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Rosh Hashanah 31

ROSH HASHANAH 31-35 (Siyum!) - sponsored by a generous grant from an anonymous donor. Kollel Iyun Hadaf is indebted to him for his encouragement and support and prays that Hashem will repay him in kind.

1) [line 8] TEVEL - inhabited land
2) [line 25] "V'NISGAV HASH-M LEVADO BA'YOM HAHU" - "and HaSh-m alone shall be exalted on that day" (Yeshayah 2:11)

3) [line 26] "YECHAYENU MI'YOMAYIM; [BA'YOM HA'SHELISHI YEKIMENU V'NICHYEH LEFANAV]" - "After two days He will revive us; [on the third day He will raise us up, and we shall live in His presence]" (Hoshea 6:2)

4) [line 29] HA'ZIV LACH - this is an acronym for the way Parshas Ha'azinu (Devarim 32) is broken up. The Shirah is broken up into six parts as follows:

1] Ha'azinu (Pasuk 1)
2] Zechor Yemos Olam (Pasuk 7)
3] Yarkivehu Al Bamasei Aretz (Pasuk 13)
4a] Va'Yar (Pasuk 19) (RASHI, TOSFOS in the name of the RACH)
b] Va'Yishman (Pasuk 15) (MASECHES SOFRIM)
5a] Lulei Ka'as Oyev Agur (Pasuk 27) (RASHI)
b] Lu Chachmu Yaskilu Zos (Pasuk 29) (MASECHES SOFRIM, RACH)
6a] Ki Yadin (Pasuk 36) (RASHI, MASECHES SOFRIM)
b] Ki Esa El Shamayim Yadi (Pasuk 40) (RAMBAM)
On the seventh day, Shabbos, the part of Ha'azinu that follows the Shirah (Pasuk 44) is read.

5a) [line 32] B'VEIS HA'KENESES - when Parshas Ha'azinu is read in Shul on Shabbos (The Rambam explains that we stop at these places in order to end with words of rebuke so that we will repent for our sins)
5b) [line 32] B'MINCHASA D'SHABATA - at the time of the Korban Minchah on Shabbos [which Shir did the Levi'im recite]

6a) [line 42] MI'KERA'EI - which is learned from Pesukim
b) [line 43] MI'GEMARA - which is known by tradition
7) [line 44] MIFTAN - the threshold
8) [line 46] "VA'YIRKAV EL KERUV, VA'YA'OF" - "and He rode on a Keruv and He flew" (Shmuel II 22:11)

9) [line 48] NOGAH - splendor
10) [line 49] "TOV LASHEVES AL PINAS GAG; [ME'ESHES MIDYANIM U'VEIS CHAVER]" - "It is better to dwell on the corner of the roof; [than with a brawling woman and the house of companionship]" (Mishlei 21:9)

11) [line 49] CHOMAS ANACH - a wall made with a plumbline
12) [line 53] TIPACH ATZAMAN - let their bones (Bach: their souls) rot
13) [line 53] "V'EINEI RESHA'IM TICHLENAH, U'MANOS AVAD MINEHEM; V'SIKVASAM MAPACH NAFESH" - "But the eyes of the wicked shall fail, and they shall not escape, and their hope shall turn to despair" (Iyov 11:20)

14) [last line] LISHKAS HA'GAZIS - The Chamber of Hewn Stone, which was built in the Azarah and on Har ha'Bayis, where the Sanhedrin would sit in judgement

15) [last line] CHANUS - an area of shops located on Har ha'Bayis


16) [line 1] USHA, SHEFAR'AM, BEIS SHE'ARIM - cities in the western part of the lower Galilee

17) [line 3] TZIPORI - a city in the lower Galilee, appoximately midway between Tiberias and Haifa, where Rebbi Yehudah ha'Nasi finished editing the Mishnah

18) [line 4] TEVERYA - Tiberias, located on the Sea of Galilee
19) [line 5] "V'SHAFALT, ME'ERTZ TEDABERI, [U'ME'AFAR TISHACH IMRASECH; V'HAYAH K'OV ME'ERETZ KOLECH, U'ME'AFAR IMRASECH TETZAFTZEF]" - "And you shall be brought down, and shall speak out of the ground, [and your speech shall be low out of the dust; and your voice shall be, as of a medium, out of the ground, and your speech shall chirp out of the dust" (Yeshayah 29:4) 20) [line 6] "KI HESHACH YOSHVEI MAROM, KIRYAH NISGAVAH; YASHPILENAH YASHPILAH AD ERETZ, YAGI'ENAH AD AFAR" - "For he brings down them that dwell on high, the lofty city; He lays it low - He lays it low, even to the ground - He brings it to dust" (Yeshayah 26:5)

