POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
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Previous dafRosh Hashanah 18
ROSH HASHANAH 17 & 18 (8, 9 Av) - these Dafim have been dedicated by Rabbi
Eli Turkel of Ra'anana, Israel, to the memory of his father, Reb Yisrael
Shimon ben Shlomo ha'Levi Turkel (Yarhzeit: 10 Av).
1) VERDICTS AND THEIR REVOCATION
(a) Whether a decree on an individual can be revoked is a
dispute between Tana'im:
2) THE JUDGMENT OF MAN
1. If two people fall sick, or stand to be executed,
and one is saved;
(b) Question: Can a verdict on a community really be torn
up? We see otherwise:
i. (R. Meir) He was saved because his prayer was
answered; it was answered because he
ii. (R. Eliezer) He had not yet had his verdict,
the other had.
iii. (R. Yitzchak) Crying out in prayer is
beneficial whether before or after the
1. One Pasuk instructs atonement, the other says that
it won't help;
(c) Answer: Both refer to after a verdict;
2. Surely the reconciliation is that one is referring
to before a verdict, the other to after?
1. In one, the verdict was accompanied by an oath, so
it cannot be torn up.
(d) Question (R. Shmuel bar Inya citing Rav): How do we know
that a verdict on a community is not sealed?
2. (R. Shmuel bar Ami citing R. Yonasan) Proof of this
is the Pasuk of an oath that Eli's household shall
never receive atonement with Korbanos.
3. (Rava) However, they can receive atonement through
4. (Abaye) They can receive atonement through Torah
and acts of kindness.
i. Rava was descended from Eli's household; he
studied Torah and lived 40 years.
5. There was a family in Jerusalem whose members died
ii. Abaye was descended from Eli's household; he
studied Torah, practiced kindness and lived 60
i. R. Yochanan b. Zakai suggested that they were
Eli's descendants, and told them to study
ii. They did so and survived; they were afterwards
called "R. Yochanan's family."
1. Question: We see in a Pasuk that it is sealed!?
(e) Answer: As the Pasuk states that Hashem is available
whenever we call Him.
2. Answer: Rather, how do we know that even after
being sealed, it can be torn up?
(f) Question: Another Pasuk states that He is only available
at certain times?
(g) Answer: That refers to an individual.
1. Question: When is He available to an individual?
2. Answer (Rabah bar Avuha): During the ten days from
Rosh Hashanah to Yom Kipur;
i. Question: Why was there a ten-day delay before
Hashem struck Naval?
ii. Answer (R. Yehudah citing Rav): Matching the
ten meals that he gave to David's servants.
iii. Alternate answer (R. Nachman citing Raba bar
Avuha): These were the ten days until Yom
Kipur which Hashem allowed for his repentance.
(a) Question: The Mishnah stated that all the world pass
before Hashem like Bnei Maron - what are they?
3) MISHNAH: THE MESSENGERS OF ROSH CHODESH
(b) Answer: Sheep.
(c) Alternate answer (Resh Lakish): The single-file ascent
of Beis Maron.
(d) Alternate answer (R. Yehudah citing Shmuel): The
soldiers of the house of David.
(e) (Rabah bar bar Chana citing R. Yochanan) They are all
scanned with a single glance.
(f) (R. Nachman bar Yitzchak) This is also seen from the
Pasuk speaking of "The One who formed all their hearts
1. It can't mean that He made them all united, as we
2. It must mean that the One Who formed them sees all
their hearts at once.
(a) For six of the months Beis Din send out messengers to
inform people of the date of Rosh Chodesh:
1. For Nisan, because of Pesach;
(b) When the Beis ha'Mikdash was standing, they would also
be sent out for Iyar, because of Pesach Sheini.
