(Permission is granted to print and redistribute this material
as long as this header and the footer at the end are included.)


prepared by Rabbi Eliezer Chrysler
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Jerusalem

Previous daf

Rosh Hashanah 7

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.



(a) Our Mishnah listed four Roshei Shanim. The Beraisa quotes three (according to some, four) more (all of which fall on Rosh Chodesh Nisan). The first of these is 'le'Chodashim' - meaning that Nisan is the first of the months of the year.

(b) We attempt to learn this from the Pasuk in Bo "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem Rosh Chodashim". We initially think that this refers to the month of Nisan from the Pasuk - "Shamor es Chodesh ha'Aviv" (meaning the month when the grain ripens), and the grain ripens in Nisan.

(c) "ha'Chodesh ha'Zeh Lachem ... " cannot refer to Iyar - because the grain finished ripening already in Nisan.

(a) We suggest that it might be Adar - because some of the grain has already ripened by then.

(b) We reject the contention that we need the majority of the Aviv, and most of the Aviv has not yet ripened by Adar - on the grounds that the Pasuk says nothing about *the majority* of the Aviv, in which case, *some* of the grain ripening should suffice, and Adar should be the first month.

(c) So we try to learn it from the Pasuk in Emor "Ach ba'Chamishah-Asar Yom la'Chodesh ha'Shevi'i be'Ospechem es Tevu'as ha'Aretz" (an attempt which follows the same pattern as the previous Derashah) - since Tishri is the time of 'Asifah' (the in-gathering of the crops from the field, where they have been drying throughout the summer).

(d) The one fact in this Sugya that we know for sure - is the names of the months and their order (what we do not know is which is the *first month*).

(a) We conclude that in fact, there is no proof from the Chumash that the first month is Nisan (and not Adar). We do however, bring many proofs from T'nach - above all, from Megilas Esther, from which we quote no less than *four*.

(b) We quote one Pasuk which specifically refers to *Nisan* as the first month - "ba'Chodesh ha'Rishon, Hu Chodesh Nisan".

(c) The reason that the other Amora'im do not quote that Pasuk is - because the term 'first' might be referring to the episode that occurred then (Haman's decision to take revenge from Mordechai).

(d) The Tana of our Mishnah did not include 'le'Chodashim' in our Mishnah - because he was only concerned with events that take place once a *year*, not once a *month*.

(a) The second Rosh Hashanah added by the Beraisa is 'le'Iburin'. The problem that we have with explaining this to mean that Beis-Din are permitted to sit and discuss whether the following year should be a leap- year, already from Rosh Chodesh Nisan - is from the Beraisa which forbids working out the leap-years (even in case of emergency) before Rosh Hashanah.

(b) We therefore explain 'le'Iburin' to mean - that Rosh Chodesh Nisan is the latest time that Beis-Din may *reach a decision* whether to make a leap- year or not, following the opinion of Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas.

(c) Under normal circumstances - Beis-Din would determine whether or not, to make the forthcoming year a leap-year, during the month of Adar.

(d) The reason of ...

1. .... the Chachamim, who said that this had to be decided by Purim - is due to the obligation to Darshen the laws of Pesach thirty days before Pesach (i.e. from after Purim). Consequently, should the Sheluchei Beis-Din arrive after that with the news of the decision to make that year a leap-year, the people (who have already heard from the Rabanim Derashos concerning Pesach) will ignore them, keep Pesach on the wrong day, and go on to eat Chametz on Pesach.
2. ... Rebbi Yehoshua and Rebbi Papayas, in whose opinion, the decision could wait until Rosh Chodesh Nisan - is because everyone knows that the fixing of a leap-year depends on intricate reckoning. So if the Sheluchei Beis-Din come later in the month, people will take them seriously.
5) The Tana of our Mishnah does not include 'Iburin' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim' - because he is only concerned with beginnings of issues, not with conclusions.


