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Rosh Hashanah 32

ROSH HASHANAH 31-35 (Siyum!) - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.


AGADAH: The Mishnah states that we recite ten verses of Malchiyos, ten verses of Zichronos, and ten verses of Shofros on Rosh Hashanah. The Gemara records several opinions concerning the source for reciting specifically ten verses of each. Rebbi Levi says that the ten verses we recite correspond to the ten "Hilulim" ("Halleluhu") in the last chapter of Sefer Tehilim, in which Teki'as Shofar is mentioned. Rav Yosef says that they correspond to the ten commandments of the Aseres ha'Dibros, which were given at Har Sinai amidst a resounding Shofar blast. Rebbi Yochanan says that they correspond to the ten utterances with which the world was created, because Rosh Hashanah is the day on which it was created.

(a) The SEFER HA'IKRIM (1:4) explains that there are three (rather than 13, as the Rambam counts them) basic tenets of belief, or Emunah, at the root of the Jewish religion. Once a person accepts these as true, acceptance of all other details of our faith will automatically follow. These three tenets are (1) Emunah that Hashem created the world, (2) Emunah that the Torah was given to us by Hashem (that is, Hashem told us what His Mitzvos are), and (3) Emunah that Hashem will ultimately reward and punish us according to our deeds (this includes both the belief in Olam ha'Ba and Hashgacha Pratis, and the belief that Hashem observes each and every one of our deeds).

The Sefer ha'Ikrim says that on Rosh Hashanah, the Yom ha'Din, we strengthen our Emunah in these three tenets by reciting the three blessings of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros. In Malchiyos, we proclaim that Hashem is the King and Creator of the entire world. It begins, "It is incumbent upon us to praise the Master of all; to attribute greatness to the initial Creator." The blessing of Zichronos expresses our belief that Hashem sees all actions and rewards or punishes accordingly. It begins, "You remember all deeds that have ever taken place and keep in mind all that has ever transpired [in order to pass judgment based on them]." In the blessing of Shofros we affirm our belief in the Giving of the Torah. It begins, "You were revealed in your cloud of glory ...on Har Sinai to teach Your people Torah and Mitzvos."

Rav David Cohen (Birchas Ya'avetz, "Malchus b'Rosh Hashanah" #4) explains that perhaps this is also the reason the Gemara suggests three different sources for reciting ten verses of Malchiyos, Zichronos and Shofros. The first source the Gemara mentions are the ten Hilulim in the last chapter of Tehilim. That chapter describes how we will praise Hashem with every type of instrument, and with a circular dance ("Machol," see end of Maseches Ta'anis), when Hashem will reveal Himself to all in the World to Come. (This chapter immediately follows the one which describes the "new song" that will be sung to Hashem after the Redemption, Rashi Erchin 13b DH b'Nevel -- OHEL DAVID by the same author, vols. II & IV, end of Tehillim.) This serves as the source for reciting ten verses of Zichronos, which affirm our faith in the World to Come, and that Hashem will ultimately reward and punish each person according to their deeds. The second source in the Gemara is the Ten Commandments, which provide the source for reciting ten verses of Shofros in which we affirm our belief in the Giving of the Torah. The third source, the ten utterances with which the world was created, provide a source for mentioning ten verses in Malchiyos, in which we proclaim that Hashem is the Creator of the world. In short, the Torah relates each of the three tenets of belief to the number ten.

(b) Others point out that many other "three's" in Judaism also correspond to these three basic tenets of Emunah. For example, the three Avos each exemplified the belief in one of these Emunos. Avraham Avinu, who was the first to call Hashem "the Master" (Berachos 7b) taught the nations of the world that Hashem is the Creator o all. Yitzchak, whose attribute was "Pachad" ("Pachad Yitzchak," Bereishis 31:42), taught the world that Hashem is aware of all that a person does and will ultimately judge each person for their every action. Yakov Avinu, "Ish Tam Yoshev Ohalim" (Bereishis 25:27), dwelt in the houses of Torah study, learning and teaching Torah. He taught the world that Hashem gave the Torah and its Mitzvos.

(c) Similarly, there are three sections in Keri'as Shema. In the first section, which starts, "Shema Yisrael Hashem Elokeinu Hashem Echad," we declare that Hashem is One in this world -- i.e., that He is the source and Creator of all. This corresponds to the Emunah that Hashem created the world. The second section discusses the reward that people will receive for following Hashem's will and the punishment that they will get if, G-d forbid, they do not follow His will, corresponding to the second of the three tenets. In the third section, which discusses the Mitzvah of Tzitzis, we refer to our Emunah that Hashem gave us the Mitzvos of the Torah. "You shall see [the Tzitzis] and [through seeing them] remember all of the Mitzvos of Hashem and perform them" (Bamidbar 15:39 -- as Rashi there explains, the Gematria of "Tzitzis" plus the eight strings and five knots equals 613, the number of Mitzvos of the Torah).


