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Rosh Hashanah 25

1a) [line] ZEMANO - the thirtieth day
b) [line 3] LEIL IBURO - the night between the thirtieth and the thirty- first day
2) [line 6] KEREISAH BEIN SHINEHA - (lit. her belly bulges out between her teeth) she is still pregnant

3) [line 10] U'METZA'O REBBI AKIVA MEITZAR - and Rebbi Akiva found him grieving

4) [line 23] PE'AMIM SHE'BA BA'ARUCHAH, PE'AMIM SHE'BA BI'KETZARAH - at times the moon reaches a distance from the sun (after the Molad) at which it is not obscured by the brightness of the sun only after not being visible for a long time, and at times it reaches that distance after a short time; i.e. the exact amount of time that the moon will not be visible is incalculable (see Insights)

5a) [line 26] SHAKAL KALA - he took a clod of earth (O.F. mote)
b) [line 26] PASAK BEI - he threw it at it (the moon)
6) [line 27] ZIL ICHSI - go and hide
7) [line 27] EIN TAV - the name of a place where the Beis Din sat to proclaim the new months

8) [line 36] RA'UY LO SHE'YIPOL L'MITAH - it would be better if he (I) were bedridden
9) [line 37] TARSHEINEI - permit me

10) [line 44] GID'ON
Gid'on ben Yo'ash of the tribe of Menasheh was the fifth judge of Benei Yisrael (Shoftim 6:11-8:32) who ruled for forty years (2676-2716, which includes seven years under the rule of Midyan before he was chosen). During his rule, with the help of HaSh-m, he defeated the Midyanim with an army of only three hundred men. He was called Yeruba'al because he waged an internal campaign in the land of Yisrael to rid the people of the idol worship of Ba'al ("Yeru" = he made a "Merivah," conflict, with Ba'al).

11) [last line] YIFTACH
Yiftach ben Gil'ad of the tribe of Menasheh was the ninth judge of Benei Yisrael (Shoftim 11:1-12:7) who ruled for six years (2786-2792). He defeated the Amonim, who, for the eighteen years before he was chosen to lead the people, ruled Eretz Yisrael. Prior to entering into battle, he vowed to offer up to HaSh-m the first thing that emerged from his house upon his victorious return. To his great anguish, his only daughter was first to emerge from his house to greet him. Rather than seeking the advice of the Torah sages of his generation including Pinchas the Kohen Gadol who could have annulled his vow, he sequestered his daughter for the rest of her life away from all human contact (ibid. 11:39, Bereishis Rabah 60:3).


12) [line 2] KALEI OLAM - people who are greatly looked down upon
13) [line 7] K'ABIR SHEB'ABIRIM - the noblest of the nobility
14) [line 11] "AL TOMAR, 'MEH HAYAH SHEHA'YAMIM HA'RISHONIM HAYU TOVIM ME'ELEH,' [KI LO ME'CHACHMAH SHA'ALTA AL ZEH.]" - "Do not say, 'How was it that former times were better than these?' [for that is not a question prompted by wisdom.]" (Koheles 7:10) - (a) Former times were better because the people were more righteous and the answer to your question is obvious. (RASHI); (b) do not ask this question because there is nothing you can do about it (TOSFOS)

*****PEREK #3 RA'UHU BEIS DIN*****

15) [line 28] SHE'EIN HA'YACHID NE'EMAN AL YEDEI ATZMO - because one judge is not believed to proclaim the month by himself

16) [line 43] MUMCHEH LA'RABIM - a leading Torah sage of the generation who possesses the following qualities: he is an expert in the Mishnah and Gemara; he is an expert in deliberation; he has had experience in judgements for many years; he was tested many times and never made a mistake (TUR Choshen Mishpat 3:2, in the name of RAV SHERIRA GAON)

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