POINT BY POINT SUMMARY
by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld
Ask A Question on the daf
Previous dafRosh Hashanah 6
ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.
1) THE EXCLUSION OF "VEHAYAH B'CHA CHAIT" (cont'd)
(a) Question: But this exclusion could be inferred from the
Pasuk cited by Ben Azai!?
2) THE BERAISA OF "MOTZA SEFASECHA"
1. (Ben Azai) "Lo S'acher" implies that even one who
brings a Neder late has not accomplished anything.
(b) Answer: "Vehayah B'cha Chait" rather excludes one's wife
2. "Oso" therefore teaches us that it is only with
Pigul that no endearment is accomplished, but with
other Korbanos, although there is a sin of Bal
T'acher, the Korban is not disqualified!
1. (R. Yochanan/ R. Elazar) A man's wife dies if he
has no money for his promises.
2. One might think that she also dies if her husband
is late with his Korban; thus, the Pasuk excludes
her from accountability.
(a) A Beraisa derives laws from the Pasuk of "Motza
Sefasecha Tishmor" (as listed).
3) THE POSITIVE MITZVAH TO BRING KORBANOS ON TIME
(b) Question: Why do we need "Motza Sefasecha" to create a
positive Mitzvah to keep to one's word - we have learned
it from "u'Va'asa Shamah"!
(c) Question: Why do we need "Tishmor" to create a negative
prohibition if this is transgressed - We have learned it
from "Lo Se'acher"!
(d) Question: Why do we need "v'Asisa" to instruct Beis Din
to force a person to abide by his word - we have learned
it from the Beraisa of "Yakriv Oso":
1. (Beraisa) "Yakriv Oso" teaches us to force him.
(e) Answer: One set of exegeses is needed for a case where he
proclaimed that he would bring a Korban, but did not set
one aside, and another set is needed for a case where he
set an animal aside but did not bring it.
2. "Le'Retzono" teaches us that he must bring it
3. The reconciliation of these instructions is that we
force him until he is willing to bring it.
1. They are each needed to avoid possible errors:
(f) (Rava) "b'Fichah" obligates one to fulfill one's
promises of charity (immediately, because there are
always poor people who await it).
i. We might think that he is accountable because
he did not keep to his word; but if he set it
aside, it belongs to Hashem wherever it is,
and we would think that he is not accountable.
2. Question: How can one Pasuk be referring to a case
where he proclaimed that he would bring a Korban
and did not set one aside - surely it refers to a
Nedavah, which is an animal that has been set
ii. We might think that he is accountable because
he is withholding a Korban; but if he only
proclaimed that he would bring a Korban and
did not set one aside, we would think that he
has done nothing and is not accountable.
i. (Mishnah) A Neder means one committing oneself
to bring a Korban.
3. Answer (Rava): It refers to a case where he
proclaimed that he would bring a Korban with no
liability (and because of that aspect alone it is
referred to as a Nedavah, even though no animal has
been set aside).
ii. A Nedavah means one committing a specific
animal as a Korban.
iii. A distinction occurs where the animal dies or
was stolen (only a Neder must be replaced).
1. Question: This is obvious!
2. Answer: One might think that since this teaching is
in the context of Korbanos, it has a three-festival
period as with Korbanos; therefore we must be told
that since the poor people await it, the obligation
(a) (Rava) After one festival has elapsed, one transgresses
a positive Mitzvah if one has not yet brought the Korban.
(b) Question: A Mishnah shows otherwise!?
1. (R. Yehoshua and R. Papayas) The offspring of an
animal that was pregnant whilst consecrated as a
Shelamim is itself a Shelamim.
(c) Answer (R. Zvid citing Rava): It may have been sick on
2. (R. Papayas) A Shelamim was eaten on Pesach, and
its calf was eaten on Chag i.e. Sukos.
3. The calf wasn't brought on Pesach as it was too
4. How could they have avoided bringing it on Shavuos,
if one transgresses a positive Mitzvah in bringing
(d) Answer #2 (R. Ashi): The Chag being referred to is
Shavuos, not Sukos (while the one who asked the question
held that when Shavuos is mentioned after Pesach, it is
called Atzeres, not Chag).
4) THE DAILY TRANSGRESSION OF BAL T'ACHER
(a) (Rava) When three festivals have passed, every day is a
transgression of Bal T'acher.
5) YEARS WITHOUT FESTIVALS
(b) Question: But the Mishnah teaches that whether with a
Bechor or other Korbanos, one transgresses Bal T'acher
after a year (even without three festivals) or three
festivals (even in less than a year) have passed!?
(c) Answer: How does that present a question?
(d) Question (R. Kahana): Since the Tana is discussing
negative prohibitions, he would have stated that one is
incurred every day if that were the case!
(e) Answer: The Tana's goal is to establish that there is a
prohibition, not to list the number of prohibitions.
(a) The aforementioned Mishnah stated that Bal T'acher is
transgressed after three festivals even in less than a
year - that is straightforward (Pesach through Sukos is
just over six months)
6) BAL T'ACHER FOR A YORESH
(b) Question: But how can there be a year without three
(c) Answer: It would work according to Rebi, in the case of
a leap year:
1. (Rebi) The year is calculated as 365 days.
(d) Question: But how are we to understand a year without
three festivals according to the Chachamim?
2. (Chachamim) It is calculated to the same day of the
same month; the extra month in a leap year is
counted in his favor.
3. According to Rebi, therefore, if he consecrated it
after Pesach, then after 365 days (including Adar
Sheini) three festivals will not have passed.
(e) Answer: According to the (detailed) calculation of R.
Shemayah (who argues with Acherim) there can be 365 days
without three Regalim.
(a) Question (R. Zeira): Can a Yoresh (heir) be liable for
7) BAL T'ACHER FOR A WIFE
1. Do we consider that the Torah applies it only to
"one who makes a Neder," and he didn't make it?
(b) Answer (R. Chiya): "Me'imcha" excludes a Yoresh.
2. Or do we consider that the Torah's instruction that
it be brought applies equally to him?
1. Question: We established earlier that "Me'imcha"
refers to Leket, Shikcha and Peyah!
2. Answer: "Imcha" refers to these things; the prefix
"Me" excludes a Yoresh.
(a) Question (R. Zeira): Is a wife liable for Bal T'acher?
8) COUNTING A YEAR FOR A BECHOR
1. Do we consider that since she has no Mitzvah of
seeing the Beis haMikdash, she is not liable?
(b) Answer (Abaye): Since she has the Mitzvah of Simchah on
a festival, she is liable.
2. Or do we consider that since she has the Mitzvah of
Simchah on a festival (through eating the Korban),
she is liable?
1. Question: But Abaye taught that her Mitzvah of
Simchah is fulfilled through her husband buying her
2. Answer: Abaye was speaking according to R. Zeira's
view that her Mitzvah of Simchah is through eating
(a) Question: From which point does one count a year (and
become liable for Bal T'acher) for a Bechor?
(b) (Abaye) From when it is born.
(c) (R. Acha bar Yakov) From when it is suitable for a Korban
- the eighth day.
(d) This is not an argument - R. Acha is referring to a
flawless animal, and Abaye is referring to a blemished
animal (which can only be slaughtered outside the Beis
haMikdash anyway, which can be done as soon as it is
1. Question: Surely it is forbidden to eat a blemished
animal (as it might be premature and classified as
a stillborn) unless it survives eight days!?
2. Answer: It refers to a case where it was
established that it was not premature.