The Gemara discusses which verses may be used for the ten verses of each Malchiyos, Zichronos, and Shofros. Although, in general, the Shemoneh Esreh of Musaf as it appears in our Machzorim reflects the conclusions of the Gemara, there are a number of practices in the present-day Musaf which do not seem to conform with the Gemara.

(a) The Gemara discusses an argument whether the verses of "Se'u She'arim Rosheichem" (Tehilim 24:7-10), which include several mentions of Hashem's Kingship, are considered three mentions of Malchiyos or five. In our Shemoneh Esreh of Rosh Hashanah, we recite two other verses from Kesuvim as well as the verses of "Se'u She'arim," apparently counting them as only *one* verse of Malchiyos! Why? The Gemara says that they are counted as at least three Malchiyos!

The ROSH answers that when the Gemara says that we must recite ten verses, it is giving the minimum number of verses. We certainly may mention additional verses of Malchiyos as well. Thus, our practice is to mention two additional verses of Malchiyos from Kesuvim besides the verses of "Se'u She'arim," because we are adding to the minimum number of ten, even though these verse alone indeed count as three or five mentions.

(b) In the verses of Zichronos, we say the verse, "Hashem remembered Noach" (Bereishis 8:1) as one of the ten verses. Why do we recite this verse? The Gemara says that we do not mention a Zikaron which is associated with an individual, rather than a Tzibur!

The answer is that our Gemara allows the verse, "Hashem remembered Sarah" (Bereishis 21:1) even though it is a Zikaron of an individual because "many people (the entire Jewish nation) came from her" through this Zikaron. Similarly, since the entire world was repopulated through Noach, the Zikaron of Noach counts as a Zikaron of many people.

This explains why, in the verses of Zichronos, when we mention the verse "Hashem remembered No'ach," we introduce it by saying that Hashem saved him "in order to make his children as many as the dust of the earth and his offspring like the sand of the sea." This is what justifies mentioning the verse even though it would seem to be a Zikaron of an individual. (M. Kornfeld)

(c) In the section of Shofros, besides saying three verses of Shofros from Kesuvim, we go on and recite the entire chapter of "Haleluhu b'Teka Shofar" (Tehilim 150). Since we have already recited three verses of Shofros, why do we add these verses from Tehilim altogether?

The ROSH cites the RAVYAH who says that we recite this chapter of Tehilim which mentions the blowing of the Shofar, because we never really concluded with a tenth verse from the Torah. The verse from the Torah mentions "Teki'ah" and "Chatzotzeros" (Bamidbar 10:10), but does not mention "Teru'ah" or "Shofar," and therefore it does not count as one of the ten verses of Shofros. It must be that this verse is mentioned only as part of the Berachah (because it relates to Rosh Hashanah through its mention of Teki'ah), but not as one of the verses of Shofros. Therefore, we recite "Haleluhu b'Teka Shofar" to complete the number of ten verses of Shofros. Even though it is from Kesuvim and the Mishnah says that we should end with a verse from the Torah, it is also permitted to end with a verse from Kesuvim or Nevi'im, as the Gemara said.

However, the Rosh rejects this suggestion. He says that the verse from the Torah that mentions Teki'ah *does* count as the tenth verse of Shofros, even though it does not mention Teru'ah or Shofar. "Teki'ah" is the same as "Teru'ah"; both count as verses of Shofros. The reason we say the verses of "Haleluhu b'Teka Shofar" is merely to recite additional verses of Shofros, for we are allowed to add extra verses to the minimum number of ten, as the Rosh explained earlier. (The Rosh cites support for this from the Sifri.)

The AVUDRAHAM adds that there is good reason to warrant mentioning these extra verses from Tehilim. We mention them because the Gemara (32a) lists these verses (the ten Halleluhu's) as the source for saying ten verses of Malchiyos, Zichronos, and Shofros.