2. For Av, because of Tishah b'Av;
3. For Elul, because of Rosh Hashanah;
4. For Tishrei, because of the festivals;
5. For Kislev, because of Chanukah;
6. For Adar, because of Purim.
4) WHY THERE WERE NO MESSENGERS FOR OTHER MONTHS
(a) Question: Why not send out messengers for Tamuz and
Teves also (because of their fasts):
5) THE FOUR FASTS OF SORROW
1. (R. Chana bar Bizna citing R. Shimon Chasida) We
derive from a Pasuk that on the four fasts, in
times of peace (i.e. a Beis ha'Mikdash and the Jews
are not oppressed) it is forbidden to fast on them;
otherwise, they are fasts.
(b) Answer (R. Papa): The correct inference from Pasuk is as
1. In times of peace, it is forbidden to fast on these
(c) Question: If so, then messengers should not be sent out
for Av because of Tishah b'Av either?
2. If they are decrees against the Jews, these days
3. If there are no decrees but there is not peace
either, fasting is optional.
4. Hence, since the fasts are optional, messengers are
not sent for Rosh Chodesh.
(d) Answer (R. Papa): Tishah b'Av is different because of
its multiple tragedies:
1. On Tishah b'Av, the first and second Batei Mikdash
were destroyed, Betar was captured, and Jerusalem
was razed to the ground.
(a) (R. Shimon) There are four Drashos of R. Akiva with
which I differ, and this is one:
6) MEGILAS TAANIS
1. "The fast of the fourth" is the ninth of Tamuz,
when Jerusalem was split.
i. It is so called because it is in the fourth
2. "The fast of the fifth" is Tishah b'Av, when the
Beis ha'Mikdash was burnt.
i. It is so called because it is in the fifth
3. "The fast of the seventh" is the third of Tishrei,
when Gedalyah b. Achikam was killed by Yishmael b.
i. This teaches us that the death of the
righteous is as significant as the burning of
the Beis ha'Mikdash.
4. "The fast of the tenth" is the tenth of Teves, when
the King of Bavel laid siege to Jerusalem.
ii. It is so called because it is in the seventh
i. It is so called because it is in the tenth
5. (R. Shimon) I disagree; "The fast of the tenth" is
the fifth of Teves, when news of the attack on
Jerusalem reached the Diaspora.
ii. Question: Since this was the chronologically
first event, why is it not listed first?
iii. Answer: As it is more important to list the
months in the correct order.
i. My explanation is better in that the fasts are
listed in the chronological order of the
events that they mark.
ii. R. Akiva considers only the order of months.
iii. I also consider the order of events.
(a) (Rav & R. Chanina) Megilas Taanis (the festive days when
one may not fast) is annulled.
1. These days are like those in the Pasuk which are
only forbidden for fasting in times of a Beis
ha'Mikdash, otherwise they are fasts.
(b) (R. Yochanan & R. Yehoshua b. Levi) Megilas Taanis is
1. It is only those in the Pasuk with which the
festivity is contingent on a Beis ha'Mikdash.
(c) Question (R. Kahana): We see that festive days are still
forbidden for fasts (in contradiction to Rav and R.
1. A fast was decreed in Lod on Chanukah.
(d) Answer (R. Yosef): Chanukah is different because it is a
2. R. Eliezer bathed himself and R. Yehoshua took a
3. They rebuked others for fasting on Chanukah.
1. Question (Abaye): But if festive days are
annulled, it would no longer be a mitzvah!?
(e) Question (R. Acha bar Huna): We see that Megilas Taanis
was not annulled:
2. Answer (R. Yosef): Rather, Chanukah is different
because it has become popularized and universally
1. Yavan decreed that the Jews may not mention the
Name of Hashem.
(f) Answer: This day was only made into a festival for when
the Beis ha'Mikdash is standing.
2. When the Chashmona'im were victorious, they decreed
that people should even write the Name of Hashem in
their legal documents.
3. People would write, "In year such-and-such to
Yochanan, Kohen Gadol to Hashem."
4. The Chachamim were concerned that after people had
paid their debts, they would throw the documents
5. On the third of Tishrei, they revoked the decree to
write Hashem's Name in documents, and made that day
6. If Megilas Taanis was annulled, how could they make
a new such festive day?