rav Papa, the first of *Tishri* the New Year for years -
regards documents (that on the first of Tishri, the second year of the
reigning monarch - as well as subsequent years - commences [just as we
learned with regard to Nisan, above]).
(b) When Rav Chisda learned earlier that the first of *Nisan* is the New
Year for years regarding documents - he was referring to *Jewish* kings,
whereas Rav Papa is referring to *Nochri* kings.
(c) Rav Chisda agrees with Rav Papa, and his comment (that the Reisha of the
Mishnah 'be'Echad be'Nisan Rosh Hashanah li'Melachim' pertains to Jewish
kings exclusively, but that the New Year for Nochri kings is the first of
Tishri) - is pertinent not to our Mishnah, but to the Pesukim (which we
explained earlier in the Masechta).
(d) Alternatively - Rav Chisda might concur with Rebbi Zeira, who explains
the Seifa 'be'Echad be'Tishri Rosh Hashanah le'Shanim' to pertain to the
Tekufah (i.e. that the first of the four seasons [known as Tekufos] is that
of Tishri (the autumn season), like Rebbi Eliezer, who holds that the world
was created in Tishri.
(a) Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak, in a *third* interpretation of our Mishnah
('be'Echad be'Tishri Rosh Hashanah le'Shanim') explains it to mean that it
is the day on which the world is judged regarding issues that concern them
vis-a-vis the coming year.
(b) He learns it from the Pasuk in Eikev "me'Reishis ha'Shanah ve'Ad Achris
Shanah" - which comes to inform us that at the beginning of the year, Hashem
decides what He is going to do until the end of the year.
(c) The Torah though, drops not the slightest hint as to which month it is
referring. Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak learns this from the Pasuk in Tehilim
"Tik'u va'Chodesh Shofar, ba'Kese le'Yom Chageinu, Ki Chok le'Yisrael Hu
Mishpat l'Elokei Ya'akov" - which must refer to Rosh Hashanah (the only Chag
on which the new moon is hidden). Consequently, seeing as "Chok" means
'sustenance', and "Mishpat" 'judgement', the Pasuk is clearly coming to
inform us that Hashem judges the world on Rosh Hashanah for sustenance.
(a) The Tana of one Beraisa learn from "Ki Chok *le'Yisrael* Hu, Mishpat
*l'Elokei Ya'akov*" - that the Heavenly Court does not sit in Judgement (on
Rosh Hashanah) until the Beis-Din has declared Rosh Chodesh (and Rosh
Hashanah) (i.e. should they decide to postpone it then the Heavenly court
will sit only on the next day.)
(b) From the same Pasuk, the Tana of another Beraisa includes the other
nations of the world in Hashem's judgment on Rosh Hashanah. The Pasuk
mention Yisrael - to teach us that they are judged first.
(c) In similar vein, Rav Chisda learns from the Pasuk "La'asos Mishpat Avdo
u'Mishpat Amo Yisrael ... " - that Hashem judges the King (Shlomoh himself
in this case, as that is to whom "Avdo" refers) first and the people
(d) *One* reason for this is because it is not respectful for a king to have
to await his turn - the *other* because it is better to judge the King
before Hashem's anger is kindled by the many sins perpetrated by the
community which come to light during the court-case.
(a) We learn that Rosh Hashanah for Sh'mitin is the first of Tishri, from a
'Gezeirah-Shavah': "u'*Vashanah* ha'Shevi'is Shabas Shabason Yih'yeh
la'Aretz" (in Behar) from "me'Reishis *ha'Shanah* ve'Ad Acharis Shanah" (in
Eikev), rather than from the Pasuk "Rishon Hu Lachem le'Chodshei
*ha'Shanah*" (in Bo) - because we prefer to learn "Shanah" *without*
Chodashim from "Shanah" without Chodashim, rather than from Shanah *with*
(b) To resolve the fact that the Tana of our Mishnah gives the New Year for
Yovel as the *first* of Tishri, when the Pasuk in Emor writes "*be'Yom
ha'Kipurim* Ta'aviru Shofar be'Chol Artzechem", we establish the author of
the Mishnah as being Rebbi Yishmael, who learns that, regarding working the
land and even regarding the servants stopping work, the first of Tishri is
Rosh Hashanah. However, we learn from the Pasuk *be'Yom ha'Kipurim* Ta'aviru
Shofar be'Chol Artzechem", that the Kedushah of Yovel increases until Yom
Kipur, and that, during that period, the servants do not work, but celebrate
their freedom with elaborate parties, with crowns on their heads
(symbolizing freedom), if they so wished.
(c) Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah learns that Yovel
begins on Rosh Hashanah (and not on Yom Kipur) - from the Pasuk in Behar
"ve'Kidashtem es Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah".
(a) The Rabbanan of Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah
learn from the Pasuk "ve'*Kidashtem* es Sh'nas ha'Chimishim *Shanah*" - that
it is only *years* that one sanctifies, but not *months* (i.e. no months
ever require verbal sanctification - like Rebbi Elazar b'Rebbi Shimon, who
is of this opinion).
(b) In another Beraisa, Rebbi Yishmael learns from the Pasuk "Yovel Hi,
Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah" - that the Yovel year terminates at the end of
Elul, and that it does not need a Tosefes (an extension) in the way that it
extends (from Yom Kipur back to Rosh Hashanah) at the beginning. We would
otherwise have thought that, just as other holy days (i.e. Shabbos, Yom-Tov
and Shmitah) require a Tosefes at the end, so too, should Yovel.
(c) The Rabbanan do not require this Derashah - because, according to them,
there is no extension of the Yovel year at the beginning, either.
(d) *They* learn from "Yovel Hi, Sh'nas ha'Chamishim Shanah" - that one
counts the Yovel year as the fiftieth year, and not as the fifty-first (i.e.
the first year of the following cycle).