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by R. Nosson Slifkin
Kollel Iyun Hadaf, Yerushalayim
Rosh Kollel: Rabbi Mordecai Kornfeld

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Rosh Hashanah 4

ROSH HASHANAH 2-10 sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


(a) Question (R. Kahana): Did Daryavesh really turn evil (we find that he gave many gifts to the Kohanim)!?
(b) Answer #1 (R. Yitzchak): He only gave them gifts so that they would pray for him.
1. Question: Is that not appropriate (we find in a Beraisa that if someone gives money to charity so that his children should live long lives and he should merit the World-to-Come, he is utterly righteous)!?
2. Answer: It is befitting for a Jew, but not for a non-Jew (who will be resentful if his prayer is not answered).
(c) Answer #2: Daryavesh was evil in that he built wood into the walls of the Beis haMikdash, so that he could burn it in the event of a dispute with the Jews.
1. Question: King Shlomo also built wood into the walls!
2. Answer: Shlomo placed the wood above the stone, embedded it inside the wall, and covered it with plaster.
(d) Answer #3 (R. Yosef/ R. Yitzchak): He was evil in that the Pasuk states that the "Shegal" sat beside him; Rabah bar Leima states that Shegal is a female dog.
1. Question: There is a Pasuk that speaks of the Shegal drinking wine!?
2. Answer: A dog can be trained to drink wine.
3. Question: There is a prophecy that the Shegal shall stand for Israel!?
4. Answer: It means that Torah is as beloved to Israel as a dog is to non-Jews.
5. Alternate answer: Shegal means "queen"; Rabah bar Leima had a tradition that in this case, she was a dog, so called because it was as beloved as a queen or because it sat on the queen's throne.
(e) Answer #4: He turned evil in that he later placed limits on the extent of his gifts.
1. Question: Perhaps his wealth became limited!?
2. Answer: One of the former answers must be correct.
(a) Question: How can the new year begin on the first of Nisan when Pesach is on the fifteenth?
(b) Answer (R. Chisda): It means that Nisan is the month whose festival is the new year for festivals.
(c) The relevance of the new year for festivals is for someone who vows to bring a Korban - to set a date after which he transgresses the sin of Bal T'acher (bringing it late), following the view of R. Shimon in the Beraisa:
1. (Tana Kama) When three festivals have elapsed, one transgresses Bal T'acher.
2. (R. Shimon) The three festivals must be in sequence with Pesach first.
(d) Similarly R. Shimon bar Yochai: Pesach must begin the sequence, thus sometimes four or five festivals will pass before Bal T'acher is transgressed.
(a) The items in question: Damin, Arachin, Charamin, Hekdesh, Chatas, Ashamos, Olos, Shelamim, Tzedakos, Ma'asros, Bechor, Ma'aser Behemah, Korban Pesach, Leket, Shikchah and Peyah.
(b) (Tana Kama) Bal T'acher is transgressed after three festivals have passed (in any order).

(c) (R. Shimon) The three festivals must be in sequence with Nisan first.
(d) (R. Meir) Bal T'acher is transgressed after a single festival has passed.
(e) (R. Eliezer b. Yakov) Bal T'acher is transgressed after two festivals have passed.
(f) (R. Eliezer b. Shimon) Bal T'acher is transgressed after Sukos has passed.
(a) The Tana Kama's reason is that the context is anyway referring to the three festivals; the repeated listing of them teaches us that Bal T'acher is transgressed after three have passed.
(b) R. Shimon's reason is that Sukos need not be mentioned, as that is the immediate context; its mention tells us that it must be last in the sequence.
(c) R. Meir's reason is that the Torah tells him to bring it; hence, he transgresses Bal T'acher after missing one such opportunity.
1. The Rabbanan derive from here that it is a positive mitzvah but there is no sin in failing to do so.
2. R. Meir: If the Torah wants something to be done, then failing to do it is ipso facto sinful.
(d) R. Eliezer b. Yakov's reason is that the Torah speaks of festivals in the plural; thus, he transgresses Bal T'acher after two festivals have elapsed.
1. The Rabbanan counter that they use that Pasuk for R. Yonah's inference (by way of a Hekesh).
2. R. Yonah taught that the goat-offerings of all the festivals are equally effective at atoning for impurity in the Beis haMikdash and its offerings.
(e) R. Eliezer b. Shimon's reason is that Sukos need not be mentioned, as that is the immediate context; its mention tells us that its passage alone causes Bal T'acher.
(a) Question: How do R. Meir and R. Eliezer b. Yakov understand the Torah's repeated listing of the three festivals?
(b) Answer: They use it for the exegesis of R. Elazar citing R. Oshiya: It lists Shavuos together with Pesach to teach us that the Shavuos has a seven-day opportunity for Tashlumin (reparations for the korban), just like Pesach.
1. Question: Why not compare Shavuos to Sukos and give it an eight-day period for Tashlumin?
2. Answer: The eighth day of Sukos is an independent festival.
3. Question: The eighth day's status as an independent festival was stated regarding P.Z.R.K.Sh.B. (Payis, Zman, Regel, Korban, Shir and Berachah); but regarding Tashlumin, it is part of Sukos, as stated in a Mishnah?!
4. Replacement answer: It is easier to learn the extended Tashlumin of Shavuos from the smaller period of Pesach than from the longer period of Sukos.
(c) Question: If so, why is Sukos mentioned again?
(d) Answer: To link it to Pesach and thereby deduce that just as Pesach requires an overnight stay in Jerusalem, so does Sukos.
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