(a) From one of the 'redundant' words 'Chodesh' in the Pasuk "Zos Olas Chodesh le'Chodsho, le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" - we learn that there is a Rosh Chodesh on which one must start bringing the Korbanos from the new donations of that year.

(b) We know that this is Nisan - from a 'Gezeirah-Shavah' "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" from the Pasuk in Bo "Rishon Hu Lachem le'Chodshei ha'Shanah".

(c) We learn the 'Gezeirah-Shavah' (of "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah") from "le'Chodshei ha'Shanah" (in Bo - which refers to Nisan), and not from "me'Reishis ha'Shanah" (in Eikev - which refers to Tishri) - because we prefer to learn Shanah which has Chodshim together with it from Shanah which also *has* Chodshim together with it, rather than from Shanah which does *not*.

(d) Rav Yehudah Amar Shmuel rules - that if one purchased a Korban after Rosh Chodesh Nisan with funds from the previous year, it is nevertheless Kasher (though the Mitzvah is lacking).




(a) The Beraisa corroborates Shmuel's ruling - adding that an individual who donated a Korban Tzibur from his own pocket must make certain that he hands it to the Tzibur.

(b) This is not obvious - because we might have otherwise forbidden him to do so, in case he does not hand it to the Tzibur with a full heart.

(c) The Tana of our Mishnah does not include 'Terumas Shekalim' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim - because the Beraisa concludes that Bedieved, even if he brought a Korban from the last year's money, the Korban is still Kasher. In that case, this is not a significant Rosh Hashanah. (It is not clear however, why this is worse than Rosh Hashanah li'Regalim, where the Korban also remains Kasher, as we learned above - yet our Tana does include it?)

(a) Yesh Omrim (which is usually Rebbi Nasan) add 'S'chirus Batim' (the renting of houses) to the list of things of which Rosh Chodesh Nisan is the New Year. This means - that if someone rented a house for *this year*, then he may remain in the house until Rosh Chodesh Nisan. The expression 'a year' has the connotation of a full year, and the lease therefore, extends for a full twelve months.

(b) The year ends on the first of Nisan only if he rented the house not later than the first of Adar. This does not preclude Rebbi Meir (who, we shall see later, is the one who holds 'Yom Echad ba'Shanah Chashuv Shanah') from agreeing with 'Yesh Omrim' - because everyone will agree here, that a person does not go to the trouble of renting a house for less than one month.

(c) Chazal fixed Nisan as the Rosh Hashanah for S'chirus Batim, and not Tishri (e.g. someone who rented a house in Elul for that year, should have to leave already on Rosh Hashanah) - because it is self-understood that most people rent houses for the duration of the rain season.

(d) A person who rents a house in Sivan (for example) for that year - may remain in the house only until Tishri (see Rashi DH 'u'Meshani').

9) The Tana of our Mishnah (as well as the Tana Kama of the Beraisa) do not include 'S'chirus Batim' in the list of Rosh Chodesh Nisan together with 'Melachim' - because in Nisan too, it is very cloudy and downpours of rain are not uncommon. (It is not clear though, why they did not then reckon Rosh Chodesh Iyar as Rosh Hashanah for S'chirus Batim? Perhaps it is because this is not an important enough occasion to warrant its own Rosh Hashanah, especially as the date is not absolute, as we saw in the previous answer).


(a) The author of the statement in our Mishnah ...
1. ... 'be'Echad be'Elul Rosh Hashanah le'Ma'aser Beheimah' - is Rebbi Meir, and the Tana'im who argue with him are Rebbi Elazar and Rebbi Shimon.
2. ... 'be'Echad be'Nisan Rosh Hashanah li'Regalim' - is Rebbi Shimon.
(b) What sort of a sequence is this, asks the Gemara - the Reisha like Rebbi Shimon, the Metzi'a like Rebbi Meir, and the Seifa like Rebbi (Elazar and) Rebbi Shimon?