QUESTION: The Gemara discusses a dispute whether the verse, "Shema Yisrael Hashem Elokeinu Hashem Echad," is considered a verse of Malchiyos so that it counts as one of the ten verses that we are to recite in the Tefilah of Rosh Hashanah. RAV YITZCHAK HUTNER zt'l (PACHAD YITZCHAK, Rosh Hashanah, Ma'amar 11) asks that we find earlier (32a) that the verse "Ani Hashem Elokeichem" is the source for reciting verses of Malchiyos. If so, why should there be any argument whether the verse of Shema Yisrael counts as an expression of Malchiyos? Since Shema Yisrael includes the words "Hashem Elokeinu," that should be the ideal expression of Malchiyos, for "Ani Hashem Elokeichem" is the undisputed source for Malchiyos! Conversely, we know that when reciting Keri'as Shema, in order to properly fulfill the Mitzvah of accepting upon oneself Hashem's Kingship, one must recite "Shema Yisrael Hashem Elokeinu *Hashem Echad*;" if one leaves out the words "Hashem Echad," one has not properly expressed his acceptance of Hashem's Kingship, for "Hashem Elokeinu" by itself is not sufficient. If so, how can "Ani Hashem Elokeichem" provide a source for reciting Malchiyos, verses of Hashem's Kingship?

There is another major difference between the Malchus Shamayim of Keri'as Shema and of Malchiyos. When expressing the acceptance of Hashem's Malchus during Keri'as Shema, we mention, "*v'Ahavta* Es Hashem," putting an emphasis on the love of Hashem. In contrast, on Rosh Hashanah the emphasis is on Yir'as Hashem, the fear of Hashem (it is one of the two "Days of Awe"). Why he difference?

ANSWER: RAV HUTNER answers by citing Rashi on the verse of Shema Yisrael, who writes that the verse is saying, "Listen, Israel, Hashem, Who is our G-d now in this world, will be, in the World to Come, One G-d [accepted by all people]." We find this idea in the Gemara in Pesachim (50a), which says that in this world Hashem is not One, so to speak, because in this world He is not accepted by all creatures of the world. The Gemara adds that in this world, we do not recognize the singular goodness behind all that happens. Thus we recite one Berachah for bad tidings ("Dayan ha'Emes") and a different Berachah for good tidings ("ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv"); there are times that appear to us to be times of strict judgment and punishment, and other times which appear to be times of goodness. Olam ha'Ba, though, will be different -- we will recite one Berachah, "ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv," on all that happens, because "On that day Hashem will be One and His Name will be One" (Zecharyah 14:9). (See Insights to Pesachim 50:1.)

Rav Hutner explains that our mission on Rosh Hashanah is to accept Hashem as our King in *this* world, according to the limits of our perception in this world. A person in this world cannot fathom the concept of Hashem's Kingship the way it will be revealed in the World to Come as "Hashem will be One and His Name will be One." Right now we do not see Hashem as Echad; we see Him as both "Dayan ha'Emes" and "ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv." Therefore, when we accept upon ourselves Hashem's sovereignty on Rosh Hashanah, it has to be in the form of "Ani Hashem Elokeichem," -- *without* the additional "Hashem Echad" -- "Hashem is One." This expresses the way we perceive Hashem as our King in this world. Accepting Hashem as king the way He will be perceived in the future is not part of our present experience and thus will not comprise a full-hearted acceptance of Malchus Shamayim.

In contrast, when we proclaim that we accept Hashem's sovereignty in Keri'as Shema, we are proclaiming our Emunah of what Hashem *will be* in the future, when His true Oneness is revealed to and perceived by all. That is why one has not fulfilled his obligation properly if he recites Shema Yisrael without the words "Hashem Echad," for he is missing the essential component of the future acceptance of Hashem's sovereignty, that Hashem will be recognized as One. In contrast, this verse is not an ideal expression of Malchiyos for Rosh Hashanah, even though the verse also mentions "Hashem Elokeinu," since that phrase is not the main point of the verse. (Alternatively, the phrase "Hashem Elokeinu" in that verse is not an expression of our acceptance of Hashem as our King, but it is a statement of fact -- "Hashem, Who right now is our G-d...". In order to be considered a verse of Malchiyos it must state that we *accept* Hashem as our King and not merely be a statement of the fact that Hashem is our G-d -- PACHAD YITZCHAK ibid. #22).

This also explains the emphasis in Keri'as Shema on "v'Ahavta," the love of Hashem. Keri'as Shema refers to the time at which we will perceive Hashem as "ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv" and we will be drawn to Hashem through our love for Him. In this world, though, when we accept Hashem as our King as we perceive Him now -- as the judge of mankind, "Dayan ha'Emes" as well as "ha'Tov v'ha'Metiv" -- we accept His Kingship through Yir'as Hashem, through fear.

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