21) [line 9] "HISNA'ARI ME'AFAR, KUMI SHEVI, [YERUSHALAYIM; HISPATCHI MOSREI TZAVARECH SHEVIYAH BAS TZIYON" - "Shake yourself from the dust, arise and sit down, [Yerushalayim; loosen yourself from the bands of the your neck, O captive daughter of Tziyon]" (Yeshayah 52:2)

22) [line 13] MEKOM HA'VA'AD - the meeting place of the Sanhedrin
23) [line 15] PESICHA - a document of excommunication; a preliminary form of excommunication made in order to persuade a litigant to obey the court (Sifsei Chachamim)

24) [line 20] "[V']EVED LOVEH L'ISH MALVEH" - "the borrower is a servant to the lender" (Mishlei 22:7)

25) [line 25] TZARICH SHE'YAFRISH ROVA L'KINO - he has to separate a quarter of a Shekel (= half of a Dinar) in order to buy his bird offerings (RASHI); according to Tosfos he only has to separate a quarter of a Dinar

26) [line 25] KINO When a non-Jew converts, he must be circumcised, immerse in a Mikvah, and bring an animal or (a nest of, "Kino") two birds as a Korban Olah. Today, when there is no Beis ha'Mikdash, it is not necessary for a Ger to bring a Korban

27) [line 29] LASHON SHEL ZEHORIS - a strip of crimson wool that turned white on Yom Kipur if the peoples' sins were forgiven

28) [line 30] KEREM REVA'I
(a) In the first three years after a tree is planted, its fruits are called Orlah and are Asurim b'Hana'ah, as it states in Vayikra 19:23. The fruits of the fourth year are called Neta Reva'i and are Kodesh (holy) (ibid. 19:24). They must be brought to and eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim. Alternatively, the fruits may be redeemed (Pidyon), in which case the money used to redeem them is brought to Yerushalayim. The food that is bought with this money is Kodesh like Neta Reva'i and must be eaten b'Taharah in Yerushalayim.
(b) The Gemara records an argument as to whether the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits or only to grapes (Kerem Reva'i). The Halachah in Eretz Yisrael follows the opinion that the laws of Neta Reva'i apply to all fruits (SHULCHAN ARUCH Yoreh De'ah 294:6).
(c) With regard to fruits that grew outside of Eretz Yisrael, there are three opinions: 1. RABEINU YONAH to Berachos 35a, quoting RI HA'ZAKEN, states that they have the same Halachah as fruits in Eretz Yisrael, and require Pidyon; 2. The RAMBAM (Hilchos Ma'achalos Asuros 10:15) rules that they do not require Pidyon; 3. GE'ONIM, TOSFOS Berachos 35a DH u'Leman and ROSH to Berachos 35a explain that the rule, "the Halachah in Chutz la'Aretz follows the opinion of those who hold the lenient opinion in Eretz Yisrael" applies to Neta Reva'i. The lenient opinion is Kerem Reva'i, where the laws of Kedushah and Pidyon apply only to grapes. Accordingly, only fourth-year *grapes* need Pidyon.
(d) The SHACH (Yoreh De'ah 294:17) concludes that *all* fourth-year fruits of Chutz la'Aretz should be redeemed without a Berachah in Chutz la'Aretz. The Vilna Ga'on (ibid. 294:28) rules like the third opinion, 3., in which case only grapes need Pidyon in Chutz la'Aretz, and a Berachah is recited on their Pidyon.

29) [line 32] AYELES MIN (HA'TZAFON) [HA'DAROM] - Ayeles from the south. This town is one day's journey from Yerushalayim

30) [line 32] AKRABAS MIN (HA'DAROM) [HA'TZAFON] - Akrabas from the north. There was an district named Akrabah in the Shomron, south of Shechem (See Atlas Da'as Mikra, Mosad ha'Rav Kook, 1993, page 320 and Dikdukei Sofrim #300)

31) [line 33] LOD - the town of Lod, located in the present day city by that name
32) [line 35] L'ATER - to adorn, wreath
33) [line 37] KEFAR TAVI - a village next to Lod
34) [line 40] ULAM - the Entrance Hall of the Beis ha'Mikdash (that opened onto the Heichal)

35) [line 42] METZITZIN - peek

36) [line 43] SA'IR HA'MISHTA'LE'ACH
On Yom Kipur, a Goral (lot) is performed by the Kohen Gadol to choose between two identical goats. One is offered as a Korban and its blood is sprinkled in the Kodesh ha'Kodashim (Sa'ir l'HaSh-m); the other is dispatched (Mishtale'ach) to Azazel (a hard rocky cliff), from which it is pushed off to its death. A strip of crimson wool was tied between its horns before it was led to Azazel. The person who takes the goat to Azazel becomes Tamei and is required to immerse his body and clothes in a Mikvah. (Vayikra 16:26)

37) [line 49] PERAKMATYA - merchandise, business
38) [last line] ISTABER TA'AMEI - his logic (for making the Takanah) was very reasonable

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