(c) Rav Yosef answers that the author of our Mishnah is Rebbi, who follows the opinion of Rebbi Shimon regarding Regalim, and Rebbi Meir regarding Ma'aser Beheimah. But this seems to be a case of 'out of the frying-pan into the fire', asks the Gemara - because if the Mishnah is entirely the opinion of Rebbi, then we have, not *four* Roshei Shanim, but *five*, since Nisan contains *two* Roshei Shanim (*Rosh Chodesh*, the New Year for Kings, and the *fifteenth*, for Regalim)?

(a) Rava answers that, according to Rebbi, there are indeed five Roshei Shanim. Only that this comprises four according to Rebbi Meir (who does not count the fifteenth of Nisan), and four, according to Rebbi Shimon (who does not count the first of Elul). Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak answers that there are four months in which there are many Roshei Shanim. In other words, there may well be *five* Roshei Shanim (or more) - however, they are all contained in *four* months, which is what the Tana is concerned with.

(b) Another Beraisa lists the sixteenth of Nisan as Rosh Hashanah for the Omer - meaning that on the sixteenth of Nisan, from the time that the Omer is brought, one is permitted to eat from the new crops of that year.

(c) The other date added by the Tana - is the sixth of Sivan, because the bringing of the Sh'tei ha'Lechem on Shavu'os permits the bringing of the new crops of that year to the Beis Hamikdash (for the Menachos).

(d) According to this Beraisa, the Tana of our Mishnah ought to have listed ...

1. ... according to Rava (in a.) - *six* Roshei Shanim (including the two that we just mentioned).
2. ... according to Rav Nachman bar Yitzchak (ibid.) - *five* (the sixth of Sivan - but not the sixteenth of Nisan, seeing as Nisan is already included, and Rav Nachman is of the opinion that the Tana of our Mishnah only lists months).
(a) According to Rav Papa, the Tana of our Mishnah does not include the Omer and the Shtei ha'Lechem because they do not come into effect at the beginning of the day, like the cases in our Mishnah do? Rav Shisha Brei de'Rav Ika explains - that these dates only permit the new crops in conjunction with an *act* (the bringing of the Korban), unlike all the other cases in our Mishnah, where the arrival of the day itself initiates the New Year.

(b) We pose the same Kashya on both answers. Initially, we assume that Regalim too, does not apply at the beginning of the day (i.e. with the advent of Yom-Tov with nightfall) - only after they bring the Korban Tamid in the morning (which permits other Korbanos to be brought), which is also an act (yet the Tana includes it in his list of Roshei Shanim)?

(c) We refute that contention however, on the grounds that we are not concerned with bringing the Korban (which the owner became obligated when he undertook to bring the Korban - but with transgressing the La'av of 'Bal Te'acher' for *not* bringing it until it is too late. And that begins with the advent of Yom-Tov in the evening (See Tosfos DH 've'Harei', who point out that one does not actually transgress 'Bal Te'acher' until *after* Yom- Tov).

(d) We answer the same Kashya on 'Yovlos', which we normally assume begins with the blowing of the Shofar on Yom Kipur (which is also an act) - by establishing our Mishnah like Rebbi Yishmael Be'no shel Rebbi Yochanan ben Berokah, in whose opinion Yovel begins immediately with the advent of the year on Rosh Hashanah.

(a) Rav Ashi answers both why Rebbi says *four* Roshei Shanim (and not five), and why he omits the sixteenth of Nisan and the sixth of Sivan from the list, with one stroke - there are four Roshei Shanim which occur on four Roshei Chodashim, he explains our Mishnah to mean (and we are not concerned with the Roshei Shanim that occur in the middle of the month).

(b) Regarding the first of Sh'vat, our Tana is saying that there are three Roshei Shanim that occur on Rosh Chodesh with which everyone (even Beis Hillel) agrees, and four according to Beis Shamai.

Next daf


For further information on
subscriptions, archives and sponsorships,
contact Kollel Iyun Hadaf,