POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 29
1) KAVANAH OF THE ONE BLOWING THE SHOFAR
(a) R. Zeira told his assistant to have Kavanah when blowing
Shofar for him.
2) MISHNAH: MOSHE'S HANDS AND SHOFAR-BLOWERS
(b) We see that he holds that the one blowing must have
(c) Question: We find that if someone was passing by a Shul
and heard the Shofar or Megillah, then he is Yotze only
if he had Kavanah - but in any case, the one blowing
certainly didn't have Kavanah for him!?
(d) Answer: The one blowing is a Shaliach Tzibur who has
Kavanah for everyone.
(e) Question: We find that both the Shofar-blower and the
listener must have Kavanah. The implication is that if
the listener had Kavanah but not the blower, he is not
Yotze - which must refer to the blower not having
*himself* in mind and not being Yotze (just like the
other case mentioned there, namely,of the listener, who
did also not have Kavanah that he himself should be
Yotze). But if he did have himself in mind, they are
Yotze even though he had nobody else in mind!
(f) Answer: It is a Machlokes Tana'im:
1. (Tana Kama) The one blowing does not any specific
Kavanah for anyone.
2. (R. Yosi) That is only true for a Shaliach Tzibur,
otherwise both blower and listener must have
(a) The Pasuk says that the Bnei Yisrael were victorious when
Moshe's hands were raised, as it signified that their
hearts were directed Heavenwards.
3) OBLIGATIONS FOR SHOFAR
(b) Similarly, the copper snake had no innate healing powers,
but it caused people to direct their hearts Heavenwards.
(c) A deaf-mute, fool or minor cannot blow Shofar for the
rest of us.
1. The principle is that anyone not obligated in
something cannot perform other's obligations in it.
(a) A Beraisa discusses the obligations for Shofar:
4) FULFILLING OBLIGATIONS FOR OTHERS
1. Everyone is obligated in Shofar, including Kohanim,
Levi'im, Yisraelim, converts, freed servants,
Tumtum, Androgenus, and one is half enslaved and
(b) Question: Why do we need to be told that Kohanim, Levi'im
and Yisraelim need to hear Shofar?
2. A Tumtum cannot be Motzi either another Tumtum or
3. An Androgenus can be Motzi another Androgenus but
4. Someone who is half enslaved and half free cannot be
Motzi either a similar person or anyone else.
1. Suggested answer: We might have thought that Kohanim
are exempt, as it is called a "day" of Shofar, and
their obligation is year-round with the trumpets of
(c) Replacement answer: We might have thought that Kohanim
are exempt for a different reason:
2. Objection: Trumpets are a different matter to
1. The Mishnah said that Rosh Hashanah and Yovel are
the same regarding Shofar.
2. We might have taken this to mean that those who are
exempt from Yovel are exempt from Shofar.
3. Kohanim are exempt from Yovel in that they can sell
their property at all times and redeem it.
(a) (R. Huna) Although someone who is half enslaved and half
free cannot be Motzi either a similar person or anyone
else, he can be Motzi himself.
(b) Question (R. Nachman): Just as his slave half cannot be
Motzi someone else's free half, it also cannot be Motzi
his own free half!
1. Therefore, he cannot be Motzi himself either.
(c) Although a person has been Yotze a Berachah for himself,
he can still be Motzi others, except for Berachos on food
2. A Beraisa confirms this.
(d) Question (Rava): Can a person be Motzi others with the
Berachah on matzah or the wine of Kidush after he has
already been Yotze?
***** Hadran Alach, Ra'uhu Beis-Din *****
1. Do we say that this Berachah is part of the
obligation or not?
(e) Answer (R. Ashi): R. Papi used to make Kidush for us and
then for his worker.
(f) A person should not make a Berachah for his guests if he
is not himself eating.
1. But he can do so for his children and household in
order to educate them.
(g) A person may read Hallel and Megillah to be Motzi others
even though he has already been Yotze.
***** Perek Yom-Tov *****
5) MISHNAH: ROSH HASHANAH ON SHABBOS
(a) If Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbos, they would blow Shofar
only in the Beis ha'Mikdash.
6) THE SOURCE FOR THE MISHNAH
(b) After the Destruction, R. Yochanan b. Zakai decreed that
it should be blown in every town with a Beis Din.
(c) R. Elazar said that this decree was only for Yavneh, but
(d) With Yerushalayim, all nearby towns could also blow
Shofar on Shabbos, whereas with Yavneh no other towns
could do so.
(a) Question: How do we know that Shofar must not be blown on
(b) Answer: Although one Pasuk says that it should be a day
of Teruah, another says that it should be merely a
*remembrance* for Teruah, which must be referring to
where it fell on Shabbos.
1. Question (Rava): If it is forbidden d'Oraisa, how
could they blow it on Shabbos in the Beis
(c) Replacement answer (Rava): It is permitted d'Oraisa; the
Rabanan prohibited it, in accordance with Rabah:
2. Question #2: It's not a Melachah anyway; as with
removing the bread from the oven, it is a Chochmah
1. (Rabah) Everyone is obligated to blow Shofar, but
not everyone is competent to do so.
2. There is therefore a concern that a person might
carry it on Shabbos to an expert for instruction.
3. It is for this reason that the Rabanan forbade Lulav
and Megilah on Shabbos.
(a) Once, when Rosh Hashanah fell on Shabbos, all the towns
went to Yavneh to hear the Shofar blown.
1. The Bnei Beseirah asked R. Yochanan b. Zakai to
judge whether the decree of not blowing the Shofar
should be applied.
(b) Question: In the Mishnah, those who said that the Shofar
was not only blown on Shabbos in Yavneh but also in every
town with a Beis Din are saying the same thing as the
2. He told them to blow the Shofar first, and
afterwards he said that it was too late to judge it.
(c) Answer: The difference is with a temporary Beis Din,
which only the Tana Kama would permit to blow a Shofar on