POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 19
ROSH HASHANAH 19 & 20 (10, 11 Av) - dedicated by Rabbi Kornfeld's
grandmother, Mrs. G. Turkel, to the memory of her husband, Reb Yisrael
Shimon (Isi) ha'Levi Turkel, who loved Torah and worked to support Torah
until his last breath. He passed away on 10 Av 5780.
1) MEGILAS TAANIS (Cont.), THE THIRD OF TISHREI
(a) Question: There would be no point in establishing the
3rd of Tishrei as a festive day for when the Beis
ha'Mikdash is standing, as it would anyway be festive as
it is the fast of Gedalyah (which is a festival in the
time of the Beis ha'Mikdash standing)!?
2) THE TWENTY-NINTH OF ADAR
(b) Answer (Rav): The point would be to prohibit the
preceding day for fasting.
(c) Question: The preceding day would anyway be forbidden
for fasting, as it is the day after Rosh Chodesh!?
(d) Answer: Rosh Chodesh is a d'Oraisa festival, which does
not need the reinforcement of prohibiting fasting on the
1. (Beraisa) The festive days listed in Megilas Taanis
are forbidden for fasting on the days preceding and
following them as well.
(e) Question: The preceding day would anyway be forbidden
for fasting, as it is the day before the day when
Gedalyah was killed!?
2. With Shabbos and Yom Tov, one may fast on the
preceding and following days.
3. The reason is that the latter are d'Oraisa, which
don't need reinforcement, whereas the former are
d'Rabanan and need reinforcement.
(f) Answer (R. Ashi): The fast of Gedalyah is Divrei Kabalah
(from Nevi'im) which is like a d'Oraisa fast in that it
does not need reinforcement.
(a) Question (R. Tuvi bar Masna): We see that Megilas Taanis
was not annulled:
1. The government decreed that Jews may not study
Torah or circumcise their sons and that they must
2. Yehudah b. Shamua and his friends asked advice from
a princess who was familiar with all the prominent
3. She advised them to make a demonstration at night.
4. They did so, and said, "We are all brothers, why do
you persecute us?"
5. The decrees were annulled, and that day (the 29th
of Adar) became a festival.
6. If Megilas Taanis was annulled, how could they make
a new such festive day?
i. Answer: This day was only made into a festival
for when the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing.
ii. Question: Yehudah b. Shamua was a disciple of
R. Meir, who lived after the Beis ha'Mikdash:
a) (Mishnah) If a glass vessel (which became
Tamei) was punctured (to make it Tahor)
and the hole filled with lead;
b) (R. Shimon b. Gamliel citing Yehudah b.
Shamua citing R. Meir) It reverts to its
c) (Chachamim) It is Tahor.
(b) Answer: Whether Megilas Taanis was annulled is a dispute
between Tannaim in a Beraisa:
3) THE MESSENGERS FOR ELUL AND TISHREI
1. (R. Meir) The days listed in Megilas Taanis are
forbidden for fasting whether or not the Beis
ha'Mikdash is standing.
(c) The Halachah is that these days were annulled.
2. (R. Yosi) They are only forbidden for fasting when
the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing.
(d) The Halachah is that these days were not annulled.
(e) Question: This is a contradiction!?
(f) Answer: It is only Chanukah and Purim that were not
(a) Question: Since messengers were sent out for Rosh
Chodesh Elul, why do they need to be sent out for
4) THE MESSENGERS FOR ADAR SHEINI
1. Answer: In case Elul became a full month.
(b) Answer: "We don't find it" because it was never
necessary; but if necessary, it would be made a full
2. Question: R. Chanina bar Kahana citing Rav stated
that we do not find that Elul has ever been a full
month since the time of Ezra!?
(c) Question: If that were to happen, people in the Diaspora
would keep Rosh Hashanah on the wrong day!?
(d) Answer: Better for that to happen than for the festivals
to be kept on the wrong days.
1. This can be deduced from the Mishnah's statement
that messengers were sent out for Tishrei to ensure
that the festivals are kept at the correct time.
(a) The Mishnah does not state that, in the event of a leap
year, messengers would be sent out for Adar Sheini
because of Purim.
5) THE LENGTH OF ADAR RISHON AND SHEINI
(b) We see that the Mishnah does not follow Rebbi:
1. (Rebbi) In the event of a leap year, messengers
would be sent out for Adar Sheini because of Purim.
(c) Question: Perhaps they are arguing about whether all the
mitzvos of Adar Sheini apply in Adar Rishon (and
therefore one can fulfill one's obligations then)?
(d) Answer: All agree that the mitzvos do not apply in Adar
Rishon; the dispute is over the length of Adar Rishon,
as in a Beraisa:
1. (Tana Kama) Adar Rishon is thirty days.
2. (R. Shimon b. Gamliel) Adar Rishon is one month
(assumed to mean 29 days).
i. Question: In either case, they know when Adar
Sheini will arrive?
ii. Answer (R. Papa): The view that it is one
month holds that it can be 29 or 30 days (and
messengers would need to be sent).
(a) R. Yehoshua b. Levi testified that the Jerusalem
community would make the 30th day of each Adar into the
first of the next month.
(b) We see that both months would always be abridged, unlike
the following view:
1. (R. Nachman bar Chisda) R. Simai testified in the
name of Chagai, Zacharyah and Malachi that both or
either months of Adar could be made full or
(c) A message was sent to Mar Ukva that the Adar closest to
Nisan is always abridged.
2. Thus was the custom in the Diaspora.
3. Rav's view was cited that Adar Rishon was always
full and Adar Sheini always abridged unless a
message was sent from Eretz Yisrael otherwise.
(d) Question (R. Nachman): We see otherwise:
1. (Mishnah) The witnesses of the moon for the months
of Nisan and Tishrei can transgress Shabbos.
(e) Answer: Because it is a mitzvah to sanctify the month on
the basis of eyewitness testimony.
2. That makes sense if the months were sometimes full
and sometimes abridged.
3. But if the Adar closest to Nisan was always
abridged, why should they be allowed to transgress