POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 30
1) SHOFAR IN THE PRESENCE OF BEIS DIN
(a) (R. Huna) (Referring to the opinion in the Mishnah that
the Shofar was blown on Shabbos not only in Yavneh, but
also in every place where there as a Beis Din) The Shofar
was blown with Beis Din - i.e. in their presence.
2) SHOFAR DURING THE TIME OF BEIS DIN'S SESSION
(b) Question (Rava): We see otherwise:
1. The Mishnah states that there was an "additional"
advantage of Yerushalayim over Yavneh - additional
(c) Answer: It is additional to the advantage that in Yavneh,
the Shofar was only blown in the presence of Beis Din.
2. It could mean that in Yerushalayim, individuals
would blow Shofar, whereas in Yavneh, only the
Shaliach Beis Din would blow Shofar.
3. But R. Yitzchak bar Yosef testified that in Yavneh,
everyone would blow Shofar!
4. So it must mean that whereas in Yavneh the Shofar
could only be blown when Beis Din was in session, in
Yerushalayim the Shofar could be blown at any time.
5. But nevertheless in Yavneh the Shofar could be blown
while Beis Din was in session - even if it was not
in their presence!?
(a) Some attribute R. Huna's statement to a different
3) THE VICINITY OF YERUSHALAYIM
(b) The Pasuk teaches us that every individual must blow
(c) (R. Huna) The Shofar was blown with Beis Din - i.e.
during the time of their session.
(d) Question (Rava): We see otherwise:
1. The Shofar must be blown on Shabbos Yom Kipur of
Yovel by "Ish u'Veiso."
(e) Answer: No, it must still be during the time of Beis
2. "Ish u'Veiso" can't mean man and wife, as women are
not obligated in a time-related Mitzvos Asei!
3. So it must mean "Ish b'Veiso" - in his house, i.e.
even not during the time of Beis Din's session!?
(f) Question (R. Sheshes): We see otherwise:
1. Yovel is equal to Rosh Hashanah regarding Shofar
except that with Yovel, every Beis Din blows Shofar
and even individuals, whereas with Rosh Hashanah
only Beis Din that sanctified the month would blow
Shofar, and individuals are not obligated.
(g) Answer: No, it means that on Yovel they would blow Shofar
even not in the presence of Beis Din, but still only
during the time when they were in session.
2. What does it mean by "individuals are not
3. It can't mean that individuals do not blow Shofar,
as there was testimony from Yavneh that they do!
4. So it must mean that on Rosh Hashanah they would
blow only when they were in session, whereas on
Yovel, they would blow Shofar even when Beis Din was
not in session!?
1. This rule is confirmed by another source.
(h) Question (R. Zeira): If Beis Din have closed court and
are ready to leave, is that still considered the time of
Beis Din's session?
(a) The Mishnah said that all towns within sight and hearing
of Yerushalayim, close and able to come, would also blow
Shofar on Shabbos.
4) MISHNAH : LULAV
(b) "Within sight" excludes those towns that are in valleys.
(c) "Within hearing" excludes those towns that are on
(d) "Close" excludes those beyond the Techum.
(e) "Able to come" excludes those separated by a river.
(a) Originally, Lulav was taken for seven days in the Beis
ha'Mikdash, and on one day elsewhere.
5) COMMEMORATING THE BEIS HAMIKDASH
(b) After the Destruction, R. Yochanan b. Zakai decreed that
it should be taken for seven days everywhere, to
commemorate the Beis ha'Mikdash.
(c) He also forbade the eating of Chadash on the sixteenth of
(a) Question: How do we know that there is a need for a
6) THE EATING OF CHADASH
(b) Answer: The Pasuk states that someone has to care about
(a) Question: Why was eating of Chadash on the sixteenth of
(b) Answer: When the Beis ha'Mikdash will be rebuilt, people
will say that just as they ate last year on the morning
of the sixteenth, so too they can eat this year (without
realizing that when there is a Beis ha'Mikdash, Chadash
remains forbidden until the Omer has been brought.
(c) Question: When are we concerned about the Beis ha'Mikdash
1. It can't be on the sixteenth of Nisan - because
there would be no problem, as Chadash would indeed
become permitted from the morning of the sixteenth!
(d) Answer: It is referring to where it is rebuilt on the
afternoon or evening of the fifteenth, when there won't
be time to bring the Omer.
2. It can't be on the fifteenth of Nisan - as it would
be permitted from after midday, for we have learned
that those who come from afar are allowed to eat it
then, as it is presumed that the Omer has already
(e) (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak) R. Yochanan b. Zakai's decree
was based on R. Yehudah's principle:
7) MISHNAH: THE TIMES FOR ACCEPTING TESTIMONY
1. (R. Yehudah) The Pasuk forbids eating Chadash until
(f) Question: Surely we find that they argue as to whether it
is forbidden d'Oraisa or d'Rabanan!?
2. "Until" is inclusive - i.e. the entire day of the
sixteenth is forbidden.
(g) Answer: R. Yehudah mistakenly understood R. Yochanan b.
Zakai to have meant d'Rabanan.
1. Question: But R. Yochanan b. Zakai used the term
"decreed," implying d'Rabanan?
2. Answer: It means that, based on the Pasuk, he
(a) Originally, testimony about the new moon would be
accepted all day.
8) THE MISTAKE WITH THE SHIR
(b) Once, the witnesses were delayed, and the Levi'im made a
mistake with the Shir.
(c) It was thereafter decreed that witnesses would only be
accepted until Minchah.
(d) If they come afterwards, both that day and the next day
are observed as Rosh Chodesh.
(e) After the Destruction, R. Yochanan b. Zakai decreed that
testimony could be accepted all day.
(a) Question: What was the mistake with the Shir?
(b) Answer (from Bavel): They didn't sing at all.
(c) Alternate answer (R. Zeira): They sang the weekday Shir
with the Tamid (instead of the festival Shir).
(d) Question: R. Zeira quoted a Beraisa that 'They instituted
not to receive the witnesses after Minchah, in order that
there should be sufficient time in the day to bring the
Temidin, the Musafin and the drink-offerings without
mishap.' Doesn't 'without mishap' imply that it was to
avoid singing the wrong Shir?
(e) Answer: Not singing it at all is the biggest mishap of
(f) Question (R. Acha bar Huna): We see that they sang the
Shir of the wrong day:
1. On the morning of the thirtieth of Elul - the
Levi'im would generally sing the regular Shir of
whichever day it was.
(g) Answer: In that case, they sang the Shir because it was
suited to that day anyway.
2. ... at Musaf, if that day was declared Rosh Hashanah
- "Harninu" (The Shir shel Yom for Thursday).
3. ... at Shachris, if the witnesses came before the
Tamid shel Shachar, and it was a Thursday morning -
"Hasirosi" (the second half of "Harninu"). This is
in order to avoid repeating the same Shir twice on
the same day, where it could be avoided.
4. ... at Musaf, in the same case, if the witnesses
came *after* the Tamid shel Shachar - "Harninu"
(even though it meant repeating it - because it was
5. We see here that, in cases of doubt, they would sing
the weekday Shir, and that was why it was a case of