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by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Rosh Hashanah 10

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) Question: How do we know that Orlah and Revai extend to fruit that grows between Rosh Hashanah and Tu B'Shevat?
(b) Answer (R. Chiya bar Aba citing R. Yochanan/ citing R. Yanai): The prefix "and" implies that the prohibition of Orlah can extend into part of the fourth year and by Revai the "and" implies that the laws of Revai can extend into part of the fifth year.
(a) Question: It seems that this Tosefta (which holds that less than thirty days does not count as a year) does not follow R. Meir, who says that one day of a year counts as a year.
1. (R. Meir) When the Torah speaks of a cow, it means an animal at least 24 months and one day old.
2. (R. Elazar) It means an animal at least 24 months and thirty days old.
3. R. Meir's opinion is based on his view that "Eigel" refers to a cow in its first year, "Ben Bakar" refers to a cow in its second year, and "Par" refers to an animal in its third year.
(b) Answer: It could even follow R. Meir; he only holds that one day counts as a year when it is at the end of the cycle, not when it is at the beginning.
1. Question (Rava): Surely it is a Kal v'Chomer that it should work at the beginning!?
i. With a Nidah, the seventh day of the phase must be a complete day, but the first day can be only the final part of the day.
ii. So with years, if one day does count as a year at the end of the cycle, all the more so should it count at the beginning of the cycle!

(c) Question: Who else is the Tosefta following?
(d) Answer: R. Elazar.
(e) Question: But according to him, it would have to be planted sixty days before Rosh Hashanah to be counted as a year, as in the Mishnah!?
1. (R. Elazar) One may not plant, bend the runner of a plant into the earth to take root, or graft, within thirty days of the Shemitah year; if one did so, it must be uprooted.
2. (R. Yehudah) One may do this until three days before the Shemitah year.
3. (R. Yosi and R. Shimon) One may do this until two weeks before the Shmittah year.
4. (R. Nachman, citing Rabah bar Avuha) Thirty days must be added to all these opinions to give time for the plant to take root.
(f) Question: Should you say the Tosefta follows R. Yehudah, it should say 33 days before Rosh Hashanah!?
(g) Answer: The Tosefta follows R. Meir; it gave a minimum of thirty days because that is the time required so that the tree should take root.
(h) Question: If so, it should have said thirty-one days (an additional day to count as the first year)!?
(i) Answer: He holds that the thirtieth day counts as both the tree taking root and the first year.
(a) (R. Yochanan) Both R. Meir and R. Elazar derive their positions from the Pasuk, in Noach.
1. (R. Meir) Since it was only one day into the year, and it calls it the 601st year, we see that one day counts as a year.
i. Question: How will R. Elazar respond?
ii. Answer: The word "year" refers to the 600, not to the one.
2. (R. Elazar) Since it was only one day into the month, and it calls it a month, we see that one day counts a month; and if one unit of a month counts as a month, then one unit of a year (i.e. a month) counts as a year.
(a) The world was created, and the forefathers were born and died in Tishrei (R. Eliezer) or in Nisan (R. Yehoshua).
(b) On Pesach, Yitzchak was born.
(c) On Rosh Hashanah, Sarah, Rachel and Chanah were designated to give birth, Yosef was released from prison, and the slavery in Egypt ceased.
(d) In Nisan, we were redeemed from Egypt.
(e) The future redemption will be in Tishrei (R. Eliezer) or in Nisan (R. Yehoshua).
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